MicroRNA-Based Fingerprinting of Cervical Lesions and Cancer.
Pisarska Justyna,Baldy-Chudzik Katarzyna
Journal of clinical medicine
The regulatory functions of microRNA (miRNA) are involved in all processes contributing to carcinogenesis and response to viral infections. Cervical cancer in most cases is caused by the persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. While oncogenic human papillomaviruses induce aberrant expression of many cellular miRNAs, this dysregulation could be harnessed as a marker in early diagnosis of HR-HPV infection, cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cancer. In recent years, growing data indicate that miRNAs show specific patterns at various stages of cervical pathology. The aim of this review is to systematize current reports on miRNA capacity that can be utilized in personalized diagnostics of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions. The analysis of the resources available in online databases (National Center for Biotechnology Information-NCBI, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus) was performed. To date, no standardized diagnostic algorithm using the miRNA pattern in cervical pathology has been defined. However, the high sensitivity and specificity of the reported assays gives hope for the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests that take into account the heterogeneity of tumor-related changes. Due to this variability resulting in difficult to predict clinical outcomes, precise molecular tools are needed to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic process.
HPV post-infection microenvironment and cervical cancer.
Yuan Yi,Cai Xushan,Shen Fangrong,Ma Feng
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. More than 99% of cervical cancer cases are associated with certain types of HPVs, termed high-risk types. In addition to the well-known transformative properties, HPVs-infected cells actively instruct the local milieu and create a supportive post-infection microenvironment (PIM), which is becoming recognized as a key factor for the viral persistence, propagation, and malignant progression. The PIM is initiated and established via a complex interplay among virus-infected cells, immune cells, and host stroma, as well as their derived components including chemokines, cytokines, extracellular vesicles, and metabolites. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of these key components, characteristics, and effects of the PIM, and highlights the prospect of targeting the PIM as a potential strategy to improve therapeutic outcomes for cervical cancer.