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    Myopalladin promotes muscle growth through modulation of the serum response factor pathway. Filomena Maria Carmela,Yamamoto Daniel L,Caremani Marco,Kadarla Vinay K,Mastrototaro Giuseppina,Serio Simone,Vydyanath Anupama,Mutarelli Margherita,Garofalo Arcamaria,Pertici Irene,Knöll Ralph,Nigro Vincenzo,Luther Pradeep K,Lieber Richard L,Beck Moriah R,Linari Marco,Bang Marie-Louise Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle BACKGROUND:Myopalladin (MYPN) is a striated muscle-specific, immunoglobulin-containing protein located in the Z-line and I-band of the sarcomere as well as the nucleus. Heterozygous MYPN gene mutations are associated with hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathy, and homozygous loss-of-function truncating mutations have recently been identified in patients with cap myopathy, nemaline myopathy, and congenital myopathy with hanging big toe. METHODS:Constitutive MYPN knockout (MKO) mice were generated, and the role of MYPN in skeletal muscle was studied through molecular, cellular, biochemical, structural, biomechanical, and physiological studies in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS:MKO mice were 13% smaller compared with wild-type controls and exhibited a 48% reduction in myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA) and significantly increased fibre number. Similarly, reduced myotube width was observed in MKO primary myoblast cultures. Biomechanical studies showed reduced isometric force and power output in MKO mice as a result of the reduced CSA, whereas the force developed by each myosin molecular motor was unaffected. While the performance by treadmill running was similar in MKO and wild-type mice, MKO mice showed progressively decreased exercise capability, Z-line damage, and signs of muscle regeneration following consecutive days of downhill running. Additionally, MKO muscle exhibited progressive Z-line widening starting from 8 months of age. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed down-regulation of serum response factor (SRF)-target genes in muscles from postnatal MKO mice, important for muscle growth and differentiation. The SRF pathway is regulated by actin dynamics as binding of globular actin to the SRF-cofactor myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) prevents its translocation to the nucleus where it binds and activates SRF. MYPN was found to bind and bundle filamentous actin as well as interact with MRTF-A. In particular, while MYPN reduced actin polymerization, it strongly inhibited actin depolymerization and consequently increased MRTF-A-mediated activation of SRF signalling in myogenic cells. Reduced myotube width in MKO primary myoblast cultures was rescued by transduction with constitutive active SRF, demonstrating that MYPN promotes skeletal muscle growth through activation of the SRF pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Myopalladin plays a critical role in the control of skeletal muscle growth through its effect on actin dynamics and consequently the SRF pathway. In addition, MYPN is important for the maintenance of Z-line integrity during exercise and aging. These results suggest that muscle weakness in patients with biallelic MYPN mutations may be associated with reduced myofibre CSA and SRF signalling and that the disease phenotype may be aggravated by exercise. 10.1002/jcsm.12486
    Cofilin Loss in Drosophila Muscles Contributes to Muscle Weakness through Defective Sarcomerogenesis during Muscle Growth. Balakrishnan Mridula,Yu Shannon F,Chin Samantha M,Soffar David B,Windner Stefanie E,Goode Bruce L,Baylies Mary K Cell reports Sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units of muscles, are conserved structures composed of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments. How sarcomeres are formed and maintained is not well understood. Here, we show that knockdown of Drosophila cofilin (DmCFL), an actin depolymerizing factor, disrupts both sarcomere structure and muscle function. The loss of DmCFL also results in the formation of sarcomeric protein aggregates and impairs sarcomere addition during growth. The activation of the proteasome delays muscle deterioration in our model. Furthermore, we investigate how a point mutation in CFL2 that causes nemaline myopathy (NM) in humans affects CFL function and leads to the muscle phenotypes observed in vivo. Our data provide significant insights to the role of CFLs during sarcomere formation, as well as mechanistic implications for disease progression in NM patients. 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107893
    The Effect of ACTN3 Gene Doping on Skeletal Muscle Performance. Garton Fleur C,Houweling Peter J,Vukcevic Damjan,Meehan Lyra R,Lee Fiona X Z,Lek Monkol,Roeszler Kelly N,Hogarth Marshall W,Tiong Chrystal F,Zannino Diana,Yang Nan,Leslie Stephen,Gregorevic Paul,Head Stewart I,Seto Jane T,North Kathryn N American journal of human genetics Loss of expression of ACTN3, due to homozygosity of the common null polymorphism (p.Arg577X), is underrepresented in elite sprint/power athletes and has been associated with reduced muscle mass and strength in humans and mice. To investigate ACTN3 gene dosage in performance and whether expression could enhance muscle force, we performed meta-analysis and expression studies. Our general meta-analysis using a Bayesian random effects model in elite sprint/power athlete cohorts demonstrated a consistent homozygous-group effect across studies (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) but substantial heterogeneity in heterozygotes. In mouse muscle, rAAV-mediated gene transfer overexpressed and rescued α-actinin-3 expression. Contrary to expectation, in vivo "doping" of ACTN3 at low to moderate doses demonstrated an absence of any change in function. At high doses, ACTN3 is toxic and detrimental to force generation, to demonstrate gene doping with supposedly performance-enhancing isoforms of sarcomeric proteins can be detrimental for muscle function. Restoration of α-actinin-3 did not enhance muscle mass but highlighted the primary role of α-actinin-3 in modulating muscle metabolism with altered fatiguability. This is the first study to express a Z-disk protein in healthy skeletal muscle and measure the in vivo effect. The sensitive balance of the sarcomeric proteins and muscle function has relevant implications in areas of gene doping in performance and therapy for neuromuscular disease. 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.03.009
    Neonatal Systemic AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery of GDF11 Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Growth. Jin Quan,Qiao Chunping,Li Jianbin,Li Juan,Xiao Xiao Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11; BMP11) is a circulating cytokine in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Treatment with recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) protein has previously been shown to reverse skeletal muscle dysfunction in aged mice. However, the actions of GDF11 in skeletal muscle are still not fully understood. Because GDF11 activates the TGF-β-SMAD2/3 pathway, we hypothesized that GDF11 overexpression would inhibit skeletal muscle growth. To test this hypothesis, we generated recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors harboring the gene for either human GDF11 (AAV9-GDF11) or human IgG1 Fc-fused GDF11 propeptide (AAV9-GDF11Pro-Fc-1) to study the effects of GDF11 overexpression or blockade on skeletal muscle growth and function in vivo. After intravenous administration of AAV9-GDF11 into neonatal C57BL/6J mice, we observed sustained limb muscle growth inhibition along with reductions in forelimb grip strength and treadmill running endurance at 16 weeks. Conversely, treatment with AAV9-GDF11Pro-Fc-1 led to increased limb muscle mass and forelimb grip strength after 28 weeks, although a difference in the total body mass/muscle mass ratio was not observed between treatment and control groups. In sum, our results suggest GDF11 overexpression has an inhibitory effect on skeletal muscle growth. 10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.01.016
    lncMGPF is a novel positive regulator of muscle growth and regeneration. Lv Wei,Jin Jianjun,Xu Zaiyan,Luo Hongmei,Guo Yubo,Wang Xiaojing,Wang Shanshan,Zhang Jiali,Zuo Hao,Bai Wei,Peng Yaxing,Tang Junming,Zhao Shuhong,Zuo Bo Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle BACKGROUND:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in diverse biological processes and diseases. While a large number of lncRNAs have been identified in skeletal muscles until now, their function and underlying mechanisms in skeletal myogenesis remain largely unclear. METHODS:We characterized a novel functional lncRNA designated lncMGPF (lncRNA muscle growth promoting factor) using RACE, Northern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR. Its function was determined by gene overexpression, interference, and knockout experiments in C2C12 myoblasts, myogenic progenitor cells, and an animal model. The molecular mechanism by which lncMGPF regulates muscle differentiation was mainly examined by cotransfection experiments, luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down, and RNA stability analyses. RESULTS:We report that lncMGPF, which is highly expressed in muscles and positively regulated by myoblast determination factor (MyoD), promotes myogenic differentiation of muscle cells in vivo and in vitro. lncMGPF knockout in mice substantially decreases growth rate, reduces muscle mass, and impairs muscle regeneration. Overexpression of lncMGPF in muscles can rescue the muscle phenotype of knockout mice and promote muscle growth of wild-type mice. Mechanistically, lncMGPF promotes muscle differentiation by acting as a molecular sponge of miR-135a-5p and thus increasing the expression of myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), as well as by enhancing human antigen R-mediated messenger RNA stabilization of myogenic regulatory genes such as MyoD and myogenin (MyoG). We confirm that pig lncRNA AK394747 and human lncRNA MT510647 are homologous to mouse lncMGPF, with conserved function and mechanism during myogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:Our data reveal that lncMGPF is a novel positive regulator of myogenic differentiation, muscle growth and regeneration in mice, pigs, and humans. 10.1002/jcsm.12623
    Fibroblast growth factor 21 controls mitophagy and muscle mass. Oost Lynette J,Kustermann Monika,Armani Andrea,Blaauw Bert,Romanello Vanina Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that adapts to changes in exercise, nutrition, and stress by secreting myokines and myometabolites. These muscle-secreted factors have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects, contributing to whole body homeostasis. Muscle dysfunction in aging sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, and diabetes is tightly correlated with the disruption of the physiological homeostasis at the whole body level. The expression levels of the myokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are very low in normal healthy muscles. However, fasting, ER stress, mitochondrial myopathies, and metabolic disorders induce its release from muscles. Although our understanding of the systemic effects of muscle-derived FGF21 is exponentially increasing, the direct contribution of FGF21 to muscle function has not been investigated yet. METHODS:Muscle-specific FGF21 knockout mice were generated to investigate the consequences of FGF21 deletion concerning skeletal muscle mass and force. To identify the mechanisms underlying FGF21-dependent adaptations in skeletal muscle during starvation, the study was performed on muscles collected from both fed and fasted adult mice. In vivo overexpression of FGF21 was performed in skeletal muscle to assess whether FGF21 is sufficient per se to induce muscle atrophy. RESULTS:We show that FGF21 does not contribute to muscle homeostasis in basal conditions in terms of fibre type distribution, fibre size, and muscle force. In contrast, FGF21 is required for fasting-induced muscle atrophy and weakness. The mass of isolated muscles from control-fasted mice was reduced by 15-25% (P < 0.05) compared with fed control mice. FGF21-null muscles, however, were significantly protected from muscle loss and weakness during fasting. Such important protection is due to the maintenance of protein synthesis rate in knockout muscles during fasting compared with a 70% reduction in control-fasted muscles (P < 0.01), together with a significant reduction of the mitophagy flux via the regulation of the mitochondrial protein Bnip3. The contribution of FGF21 to the atrophy programme was supported by in vivo FGF21 overexpression in muscles, which was sufficient to induce autophagy and muscle loss by 15% (P < 0.05). Bnip3 inhibition protected against FGF21-dependent muscle wasting in adult animals (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:FGF21 is a novel player in the regulation of muscle mass that requires the mitophagy protein Bnip3. 10.1002/jcsm.12409