Atypical CIDP: diagnostic criteria, progression and treatment response. Data from the Italian CIDP Database.
Doneddu Pietro Emiliano,Cocito Dario,Manganelli Fiore,Fazio Raffaella,Briani Chiara,Filosto Massimiliano,Benedetti Luana,Mazzeo Anna,Marfia Girolama Alessandra,Cortese Andrea,Fierro Brigida,Jann Stefano,Beghi Ettore,Clerici Angelo Maurizio,Carpo Marinella,Schenone Angelo,Luigetti Marco,Lauria Giuseppe,Antonini Giovanni,Rosso Tiziana,Siciliano Gabriele,Cavaletti Guido,Liberatore Giuseppe,Santoro Lucio,Peci Erdita,Tronci Stefano,Ruiz Marta,Cotti Piccinelli Stefano,Toscano Antonio,Mataluni Giorgia,Piccolo Laura,Cosentino Giuseppe,Sabatelli Mario,Nobile-Orazio Eduardo,
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
OBJECTIVES:A few variants of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have been described, but their frequency and evolution to typical CIDP remain unclear. To determine the frequency and characteristics of the CIDP variants, their possible evolution to typical CIDP, and treatment response. METHODS:We applied a set of diagnostic criteria to 460 patients included in a database of Italian patients with CIDP. Clinical characteristics and treatment response were reviewed for each patient. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the progression rate from atypical to typical CIDP. RESULTS:At the time of inclusion, 376 (82%) patients had a diagnosis of typical CIDP while 84 (18%) had atypical CIDP, including 34 (7%) with distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy (DADS), 17 (4%) with purely motor, 17 (4%) with Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) and 16 (3.5%) with purely sensory CIDP. Based on retrospective review of the symptoms and signs present at onset and for at least 1 year, 180 (39%) patients had an initial diagnosis compatible with atypical CIDP that in 96 (53%) patients evolved to typical CIDP. Mean disease duration was longer in patients evolving to typical CIDP than in those not evolving (p=0.0016). Patients with DADS and LSS had a less frequent response to immunoglobulin than those with typical CIDP, while patients with purely motor and sensory CIDP had a similar treatment response. CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of patients with atypical CIDP varies during the disease course. DADS and LSS have a less frequent response to intravenous immunoglobulin compared with typical CIDP, raising the possibility of a different underlying pathogenetic mechanism.
Diagnostic challenges in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
Eftimov Filip,Lucke Ilse M,Querol Luis A,Rajabally Yusuf A,Verhamme Camiel
Brain : a journal of neurology
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) consists of a spectrum of autoimmune diseases of the peripheral nerves, causing weakness and sensory symptoms. Diagnosis often is challenging, because of the heterogeneous presentation and both mis- and underdiagnosis are common. Nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities suggestive of demyelination are mandatory to fulfil the diagnostic criteria. On the one hand, performance and interpretation of NCS can be difficult and none of these demyelinating findings are specific for CIDP. On the other hand, not all patients will be detected despite the relatively high sensitivity of NCS abnormalities. The electrodiagnostic criteria can be supplemented with additional diagnostic tests such as CSF examination, MRI, nerve biopsy, and somatosensory evoked potentials. However, the evidence for each of these additional diagnostic tests is limited. Studies are often small without the use of a clinically relevant control group. None of the findings are specific for CIDP, meaning that the results of the diagnostic tests should be carefully interpreted. In this update we will discuss the pitfalls in diagnosing CIDP and the value of newly introduced diagnostic tests such as nerve ultrasound and testing for autoantibodies, which are not yet part of the guidelines.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for a treatable condition.
Vallat Jean-Michel,Sommer Claudia,Magy Laurent
The Lancet. Neurology
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic neuropathy of supposed immune origin. Understanding of its pathophysiology has recently improved, although its causes remain unclear. The classic presentation of CIDP includes sensory and motor symptoms in the distal and proximal segments of the four limbs with areflexia, evolving over more than 8 weeks. Raised protein concentrations in CSF and heterogeneous slowing of nerve conduction are typical of the condition. In addition to this usual phenotype, distribution of symptoms, disease course, and disability can be heterogeneous, leading to underdiagnosis of the disorder. Diagnosis is sometimes challenging and can require use of imaging and nerve biopsy. Steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin are effective, and plasma exchange can be helpful as rescue therapy. The usefulness of immunosuppressants needs to be established. The identification of specific diagnostic markers and new therapeutic strategies with conventional or targeted immunotherapy are needed to improve the outlook for patients with CIDP.
Progress in diagnosis and treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
Bunschoten Carina,Jacobs Bart C,Van den Bergh Peter Y K,Cornblath David R,van Doorn Pieter A
The Lancet. Neurology
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare and heterogeneous but treatable immune-mediated neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies are considered essential for a definite diagnosis, but poor performance and misinterpretation of the results frequently leads to misdiagnosis. Nerve ultrasound and MRI could be helpful in diagnosis. Whereas typical CIDP is relatively easy to diagnose, atypical variants with distinct phenotypes can be a diagnostic challenge. Intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids, and plasma exchange are effective treatments, but maintenance treatments are often required for years, and treatment regimens require careful and regular adjustments to avoid undertreatment or overtreatment. Patients who do not improve, or insufficiently improve after treatment, might have specific characteristics related to a distinct disease mechanism caused by immunoglobulin G4 antibodies to nodal or paranodal proteins, and could require alternative treatments. Future studies should focus on curative and individualised treatment regimens to improve the patient's condition and to prevent further nerve damage.