Effect of panax notoginseng saponins injection on the p38MAPK pathway in lung tissue in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
Zhao Shan,Zheng Meng-xiao,Chen Hai-e,Wu Cheng-yun,Wang Wan-tie
Chinese journal of integrative medicine
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) injection on pulmonary artery pressure and the expression of p38MAPK in lung tissue of rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. METHODS:Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (ten in each group): rats in control group were exposed to normoxic condition and the rats in hypoxia group and PNS group were subjected to 4-week hypoxia, and PNS injection (50 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)) was administrated intraperitoneally at 30 min in the PNS group daily before the rats were kept in the hypoxic chamber, while rats in the other two groups received equal dose of normal saline instead. After chronic hypoxia, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and mean carotid artery pressure (mCAP) were measured. The heart and lung tissues were harvested, and right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle plus ventricular septum (LV+S) were weighed to calculate the ratio of RV/(LV+S). The expression of p38MAPK mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the quantity of phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) in rat lung tissues and pulmonary arterioles was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Compared with the control group, mPAP and the ratio of RV/(LV+S) in the hypoxia group were increased, the expression of p-p38MAPK in pulmonary arterioles and p38MAPK mRNA in the lung were higher (P<0.05). The changes of these parameters in the hypoxia group were significantly attenuated by PNS treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:PNS injection was shown to prevent hypoxic pulmonary hypertension at least partly by regulating p38MAPK pathway.
Panax Notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through the HIF-1α/BNIP3 Pathway of Autophagy.
Liu Xin-Wen,Lu Meng-Kai,Zhong Hui-Ting,Wang Li-Hong,Fu Yong-Ping
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) is a formula of Chinese medicine commonly used for treating ischemia myocardial in China. However, its mechanism of action is yet unclear. This study investigated the effect and the mechanism of PNS on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)/bcl-2/adenovirus E1B19kDa-interacting protein3 (BNIP3) pathway of autophagy. METHODS:We constructed a rat model of myocardial injury and compared among 4 groups (n = 10, each): the sham-operated group (Sham), the ischemia-reperfusion group (IR), the PNS low-dose group, and the PNS high-dose group were pretreated with PNS (30 and 60 mg/kg, respectively). Serum creatine kinase, malonaldehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase, myocardial tissue superoxide dismutase, and reactive oxygen species were detected in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion after the intervention of PNS. The rat myocardial tissue was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and the mitochondria of myocardial cells were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), HIF-1α, BNIP3, Beclin-1, and autophagy-related gene-5 (Atg5) in rat myocardial tissue were detected using Western blotting. RESULTS:The results showed that PNS was significantly protected against MIRI, as evidenced by the decreasing in the concentration of serum CK, MDA, lactate dehydrogenase, and myocardial tissue superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species, the attenuation of myocardial tissue histopathological changes and the mitochondrial damages of myocardial cells, and the increase of mitochondria autophagosome in myocardial cells. In addition, PNS significantly increased the expression of LC3 and the ratio of LC3II/LC3I in rat myocardial tissue. Moreover, PNS significantly increased the expression of HIF-1α, BNIP3, Atg5, and Beclin-1 in rat myocardial tissue. CONCLUSIONS:The protective effect of PNS on MIRI was mainly due to its ability to enhance the mitochondrial autophagy of myocardial tissue through the HIF-1α/BNIP3 pathway.
[Advances in pharmacological studies of Panax notoginseng saponins on brain ischemia-reperfusion injury].
Yang Peng-fei,Song Xiu-yun,Chen Nai-hong
Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica
Sanqi in Chinese herbal medicine is the root and rhizoma of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, which belongs to genus Panax in the Araliaceae family and is widely used as a tonic medicine in the traditional Chinese medicine. The main active constituents of sanqi are Panax notoginseng saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Rb1 and notoginsenoside R1. A wide variety of pharmaceutical applications of Panax notoginseng saponins have been reported in the regulation of blood circulation system, cardiovascular system and nervous system. Ischemic stroke, the most common form of stroke, leads to a high risk of morbidity and disability, which evolves serious medical, social and economic problems. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the most important part in the progress of ischemic stroke. Abnormal energy metabolism, disturbance of the ion metabolism, free radical injury, inflammatory reactions all participate in the complex pathological mechanisms of ischemia- reperfusion injury. Over the past few decades, substantial studies demonstrated that Panax notoginseng saponins possessed a significant protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the protective effects. In order to develop a new medicine from Panax notoginseng, we provide a review of the major literatures on the pharmaceutical actions and molecular mechanisms of Panax notoginseng and Panax notoginseng saponins in the protection of ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Ca(2+) Ion and Autophagy.
Hu Yang-Xi,Han Xiao-Shuai,Jing Qing
Advances in experimental medicine and biology
Controlled by a strict mechanism, intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) is closely related to various cellular activities, including the regulation of autophagy. Researchers believed that under normal or stress state, Ca(2+) has a positive or negative regulation effect on autophagy, the mechanisms of which are different. This bidirectional role of Ca(2+), promotive or suppressing in the regulation of autophagy under different conditions remains controversial, so as the potential mechanisms. Several studies reported that Ca(2+) promotes autophagy through plenty of ways, like inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and beclin1 pathway, calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase beta (CaMKKβ)-AMPK-mTOR pathway, mitochondrial energy metabolism-related Ca(2+) uptake, lysosome's regulation of Ca(2+) signal, and so on. Others thought Ca(2+) may inhibit autophagy through IP3R and beclin1-Bcl-2 complex and the AMPK-mTOR pathway, either. It seems to be still a long way to thoroughly understand the truth of Ca(2+) and autophagy.
Hydrogen Sulphide Treatment Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Improves Oxidant Metabolism through the CaMKKbeta-AMPK Pathway in PA-Induced IR C2C12 Cells.
Chen Xubo,Zhao Xueyan,Lan Fazhang,Zhou Tao,Cai Hua,Sun Haiying,Kong Weijia,Kong Wen
Studies have reported attenuation of insulin resistance (IR) by improving phosphorylation of the insulin signalling pathway. However, the upstream molecular signalling pathway is still elusive. In this study, Western blot was used to evaluate the phosphorylation level of the insulin signalling pathway and the AMPK pathway. 2-NBDG was used to evaluate glucose uptake. Ca imaging was used to assess change of intracellular Ca concentration. We found that NaHS enhanced the intracellular Ca concentration and glucose uptake and activated the insulin signalling cascade in a palmitic acid (PA)-induced IR model in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, activation of the IRS1/PI3K/AKT pathway and glucose uptake were decreased when AMPK or CaMKKβ was inhibited. Our study also showed that the mitochondrial electron transport chain, ATP production, and intramitochondrial cAMP declined in the IR model but that this effect was reversed by NaHS, an effect that may be mediated by the Ca/CaMKK2/AMPK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Our data indicate that HS improves activation of the insulin signalling cascade and glucose uptake via activation of the Ca/CaMKK2/AMPK pathway and mitochondrial metabolism in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, NaHS protects mitochondrial function and maintains normal ATP production by activating the cAMP system and the Ca/CaMKK2/AMPK and PI3K/ATK pathways.
The role of sodium hydrosulfide in attenuating the aging process via PI3K/AKT and CaMKKβ/AMPK pathways.
Chen Xubo,Zhao Xueyan,Cai Hua,Sun Haiying,Hu Yujuan,Huang Xiang,Kong Wen,Kong Weijia
Age-related dysfunction of the central auditory system, known as central presbycusis, is characterized by defects in speech perception and sound localization. It is important to determine the pathogenesis of central presbycusis in order to explore a feasible and effective intervention method. Recent work has provided fascinating insight into the beneficial function of HS on oxidative stress and stress-related disease. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of central presbycusis and tried to explore the mechanism of HS action on different aspects of aging by utilizing a mimetic aging rat and senescent cellular model. Our results indicate that NaHS decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis levels in an aging model via CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Moreover, we found that NaHS restored the decreased activity of antioxidants such as GSH, SOD and CAT in the aging model in vivo and in vitro by regulating CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT. Mitochondria function was preserved by NaHS, as indicated by the following: DNA POLG and OGG-1, the base excision repair enzymes in mitochondrial, were upregulated; OXPHOS activity was downregulated; mitochondrial membrane potential was restored; ATP production was increased; and mtDNA damage, indicated by the common deletion (CD), declined. These effects were also achieved by activating CaMKKβ/AMPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Lastly, protein homeostasis, indicated by HSP90 alpha, was strengthened by NaHS via CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT. Our findings demonstrate that the ability to resist oxidative stress and mitochondria function are both decreased as aging developed; however, NaHS, a novel free radical scavenger and mitochondrial protective agent, precludes the process of oxidative damage by activating CaMKKβ and PI3K/AKT. This study might provide a therapeutic target for aging and age-related disease.