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    Andrographolide sodium bisulphite-induced inactivation of urease: inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism. Mo Zhi-Zhun,Wang Xiu-Fen,Zhang Xie,Su Ji-Yan,Chen Hai-Ming,Liu Yu-Hong,Zhang Zhen-Biao,Xie Jian-Hui,Su Zi-Ren BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:The inhibitory effect of andrographolide sodium bisulphite (ASB) on jack bean urease (JBU) and Helicobacter pylori urease (HPU) was performed to elucidate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA, 25 °C. METHODS:The ammonia formations, indicator of urease activity, were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. The inhibitory effect of ASB was characterized with IC50 values. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots for JBU inhibition of ASB was constructed from the kinetic data. SH-blocking reagents and competitive active site Ni2+ binding inhibitors were employed for mechanism study. Molecular docking technique was used to provide some information on binding conformations as well as confirm the inhibition mode. RESULTS:The IC50 of ASB against JBU and HPU was 3.28±0.13 mM and 3.17±0.34 mM, respectively. The inhibition proved to be competitive and concentration- dependent in a slow-binding progress. The rapid formation of initial ASB-JBU complex with an inhibition constant of Ki=2.86×10(-3) mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of Ki*=1.33×10(-4) mM. The protective experiment proved that the urease active site is involved in the binding of ASB. Thiol reagents (L-cysteine and dithiothreithol) strongly protect the enzyme from the loss of enzymatic activity, while boric acid and fluoride show weaker protection, indicating that the active-site sulfhydryl group of JBU was potentially involved in the blocking process. Moreover, inhibition of ASB proved to be reversible since ASB-inactivated JBU could be reactivated by dithiothreitol application. Molecular docking assay suggested that ASB made contacts with the important sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residue and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. CONCLUSIONS:ASB was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for the treatment of urease-related diseases. 10.1186/s12906-015-0775-4
    The antimicrobial properties of ginseng and ginseng extracts. Kachur Karina,Suntres Zacharias E Expert review of anti-infective therapy Ginseng is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic and an adaptogen to reduce fatigue and boost the immune system. In recent years, ginseng extracts are shown to have both bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions and seem to exert their effects by several mechanisms, including disruption of biofilms, inhibition of quorum-sensing and virulence factors, and altering motility. Also, ginseng extracts are shown to have antifungal properties as demonstrated by their ability to inhibit the growth of several mold and yeast species. Extracts from ginseng root have a strong antiviral activity against the RNA viruses in cell cultures and animal models. In addition to the antimicrobial activities, ginseng extracts are shown to possess immunomodulatory properties involved in the amelioration of infections. The present paper describes the antimicrobial effects of ginseng and its extracts. 10.1586/14787210.2016.1118345
    [Effect of jianpi jiedu recipe on microvessel density and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Heliobacter pylori induced gastric cancer]. Liu Ning-ning,Zhou Li-hong,Yin Pei-hao Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine OBJECTIVE:To investigate the regulatory effect of jianpi jiedu Recipe (JJR) on the microvessel density (MVD) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in long-term infection of Helicobacter pylori induced gastric cancer of C57BL/6 mice, thus providing experimental bases for its treatment of the H. pylori correlated gastropathy. METHODS:C57BL/6 mouse gastric cancer model induced by H. pylori infection was established by gastrogavage of H. pylori standard strain SS1. Mice were divided into the control group, the model group, low dose JJR group, and the high dose JJR group, 40 in each group. Mice were sacrificed after 72-week medication. Changes of the gastric mucosa MVD of mice in each group were detected by immunohistochemical method. Expressions of COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical method. RESULTS:The occurrence rate of gastric cancer in the control group, the model group, the low dose JJR group, and the high dose JJR group was 0, 22.2%, 11.1%, and 10.0%, respectively. The gastric mucosa MVD (number/cm2) of mice in each group was 2.50 +/- 1.54, 18.56 +/- 2.62, 14.61 +/- 3.60, and 7.39 +/- 1.75, respectively. The gastric mucosa MVD in the model group increased more obviously than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The gastric mucosa MVD significantly decreased in the low dose JJR group and the high dose JJR group (P < 0.01). Expressions of COX-2 mRNA and protein in the model group increased more obviously than those in the control group (P < 0.01). Low dose JJR and high dose JJR could decrease their expressions in a dose dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS:H. pylori infection could increase the gastric mucosa MVD of C57BL/6 mice and promote COX-2 expressions, which might play a promoting effect in the incidence of H. pylori induced gastric cancer. JJR could decrease the gastric mucosa MVD and inhibit COX-2 expressions, which might be one of its important mechanisms of preventing and treating gastric cancer.
    Antibacterial effect of Kampo herbal formulation Hochu-ekki-to (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang) on Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. Yan Xiaoqun,Kita Masakazu,Minami Masato,Yamamoto Toshiro,Kuriyama Hiroko,Ohno Tomoyuki,Iwakura Yoichiro,Imanishi Jiro Microbiology and immunology Because Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases in humans, the eradication of H. pylori using antibiotics is very effective for the treatment of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it has recently been reported that resistance to these antibiotics is developing. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of a Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine) herbal formulation, Hochu-ekki-to (RET; Formula repletionis animalis et supletionis medii), against H. pylori was examined in vitro and in vivo. HET inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori as well as antibiotic-sensitive strains at a dose of 2.5 mg/ml in vitro. When 1,000 mg/kg of HET was administered orally to C57BL/6 mice for 7 days before or after inoculation with H. pylori, H. pylori in the stomach was significantly reduced in the HET-pre-treatment group compared with the control group. Furthermore, HET in combination with antibiotics completely eradicated the bacteria in mice. The expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma was induced in the gastric mucosa of the mice pre-treated with HET. There were no significant differences between the colonization of H. pylori in the control and HET treatment groups in IFN-gamma gene-deficient mice. These results suggest that the antibacterial effect of HET may be partly due to IFN-gamma induction, and that HET may be clinically useful for treatment of H. pylori infection.
    Efficacy and safety of Zuojin Pill for chronic gastritis: Protocol for a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Shi Jianglong,Liu Liyun,Li Jian,Ma Xiaoju,Qiu Hairong,Shen Tao Medicine BACKGROUND:Chronic gastritis (CG), as the highest incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, has been gradually increasing around globally. With the obvious disadvantages of standard treatment, more and more people ask the traditional Chinese medicine for help in the treatment of CG. As a traditional Chinese medicine compound, Zuojin Pill (ZJP) has a long history of clinical application in the treatment of digestive system diseases. Whereas, neither systematic nor meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials explain the efficacy and safety of ZJP in treating CG. Thus, we provide a protocol to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ZJP for CG. METHODS:From the beginning to December 2019, the following electronic databases will be searched for studies in English or Chinese: the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and the Wanfang Database. Clinical efficiency, helicobacter pylori infection clearance rate, quality of life and symptom scores will be measured as primary outcomes. Meta-analysis will be performed using the Stata 15. OUTCOMES:This study will provide the current evidence of CG treated with ZJP from the several aspects including clinical efficiency, helicobacter pylori infection clearance rate, quality of life, symptom scores, the 1-year recurrent rate, efficacy under endoscopy and number of reported adverse events associated with the use of ZJP. CONCLUSION:The outcomes of this review will be served as a proof to evaluate if ZJP is effective in the treatment of CG. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:PROSPERO CRD42020155036. 10.1097/MD.0000000000021248
    [Jianpi jiedu recipe inhibited Helicobacter pylori-induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 via p38MAPK/ATF-2 signal transduction pathway in human gastric cancer cells]. Liu Ning-ning,Wang Yan,Wu Qiong Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine OBJECTIVE:To study the effect of Jianpi Jiedu Recipe (JJR) on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infected gastric cancer cell line MKN 45, and its regulatory mechanism of p38MAPK signal transduction. METHODS:The expressions of COX-2 mRNA and protein in human gastric cancer cell line MKN 45 infected by Hp type strain NCTC 11637 and the regulatory effect of JJR containing serum were detected using Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RFQ-PCR) and Western blot. The effects of Hp on COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions in human gastric cancer cell line MKN 45 were observed using blocking p38MAPK signal transduction pathway by p38MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580. The effects of JJR on Hp-infection activated p38MAPK signal transduction pathway and its downstream activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) were observed. RESULTS:COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions were obviously higher after human gastric cancer cell line MKN 45 were infected by Hp (P<0.01). After blocking p38MAPK signal transduction pathway, COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions in Hp-induced MKN 45 cell line were obviously down-regulated (P<0.01). JJR containing serum down-regulated Hp-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expressions in MKN 45 cell line in a dose dependent manner. Besides, it could inhibit the activation of Hp-induced p38MAPK signal pathway. It also showed obvious inhibition on the activity of its downstream transcription factor ATF-2. CONCLUSIONS:Hp infection induced COX-2 expressions of gastric cancer cells via p38MAPK signal transduction pathway. JJR inhibited Hp-induced the expression of COX-2 through regulating p38MAPK/ATF-2 signal transduction pathway, which may be one of its mechanisms in prevention and treatment of Hp-induced gastric cancer.
    Development of novel nanoparticles shelled with heparin for berberine delivery to treat Helicobacter pylori. Chang Chiung-Hung,Huang Wen-Ying,Lai Chih-Ho,Hsu Yuan-Man,Yao Yi-Hsing,Chen Ting-Yu,Wu Jing-Yan,Peng Shu-Fen,Lin Yu-Hsin Acta biomaterialia Various approaches have been proposed to overcome the unpleasant side-effects associated with antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori. The limited effectiveness of such approaches has forced researchers to consider alternative strategies to eliminate H. pylori infection. The plant alkaloid berberine is known to significantly reduce proliferation of H. pylori. To localize berberine to the site of H. pylori infection, this study developed a novel nanoparticle berberine carrier with a heparin shell. Analysis of a simulated gastrointestinal medium indicated that the proposed in vitro drug carrier system effectively controlled the release of berberine, which interacted specifically with the intercellular space at the site of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, the prepared nanoparticles significantly increased the suppressive effect of berberine on H. pylori growth while efficiently reducing cytotoxic effects in H. pylori-infected cells. 10.1016/j.actbio.2010.08.028
    The antibacterial mode of action of allitridi for its potential use as a therapeutic agent against Helicobacter pylori infection. Liu Shuang,Sun Yundong,Li Wenjuan,Yu Han,Li Xi,Liu Zhifang,Zeng Jiping,Zhou Yabin,Chen Chunyan,Jia Jihui FEMS microbiology letters Eradication of Helicobacter pylori with traditional therapy often fails in clinical treatment. As a result, a novel efficacious therapeutic agent is strongly needed. Allitridi, a proprietary garlic derivative, has been successfully used to treat both systemic fungal and bacterial infections in China. Our previous study has shown a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of allitridi on H. pylori growth. However, the antibacterial mode of action of allitridi is still unclear. Proteomic analysis was used to study the global protein alterations induced by allitridi. A total of 21 protein spots were identified to be differentially expressed. Our results indicated that the bacteriostatic mechanism of allitridi in H. pylori can be attributed to its multitarget inhibitory effects in energy metabolism and biosynthesis including amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, mRNA synthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis. Allitridi can also disturb the expression of antioxidant proteins and decrease the production of virulence factors. Western blot analysis showed that allitridi at subinhibitory concentrations can potently suppress the production of CagA and VacA. Our investigations on the antibacterial mode of action of allitridi provide an insight into the potential use of allitridi as a therapeutic agent against H. pylori infection. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01877.x
    (-)-Patchouli alcohol protects against Helicobacter pylori urease-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory response in human gastric epithelial cells. Xie Jianhui,Lin Zhixiu,Xian Yanfang,Kong Songzhi,Lai Zhengquan,Ip Siupo,Chen Haiming,Guo Huizhen,Su Zuqing,Yang Xiaobo,Xu Yang,Su Ziren International immunopharmacology (-)-Patchouli alcohol (PA), the major active principle of Pogostemonis Herba, has been reported to have anti-Helicobacter pylori and gastroprotective effects. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of PA on H. pylori urease (HPU)-injured human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Results showed that pre-treatment with PA (5.0, 10.0, 20.0μM) was able to remarkably ameliorate the cytotoxicity induced by 17.0U/mg HPU in GES-1 cells. Flow cytometric analysis on cellular apoptosis showed that pre-treatment with PA effectively attenuated GES-1 cells from the HPU-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the cytoprotective effect of PA was found to be associated with amelioration of the HPU-induced disruption of MMP, attenuating oxidative stress by decreasing contents of intracellular ROS and MDA, and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activities. In addition, pre-treatment with PA markedly attenuated the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas elevated the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) in the HPU-stimulated GES-1 cells. Molecular docking assay suggested that PA engaged in the active site of urease bearing nickel ions and interacted with important residues via covalent binding, thereby restricting the active urease catalysis conformation. Our experimental findings suggest that PA could inhibit the cellular processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection, and its protective effects against the HPU-induced cytotoxicity in GES-1 cells are believed to be associated with its anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and HPU inhibitory actions. 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.02.022
    In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes). Shang Xiaodong,Tan Qi,Liu Ruina,Yu Kangying,Li Pingzuo,Zhao Guo-Ping International journal of medicinal mushrooms Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory. 10.1615/intjmedmushr.v15.i2.50
    Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits urease of Helicobacter pylori and jack bean: Susceptibility and mechanism. Tan Lihua,Li Cailan,Chen Hanbin,Mo Zhizhun,Zhou Jiangtao,Liu Yuhong,Ma Zhilin,Xu Yuyao,Yang Xiaobo,Xie Jianhui,Su Ziren European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences In our previous study, Rhizoma Coptidis extract was found to exert more potent inhibitory effect than its major component berberine towards urease from Helicobacter pylori (HPU) and jack bean (JBU). In continuation of our work, the present study was designed to further comparatively investigate the urease inhibitory activities of five major protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis, namely berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorhizine to identify the bioactive constituent, and illuminate the potential mechanism of action. Results indicated that the five protoberberine alkaloids acted as concentration-dependent inactivators of urease with IC values ranging between 3.0 and 5087μM for HPU and 2.3->10,000μM for JBU, respectively. Notably, epiberberine (EB) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU, which was more effective than the standard urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (83±0.01μM for HPU and 22±0.01μM for JBU, respectively). Further kinetic analysis revealed that the type of EB inhibition against HPU was slow-binding and uncompetitive, with K of 10.6±0.01μM, while slow-binding and competitive against JBU with K of 4.6±0.01μM. Addition of thiol reagents, such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol, significantly abolished the inhibition, while Ni competitive inhibitors, boric acid and sodium fluoride, synergetically inhibited urease with EB, indicating the obligatory role of the active site sulfhydryl group for the inhibition. In addition, binding of EB with the urease proved to be reversible, as about 65% and 90% enzymatic activity of HPU and JBU, respectively, could be restored by dithiothreitol application. These findings highlighted the potential role of Rhizoma Coptidis protoberberine alkaloids, especially EB, as a lead urease inhibitor in the treatment of diseases associated with ureolytic bacteria. Thus, EB had good potential for further development into a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of urease-related diseases. 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.02.004
    Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group. Li Cailan,Xie Jianhui,Chen Xiaoying,Mo Zhizhun,Wu Wen,Liang Yeer,Su Zuqing,Li Qian,Li Yucui,Su Ziren,Yang Xiaobo Planta medica Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. 10.1055/s-0035-1558229
    Coptisine-induced inhibition of Helicobacter pylori: elucidation of specific mechanisms by probing urease active site and its maturation process. Li Cailan,Huang Ping,Wong Kambo,Xu Yifei,Tan Lihua,Chen Hanbin,Lu Qiang,Luo Chaodan,Tam Chunlai,Zhu Lixiang,Su Ziren,Xie Jianhui Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry In this study, we examined the anti-Helicobactor pylori effects of the main protoberberine-type alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis. Coptisine exerted varying antibacterial and bactericidal effects against three standard H. pylori strains and eleven clinical isolates, including four drug-resistant strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25 to 50 μg/mL and minimal bactericidal concentrations ranging from 37.5 to 125 μg/mL. Coptisine's anti-H. pylori effects derived from specific inhibition of urease in vivo. In vitro, coptisine inactivated urease in a concentration-dependent manner through slow-binding inhibition and involved binding to the urease active site sulfhydryl group. Coptisine inhibition of H. pylori urease (HPU) was mixed type, while inhibition of jack bean urease was non-competitive. Importantly, coptisine also inhibited HPU by binding to its nickel metallocentre. Besides, coptisine interfered with urease maturation by inhibiting activity of prototypical urease accessory protein UreG and formation of UreG dimers and by promoting dissociation of nickel from UreG dimers. These findings demonstrate that coptisine inhibits urease activity by targeting its active site and inhibiting its maturation, thereby effectively inhibiting H. pylori. Coptisine may thus be an effective anti-H. pylori agent. 10.1080/14756366.2018.1501044
    Effect of patchouli alcohol on macrophage mediated Helicobacter pylori digestion based on intracellular urease inhibition. Lian D W,Xu Y F,Deng Q H,Lin X M,Huang B,Xian S X,Huang P Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Helicobacter pylori infects almost half of the world population and is listed as a type I carcinoma factor since 1994. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Labiatae) has been used to treat gastro-intestinal diseases for thousands of years in many east Asian countries, and the key ingredient, patchouli alcohol (PA), has been observed to exert anti-H. pylori and anti-urease activities. PURPOSE:We investigated the effect of PA on H. pylori urease and its subsequent influence on macrophage phagosome maturation and function. METHODS:In H. pylori experiment, the berthelot method and pH shock assay were adopted to evaluate the effect of PA on extracellular and intracellular H. pylori urease. And then, Q-PCR and Western blot were carried out to analyze the alterations in the expression of urease-related genes and proteins after PA treatment. In the H. pylori and macrophage cell (RAW264.7) co-culture experiment, the effects of PA on H. pylori-induced phagocytosis and intracellular killing of RAW264.7 were investigated using gentamycin protection assay, and the underlying mechanism was explored by immunofluorescence. RESULTS:PA at 25 and 50 μM inhibited intracellular H. pylori urease activity but not isolated urease by down-regulating the gene expression levels of ureB, ureE, ureI and nixA and reducing the protein expression level of UreB, thereby inhibiting the acid resistance of H. pylori. PA also recovered the function of macrophage bacterial digestion, and prior treatment with ammonium chloride inhibited the efficacy of PA. CONCLUSION:PA suppressed intracellular H. pylori urease function and maturation, which increased macrophage digestion ability. 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153097
    Mechanism of berberine in treating Helicobacter pylori induced chronic atrophic gastritis through IRF8-IFN-γ signaling axis suppressing. Yang Tao,Wang Ruilin,Zhang Jianzhong,Bao Chunmei,Zhang Juling,Li Ruisheng,Chen Xing,Wu Shihua,Wen Jianxia,Wei Shizhang,Li Haotian,Cai Huadan,Yang Xiangdong,Zhao Yanling Life sciences AIMS:In this study, we will investigate the therapeutic effects of berberine (BBR) in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). Furthermore, potential mechanisms of BBR in regulating IRF8-IFN-γ signaling axis will also be investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:H. pylori were utilized to establish CAG model of rats. Therapeutic effects of BBR on serum supernatant indices, and histopathology of stomach were analyzed in vivo. Moreover, GES-1 cells were infected by H. pylori, and intervened with BBR in vitro. Cell viability, morphology, proliferation, and quantitative analysis were detected by high-content screening (HCS) imaging assay. To further investigate the potential mechanisms of BBR, relative mRNA, immunohistochemistry and protein expression in IRF8-IFN-γ signaling axis were measured. KEY FINDINGS:Results showed serum supernatant indices including IL-17, CXCL1, and CXCL9 were downregulated by BBR intervention, while, G-17 increased significantly. Histological injuries of gastric mucosa induced by H. pylori also were alleviated. Moreover, cell viability and morphology changes of GES-1 cells were improved by BBR intervention. In addition, proinflammatory genes and IRF8-IFN-γ signaling axis related genes, including Ifit3, Upp1, USP18, Nlrc5, were suppressed by BBR administration in vitro and in vivo. The proteins expression related to IRF8-IFN-γ signaling axis, including Ifit3, IRF1 and Ifit1 were downregulated by BBR intervention. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117456
    Inhibitory effects of emodin, baicalin, schizandrin and berberine on hefA gene: treatment of Helicobacter pylori-induced multidrug resistance. Huang Yan-Qiang,Huang Gan-Rong,Wu Ming-Hui,Tang Hua-Ying,Huang Zan-Song,Zhou Xi-Han,Yu Wen-Qiang,Su Jian-Wei,Mo Xiao-Qiang,Chen Bing-Pu,Zhao Li-Juan,Huang Xiao-Feng,Wei Hong-Yu,Wei Lian-Deng World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To investigate the inhibitory effects of emodin, baicalin, etc. on the hefA gene of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS:The double dilution method was used to screen MDR H. pylori strains and determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of emodin, baicalin, schizandrin, berberine, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin and levofloxacin against H. pylori strains. After the screened MDR stains were treated with emodin, baicalin, schizandrin or berberine at a 1/2 MIC concentration for 48 h, changes in MICs of amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, metronidazole and clarithromycin were determined. MDR strains with reduced MICs of amoxicillin were selected to detect the hefA mRNA expression by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS:A total of four MDR H. pylori strains were screened. Treatment with emodin, baicalin, schizandrin and berberine significantly decreased the MICs of amoxicillin and tetracycline against some strains, decreased by 1 to 2 times, but did not significantly change the MICs of clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole against MDR strains. In the majority of strains with reduced MICs of amoxicillin, hefA mRNA expression was decreased; one-way ANOVA (SPSS 12.0) used for comparative analysis, P < 0.05. CONCLUSION:Emodin, baicalin, schizandrin and berberine significantly decreased the MICs of amoxicillin and tetracycline against some H. pylori strains, possibly by mechanisms associated with decreasing hefA mRNA expression. 10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4225
    Anti-Helicobacter pylori compounds from the ethanol extracts of Geranium wilfordii. Zhang Xi-Quan,Gu Hong-Mei,Li Xin-Zhu,Xu Zhong-Nan,Chen Yu-Sheng,Li Yang Journal of ethnopharmacology UNLABELLED:ETHNOPHARMOCOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Geranium wilfordii Maxim has been extensively used in Chinese Herbal Medicine for treating gastrointestinal disorders, diarrhea and dysentery. In the current study we aimed to investigate the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of ethanol extracts of Geranium wilfordii Maxim and its main active compounds, corilagin and 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The plant materials were extracted three times with ethanol and the concentrated filtrate was successively fractioned into chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-BuOH-soluble portions which were examined in vitro for the anti-Helicobacter. pylori activity. Employing a standard strain and five clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori, the extract, fractions and compounds of Geranium wilfordii Maxim were assessed in vitro. RESULTS:The ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, corilagin, and 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose were found to be strongly inhibitory to Helicobacter. pylori (MICs: 40, 30, 4, and 8μg/ml respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The results of the present study showed that the ethanol and the ethyl acetate extracts from Geranium wilfordii Maxim displayed as well the most significant inhibition to the growth of Helicobacter. pylori, of which corilagin and 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose have been identified main anti-Helicobacter pylori active constituents. 10.1016/j.jep.2013.02.032
    Atractylodes lancea volatile oils attenuated helicobacter pylori NCTC11637 growth and biofilm. Yu Min,Wang Xiaochun,Ling Feng,Wang Hua,Zhang Ping,Shao Shihe Microbial pathogenesis Atractylodes lancea is a traditional Chinese perennial herb, which has been used for treating gastrointestinal diseases in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Atractylodes lancea volatile oils on the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Firstly, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the volatile oils against H. pylori were determined using broth dilution method. SPSS17.0 was used to account 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50). Moreover, the anti-biofilm activity of the volatile oils was determined by crystal violet measurement and fluorescence microscope. Finally, gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells) were co-incubated with H. pylori with or without volatile oils treated. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to detect the translocation of virulence factor Cag A. We found that Atractylodes lancea volatile oils inhibited the growth of H. pylori in a concentration dependent manner. The MIC and IC50 of volatile oils against H. pylori were 7.5 mg/mL and 2.181 mg/mL respectively. Fluorescence microscopy and crystal violet measurement indicated that volatile oils at sub-MIC concentration could reduce biofilm formation of H. pylori. In addition, volatile oils decreased the translocation of Cag A and reduced inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in GES-1 cells. Our results suggested that Atractylodes lancea volatile oils could be a potential compound of a novel class of H. pylori inhibitors with anti-H. pylori effects. 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103641
    Biological evaluation and molecular docking of baicalin and scutellarin as Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitors. Yu Xiao-Dan,Zheng Rong-Bo,Xie Jian-Hui,Su Ji-Yan,Huang Xiao-Qi,Wang Yong-Hong,Zheng Yi-Feng,Mo Zhi-Zhun,Wu Xiao-Li,Wu Dian-Wei,Liang Ye-er,Zeng Hui-Fang,Su Zi-Ren,Huang Ping Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Baicalin and scutellarin are the principal bioactive components of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi which has extensively been incorporated into heat-clearing and detoxification formulas for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori-related gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the mechanism of action remained to be defined. AIM OF THE STUDY:To explore the inhibitory effect, kinetics and mechanism of Helicobacter pylori urease (the vital pathogenetic factor for Helicobacter pylori infection) inhibition by baicalin and scutellarin, for their therapeutic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The ammonia formations, indicator of urease activity, were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. The inhibitory effect of baicalin and scutellarin was characterized with IC50 values, compared to acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), a well known Helicobacter pylori urease inhibitor. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots for the Helicobacter pylori urease inhibition of baicalin and scutellarin was constructed from the kinetic data. SH-blocking reagents and competitive active site Ni(2+) binding inhibitors were employed for mechanism study. Molecular docking technique was used to provide some information on binding conformations as well as confirm the inhibition mode. Moreover, cytotoxicity experiment using Gastric Epithelial Cells (GES-1) was evaluated. RESULTS:Baicalin and scutellarin effectively suppressed Helicobacter pylori urease in dose-dependent and time-independent manner with IC50 of 0.82±0.07 mM and 0.47±0.04 mM, respectively, compared to AHA (IC50=0.14±0.05 mM). Structure-activity relationship disclosed 4'-hydroxyl gave flavones an advantage to binding with Helicobacter pylori urease. Kinetic analysis revealed that the types of inhibition were non-competitive and reversible with inhibition constant Ki of 0.14±0.01 mM and 0.18±0.02 mM for baicalin and scutellarin, respectively. The mechanism of urease inhibition was considered to be blockage of the SH groups of Helicobacter pylori urease, since thiol reagents (L,D-dithiothreitol, L-cysteine and glutathione) abolished the inhibitory action and competitive active site Ni(2+) binding inhibitors (boric acid and sodium fluoride) carried invalid effect. Molecular docking study further supported the structure-activity analysis and indicated that baicalin and scutellarin interacted with the key residues Cys321 located on the mobile flap through S-H·π interaction, but did not interact with active site Ni(2+). Moreover, Baicalin (at 0.59-1.05 mM concentrations) and scutellarin (at 0.23-0.71 mM concentrations) did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity to GES-1. CONCLUSIONS:Baicalin and scutellarin were non-competitive inhibitors targeting sulfhydryl groups especially Cys321 around the active site of Helicobacter pylori urease, representing potential to be good candidate for future research as urease inhibitor for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Furthermore, our work gave additional scientific support to the use of Scutellaria baicalensis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat gastrointestinal disorders. 10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.041
    The Suppressive Effects of Geniposide and Genipin on Helicobacter pylori Infections In Vitro and In Vivo. Chang Chiung-Hung,Wu Jin-Bin,Yang Jai-Sing,Lai Yen-Ju,Su Chiu-Hsian,Lu Chi-Cheng,Hsu Yuan-Man Journal of food science Geniposide and genipin have been found in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, a traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits multiple biological functions. However, no report showing the effects of geniposide and genipin on gastric protection in Helicobacter pylori infections in vitro and in vivo has been done. In this study, we clarified how geniposide and genipin suppress H. pylori-mediated inflammation in gastric AGS cells and C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that genipin shows a strong ability to inhibit H. pylori growth and is able to reduce vacA and cagA gene expression of H. pylori in infected AGS cells. Genipin also attenuates the abilities of adhesion and invasion of H. pylori to AGS cells. An attenuation of interleukin (IL)-8 and IFN-γ production caused by genipin was observed to inhibit cell inflammatory responses. In the in vivo experiments, geniposide and genipin both showed suppressive effects on the vacA gene expression in mice after H. pylori infection. The serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, immunoglobulin A, and Immunoglobulin M were decreased by geniposide and genipin in infected mice. The inflammatory maker COX2 was downregulated in H. pylori-infected mice after exposure to geniposide and genipin. Together, geniposide and genipin effectively exert a healthy promotion to reduce H. pylori infections in vivo by interfering with the growth and virulence of H. pylori as well as attenuating the gastric inflammation caused by an H. pylori infection. PRACTICAL APPLICATION:Geniposide and genipin have a healthy promotion to eradicate H. pylori infections by interfering with the growth and virulence of H. pylori and to attenuate the gastric inflammation caused by an H. pylori infection. 10.1111/1750-3841.13955
    Insight into the inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum nitidum against Helicobacter pylori urease and jack bean urease: Kinetics and mechanism. Lu Qiang,Li Cailan,Wu Guosong Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb.) DC. is a traditional Chinese medicine characterised by anti-inflammatory and anti-Helicobacter pylori, which is widely used to treat H. pylori-induced gastric disease in China. However, the underlying mechanism related to its anti-H. pylori activity remains unclear. Urease plays a crucial role in the colonisation and survival of H. pylori. AIM OF THE STUDY:The root aqueous extract of Z. nitidum against H. pylori urease (HPU) and jack bean urease (JBU) was investigated to illuminate the inhibitory potency, kinetics and potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Z. nitidum components were determined by UPLC. The enzyme inhibitory effects of Z. nitidum were examined using modified spectrophotometric Berthelot (phenol-hypochlorite) method. Urease inhibition kinetics were determined by Lineweaver-Burk plots. Sulfhydryl group reagents and Ni-binding inhibitors were used in the mechanism study. Moreover, the molecular docking technique was used to investigate the binding conformations of the main compounds of Z. nitidum on Urease. RESULTS:According to UPLC results, the major components of Z. nitidum were magnoflorine, sanguinarine, nitidine chloride, chelerythrine, skimmianine and L-Sesamin. Z. nitidum has higher enzyme inhibitory activity on HPU (IC = 1.29 ± 0.10 mg/mL) than on JBU (IC = 2.04 ± 0.27 mg/mL). Enzyme inhibitory kinetic analysis revealed that the type of Z. nitidum inhibition against HPU was a slow-binding and mixed-type, whereas a slow-binding and non-competitive type inhibited JBU. Further mechanism study indicated that the active site of sulfhydryl group might be the target of inhibition by Z. nitidum. The molecular docking study indicated that the above six main components of Z. nitidum exhibited stronger affinity to HPU than to JBU through interacting with the key amino acid residues located on the mobile flap or interacting with the active site Ni. Results indicated that these components are potential active ingredients directed against urease. CONCLUSIONS:Z. nitidum inactivated urease in a concentration-dependent manner through slow-binding inhibition and binding to the urease active site sulfhydryl group. Our investigation might provide experimental evidence for the traditional application of Z. nitidum in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112419