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    Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 Improves Cholestasis in Parenteral Nutrition--Associated Liver Disease. Lim David W,Wales Paul W,Josephson Jessica K,Nation Patrick N,Wizzard Pamela R,Sergi Consolato M,Field Catherine J,Sigalet David L,Turner Justine M JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition BACKGROUND:Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates with intestinal failure. Although glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is being advanced as therapy, the effect of GLP-2 treatment on PNALD is unknown. We aim to investigate the effect of exogenous GLP-2 administration on hepatic function in a neonatal piglet model of PNALD. METHODS:Neonatal piglets (aged 2-6 days) underwent jugular venous catheterization to receive isonitrogenous, isocaloric parenteral nutrition (PN). Piglets were allocated to 2 groups: group 1 (n = 8) received saline while group 2 (n = 7) received GLP-2 (at 11 nmol/kg/d). After 17 days, piglets underwent terminal laparotomy, and bile flow was measured. Liver specimens were analyzed histologically and with immunoperoxidase staining. Age-matched sow-reared control piglets (group 3, n = 8) were used for comparison. RESULTS:Both groups 1 and 2 receiving PN developed cholestasis relative to sow-reared controls, as evidenced by a decrease in bile flow and increase in serum total bilirubin. However, group 2 had improved bile flow (1.35 vs 0.73 µL/g; P = .02) and diminished bilirubin (38.0 vs 78.5 µmol/L; P = .008) compared with group 1. Group 2 also had lower serum alanine aminotransferase levels, a marker of liver injury. Histologically, the liver specimens in group 1 had marked hepatocyte pigmentation, which was decreased in group 2 specimens. CONCLUSIONS:The exogenous administration of GLP-2 is associated with the improvement of cholestasis and liver injury. This study introduces a novel role for GLP-2 in improving PNALD in the setting of prolonged PN duration. 10.1177/0148607114551968
    Proteomic analysis of plasma from rats following total parenteral nutrition-induced liver injury. Tsai Jai-Jen,Kuo Hsing-Chun,Lee Kam-Fai,Tsai Tung-Hu Proteomics Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is provided as the primary nitrogen source to manage patients with intestinal failure who were not able to sustain themselves on enteral feeds. The most common complication of long-term TPN use is hepatitis. A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of rats following TPN-related acute liver injury. Six male rats were randomly assigned to either the saline infusion control group or the TPN infusion group. Our results demonstrate that TPN infusion in rats resulted in hepatic dysfunction and hepatocyte apoptosis. Five proteins that were differentially expressed between TPN infusion and normal rats were determined and validated in vivo. Fascinatingly, the proteomic differential displays, downregulated proteins included peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), alpha-1-antiproteinase (A1AT), and fibrinogen gamma chain (FIBG), which were involved in oxidative stress, inflammatory respondence and cells apoptosis. After TPN infusion, two protein spots showed increased expression, namely, the glucagon receptor (GLR) protein and apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1), which may mediate the effects of TPN administration on glycogen and lipid metabolism. In this study, proteomic analysis suggested TPN-related acute liver injury could be involved in limiting cellular protection mechanisms against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. On the basis of the results, we also give molecular evidences replying TPN-related hepatitis. 10.1002/pmic.201500128
    Choice of Lipid Emulsion Determines Inflammation of the Gut-Liver Axis, Incretin Profile, and Insulin Signaling in a Murine Model of Total Parenteral Nutrition. Lou Phing-How,Lucchinetti Eliana,Wawrzyniak Paulina,Morsy Yasser,Wawrzyniak Marcin,Scharl Michael,Krämer Stefanie D,Rogler Gerhard,Hersberger Martin,Zaugg Michael Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:The aim of this study is to test whether the choice of the lipid emulsion in total parenteral nutrition (TPN), that is, n-3 fatty acid-based Omegaven versus n-6 fatty acid-based Intralipid, determines inflammation in the liver, the incretin profile, and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS:Jugular vein catheters (JVC) are placed in C57BL/6 mice and used for TPN for 7 days. Mice are randomized into a saline group (saline infusion with oral chow), an Intralipid group (IL-TPN, no chow), an Omegaven group (OV-TPN, no chow), or a chow only group (without JVC). Both TPN elicite higher abundance of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in the liver, but only IL-TPN increases interleukin-6 and interferon-γ, while OV-TPN reduces interleukin-4, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and interleukin-1α. Insulin plasma concentrations are higher in both TPN, while glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were higher in IL-TPN. Gluconeogenesis is increased in IL-TPN and the nuclear profile of key metabolic transcription factors shows a liver-protective phenotype in OV-TPN. OV-TPN increases insulin sensitivity in the liver and skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION:OV-TPN as opposed to IL-TPN mitigates inflammation in the liver and reduces the negative metabolic effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia by "re-sensitizing" the liver and skeletal muscle to insulin. 10.1002/mnfr.202000412
    Insulin Secretion Depends on Intra-islet Glucagon Signaling. Svendsen Berit,Larsen Olav,Gabe Maria Buur Nordskov,Christiansen Charlotte Bayer,Rosenkilde Mette M,Drucker Daniel J,Holst Jens Juul Cell reports The intra-islet theory states that glucagon secretion is suppressed when insulin secretion is stimulated, but glucagon's role in intra-islet paracrine regulation is controversial. This study investigated intra-islet functions of glucagon in mice. We examined glucagon-induced insulin secretion using isolated perfused pancreata from wild-type, GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) knockout, diphtheria toxin-induced proglucagon knockdown, β cell-specific glucagon receptor (Gcgr) knockout, and global Gcgr knockout (Gcgr) mice. We found that glucagon stimulates insulin secretion through both Gcgr and GLP-1R. Moreover, loss of either Gcgr or GLP-1R does not change insulin responses, whereas combined blockage of both receptors significantly reduces insulin secretion. Active GLP-1 is identified in pancreatic perfusate from Gcgr but not wild-type mice, suggesting that β cell GLP-1R activation results predominantly from glucagon action. Our results suggest that combined activity of glucagon and GLP-1 receptors is essential for β cell secretory responses, emphasizing a role for paracrine intra-islet glucagon actions to maintain appropriate insulin secretion. 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.10.018
    No direct effect of SGLT2 activity on glucagon secretion. Kuhre Rune E,Ghiasi Seyed M,Adriaenssens Alice E,Wewer Albrechtsen Nicolai J,Andersen Daniel B,Aivazidis Alexander,Chen Lihua,Mandrup-Poulsen Thomas,Ørskov Cathrine,Gribble Fiona M,Reimann Frank,Wierup Nils,Tyrberg Björn,Holst Jens J Diabetologia AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors constitute a new class of glucose-lowering drugs, but they increase glucagon secretion, which may counteract their glucose-lowering effect. Previous studies using static incubation of isolated human islets or the glucagon-secreting cell line α-TC1 suggested that this results from direct inhibition of alpha cell SGLT1/2-activity. The aim of this study was to test whether the effects of SGLT2 on glucagon secretion demonstrated in vitro could be reproduced in a more physiological setting. METHODS:We explored the effect of SGLT2 activity on glucagon secretion using isolated perfused rat pancreas, a physiological model for glucagon secretion. Furthermore, we investigated Slc5a2 (the gene encoding SGLT2) expression in rat islets as well as in mouse and human islets and in mouse and human alpha, beta and delta cells to test for potential inter-species variations. SGLT2 protein content was also investigated in mouse, rat and human islets. RESULTS:Glucagon output decreased three- to fivefold within minutes of shifting from low (3.5 mmol/l) to high (10 mmol/l) glucose (4.0 ± 0.5 pmol/15 min vs 1.3 ± 0.3 pmol/15 min, p < 0.05). The output was unaffected by inhibition of SGLT1/2 with dapagliflozin or phloridzin or by addition of the SGLT1/2 substrate α-methylglucopyranoside, whether at low or high glucose concentrations (p = 0.29-0.99). Insulin and somatostatin secretion (potential paracrine regulators) was also unaffected. Slc5a2 expression and SGLT2 protein were marginal or below detection limit in rat, mouse and human islets and in mouse and human alpha, beta and delta cells. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our combined data show that increased plasma glucagon during SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is unlikely to result from direct inhibition of SGLT2 in alpha cells, but instead may occur downstream of their blood glucose-lowering effects. 10.1007/s00125-019-4849-6
    Impaired pancreatic endocrine and exocrine responses in growth-retarded piglets. Harada E,Shizuyama M,Ihara N,Takeuchi T Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine The alteration of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine secretory responses induced by secretagogues and neural input was investigated in post-weaning growth-retarded (GR) piglets. Blood and pancreatic juice were collected from these animals (6-8-weeks old). Plasma insulin and pancreatic digestive enzymes induced by nutrients, drugs and vagal stimulation were measured biochemically. The pancreas was inspected by immunohistochemical analysis. In GR piglets, the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations at the resting state were very low, and the secretory response was also markedly reduced, with maximum inhibition of 90% by glucose administration and 83% by arginine administration. The insulin secretion was not increased by 2-deoxy-D-glucose administration in GR piglets. The pancreatic juice secretions induced by vagal stimulation and secretagogues in GR piglets were not different from those induced in the control piglets. However, amylase activity in the pancreatic juice and in the pancreas was significantly decreased in GR piglets, although trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were not different. In the immunohistochemical analysis, the numbers of islets and the staining degree for insulin antibody also declined in the pancreases of GR piglets. These results indicated the reduction of insulin and amylase secretions from the pancreas in GR piglets, suggesting that a dysfunction of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine secretion during growth after weaning may be an important factor in the induction of growth retardation in piglets. 10.1046/j.1439-0442.2003.00574.x
    Enhancement of endocrine pancreatic secretions by essential fatty acids. Opara E C,Burch W M,Hubbard V S,Akwari O E The Journal of surgical research Recent studies have suggested the beneficial effects of essential fatty acids in postoperative patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. While there is abundant information on the role of glucose and amino acids on insulin release, the effect of essential fatty acids on endocrine pancreatic secretions is not clear. Since linoleic and linolenic acids are constituents of TPN solutions as well as dietary fat, our aim was to examine their effect on the endocrine pancreatic function, using isolated islets. In each experiment, six islets microdissected from three mice were preperifused at the rate of 1 ml/min with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) buffer pH 7.4 containing 2% bovine albumin and 5.5 mM glucose (basal) with continuous supply of 95%/5%, O2/CO2 for 1 hr, after which basal samples were collected on ice every minute. The perifusion was continued for 20 min after the addition of a mixture of 10 mM linoleic acid and 5 mM linolenic acid to the KRB. During each perifusion phase, effluent samples were also collected for insulin and glucagon assay. The mean integrated area under the curve/20 min showed an increase in both insulin and glucagon secretions with the addition of fatty acids. Hence insulin increased from a basal 3154.8 +/- 953.7 to 8393.0 +/- 2073.1 pg (P less than 0.025, n = 6) and glucagon increased from 193.7 +/- 46.9 to 1566.1 +/- 411.2 pg (P less than 0.0025, n = 5). The fatty-acid-induced insulin but not glucagon secretion was blocked by the addition of 2 mM palmoxirate an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 10.1016/0022-4804(90)90068-d
    Effects of intravenous fat emulsion administration on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Matsuno S,Miyashita E,Sasaki K,Sato T The Japanese journal of surgery A study was made of alterations in exocrine and endocrine function of the pancreas following infusion of a 10% fat emulsion preparation (Intralipid) into 5 patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy and in 5 dogs with a chronic pancreatic fistula. Pancreatic exocrine secretion was significantly increased by 18.3% in the volume, 27.5% in the output of bicarbonate in humans and 8.9% in the volume, 26.1% in the output of amylase, 7.6% in the output of bicarbonate in dogs, by intravenous administration of the fat emulsion. The administration of the fat emulsion was followed by slight to minimal changes in blood sugar, amylase and IRI. The blood IRG level was significantly elevated but showed small fluctuations. The increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion induced by the fat emulsion was considered not to be mediated by intrinsic hormones but rather to be due to other humoral mechanisms.
    TPN-evoked dysfunction of islet lysosomal activity mediates impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Salehi A,Fan B G,Ekelund M,Nordin G,Lundquist I American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism We examined the relation between nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion and the islet lysosome acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase system in rats undergoing total parenteral nutrition (TPN). During TPN treatment, serum glucose was normal, but free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol were elevated. Islets from TPN-infused rats showed increased basal insulin release, a normal insulin response to cholinergic stimulation but a greatly impaired response when stimulated by glucose or alpha-ketoisocaproic acid. This impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release was only slightly ameliorated by the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 inhibitor etomoxir. However, in parallel with the impaired insulin response to glucose, islets from TPN-infused animals displayed reduced activities of islet lysosomal enzymes including the acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase, a putative key enzyme in nutrient-stimulated insulin release. By comparison, the same lysosomal enzymes were increased in liver tissue. Furthermore, in intact control islets, the pseudotetrasaccharide acarbose, a selective inhibitor of acid alpha-glucosidehydrolases, dose dependently suppressed islet acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase and acid alpha-glucosidase activities in parallel with an inhibitory action on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. By contrast, when incubated with intact TPN islets, acarbose had no effect on either enzyme activity or glucose-induced insulin release. Moreover, when acarbose was added directly to TPN islet homogenates, the dose-response effect on the catalytic activity of the acid alpha-glucosidehydrolases was shifted to the right compared with control homogenates. We suggest that a general dysfunction of the islet lysosomal/vacuolar system and reduced catalytic activities of acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase and acid alpha-glucosidase may be important defects behind the impairment of the transduction mechanisms for nutrient-stimulated insulin release in islets from TPN-infused rats. 10.1152/ajpendo.2001.281.1.E171
    Expression of islet inducible nitric oxide synthase and inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release after long-term lipid infusion in the rat is counteracted by PACAP27. Qader Saleem S,Jimenez-Feltström Javier,Ekelund Mats,Lundquist Ingmar,Salehi Albert American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to elevated plasma lipids (lipotoxicity) can lead to beta-cell dysfunction, with overtime becoming irreversible. We examined, by confocal microscopy and biochemistry, whether the expression of islet inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the concomitant inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release seen after lipid infusion in rats was modulated by the islet neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)27. Lipid infusion for 8 days induced a strong expression of islet iNOS, which was mainly confined to beta-cells and was still evident after incubating islets at 8.3 mmol/l glucose. This was accompanied by a high iNOS-derived NO generation, a decreased insulin release, and increased cyclic GMP accumulation. No iNOS expression was found in control islets. Addition of PACAP27 to incubated islets from lipid-infused rats resulted in loss of iNOS protein expression, increased cyclic AMP, decreased cyclic GMP, and suppression of the activities of neuronal constitutive (nc)NOS and iNOS and increased glucose-stimulated insulin response. These effects were reversed by the PKA inhibitor H-89. The suppression of islet iNOS expression induced by PACAP27 was not affected by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132, which by itself induced the loss of iNOS protein, making a direct proteasomal involvement less likely. Our results suggest that PACAP27 through its cyclic AMP- and PKA-stimulating capacity strongly suppresses not only ncNOS but, importantly, also the lipid-induced stimulation of iNOS expression, possibly by a nonproteasomal mechanism. Thus PACAP27 restores the impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release and additionally might induce cytoprotection against deleterious actions of iNOS-derived NO in beta-cells. 10.1152/ajpendo.00172.2006
    Total parenteral nutrition influences both endocrine and exocrine function of rat pancreas. Fan B G,Salehi A,Sternby B,Axelson J,Lundquist I,Andrén-Sandberg A,Ekelund M Pancreas The aim of this study was to examine the effect of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the endocrine and exocine function of the pancreas. Endocrine function was investigated using an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IGTT) in rats with TPN for 7 or 14 days. Exocrine function was evaluated by measuring amylase secretion from isolated acini as well as pancreatic weight, water content, protein, and enzymes after 7 days of TPN. When the TPN rats were compared with the controls, the glucose tolerance curve after an IGTT was unchanged, the basal plasma insulin levels were slightly lower and the insulin secretory response to intravenous glucose was markedly impaired. No differences could be seen between the insulin response after 7 days and that after 14 days of TPN. The weight of pancreas, the total content and concentration of pancreatic protein, and the total amylase content of the pancreas were lower, whereas the total content of both chymotrypsin and trypsin was higher. The concentration of DNA remained intact, whereas the total DNA content decreased. The levels of lipolytic enzymes, except for carboxylesterlipase, were unaffected. After TPN treatment, the insulin secretory response to glucose is impaired, the exocrine pancreas is hypoplastic and the storage pattern of pancreatic exocrine enzymes is altered.
    Glucagon Resistance at the Level of Amino Acid Turnover in Obese Subjects With Hepatic Steatosis. Suppli Malte P,Bagger Jonatan I,Lund Asger,Demant Mia,van Hall Gerrit,Strandberg Charlotte,Kønig Merete J,Rigbolt Kristoffer,Langhoff Jill L,Wewer Albrechtsen Nicolai J,Holst Jens J,Vilsbøll Tina,Knop Filip K Diabetes Glucagon secretion is regulated by circulating glucose, but it has turned out that amino acids also play an important role and that hepatic amino acid metabolism and glucagon are linked in a mutual feedback cycle, the liver-α-cell axis. On the basis of this knowledge, we hypothesized that hepatic steatosis might impair glucagon's action on hepatic amino acid metabolism and lead to hyperaminoacidemia and hyperglucagonemia. We subjected 15 healthy lean and 15 obese steatotic male participants to a pancreatic clamp with somatostatin and evaluated hepatic glucose and amino acid metabolism when glucagon was at basal levels and at high physiological levels. The degree of steatosis was evaluated from liver biopsy specimens. Total RNA sequencing of liver biopsy specimens from the obese steatotic individuals revealed perturbations in the expression of genes predominantly involved in amino acid metabolism. This group was characterized by fasting hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia, and no lowering of amino acid levels in response to high levels of glucagon. Endogenous glucose production was similar between lean and obese individuals. Our results suggest that hepatic steatosis causes resistance to the effect of glucagon on amino acid metabolism. This results in increased amino acid concentrations and increased glucagon secretion, providing a likely explanation for fatty liver-associated hyperglucagonemia. 10.2337/db19-0715
    Fasting glucagon concentrations are associated with longitudinal decline of β-cell function in non-diabetic humans. Adams Jon D,Dalla Man Chiara,Laurenti Marcello C,Andrade M Daniela Hurtado,Cobelli Claudio,Rizza Robert A,Bailey Kent R,Vella Adrian Metabolism: clinical and experimental PURPOSE:Abnormal glucagon concentrations are a feature of prediabetes but it is uncertain if α-cell dysfunction contributes to a longitudinal decline in β-cell function. We therefore sought to determine if a decline in β-cell function is associated with a higher nadir glucagon in the postprandial period or with higher fasting glucagon. METHODS:This was a longitudinal study in which 73 non-diabetic subjects were studied on 2 occasions 6.6 ± 0.3 years apart using a 2-hour, 7-sample oral glucose tolerance test. Disposition Index (DI) was calculated using the oral minimal model applied to the measurements of glucose, insulin, C-peptide concentrations during the studies. We subsequently examined the relationship of glucagon concentrations at baseline with change in DI (used as a measure of β-cell function) after adjusting for changes in weight and the baseline value of DI. RESULTS:After adjusting for covariates, nadir postprandial glucagon concentrations were not associated with changes in β-cell function as quantified by DI. On the other hand, fasting glucagon concentrations during the baseline study were inversely correlated with longitudinal changes in DI. CONCLUSIONS:Defects in α-cell function, manifest as elevated fasting glucagon, are associated with a subsequent decline in β-cell function. It remains to be ascertained if abnormal α-cell function contributes directly to loss of β-cell secretory capacity in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. 10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154175