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    Role of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1/FPR2) in mononuclear phagocyte responses in Alzheimer disease. Iribarren Pablo,Zhou Ye,Hu Jinyue,Le Yingying,Wang Ji Ming Immunologic research Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting approx 4 million people in the United States in the year 2000 alone. Amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, activated glial cells, and neuritic degeneration are the characteristic features of AD. Although the precise cause of AD has yet to be determined, a bulk of evidence suggests that inflammatory responses elicited by elevated Abeta peptides play an important role in the pathogenic process of the disease. In AD brain, mononuclear phagocytes (microglia) accumulate at the sites of Abeta peptide deposition. In vitro, Abeta peptides activate mononuclear phagocytes to release neurotoxic mediators. A number of cell-surface molecules have been reported to act as putative receptors for Abeta peptides, among which the G protein-coupled formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) and its mouse homolog FPR2 have been shown to be expressed by activated microglial cells and mediate the chemotactic activity of the 42 amino acid form of Abeta (Abeta42). FPRL1 also participates in Abeta42 internalization in macrophages and its cytotoxicity for neuronal cells. Therefore, FPRL1 may be involved in the inflammatory aspects of AD. This review discusses recent findings relevant to the function and regulation of FPRL1/FPR2 in mononuclear phagocytes by pro- and antiinflammatory signals and its potential as a therapeutic target in AD. 10.1385/IR:31:3:165
    Microbial amyloids induce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 responses via Toll-like receptor 2 activation in the intestinal mucosa. Nishimori Jessalyn H,Newman Tiffanny N,Oppong Gertrude O,Rapsinski Glenn J,Yen Jui-Hung,Biesecker Steven G,Wilson R Paul,Butler Brian P,Winter Maria G,Tsolis Renee M,Ganea Doina,Tükel Çagla Infection and immunity The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)/TLR1 receptor complex responds to amyloid fibrils, a common component of biofilm material produced by members of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. To determine whether this TLR2/TLR1 ligand stimulates inflammatory responses when bacteria enter intestinal tissue, we investigated whether expression of curli amyloid fibrils by the invasive enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium contributes to T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses by measuring cytokine production in the mouse colitis model. A csgBA mutant, deficient in curli production, elicited decreased expression of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-22 in the cecal mucosa compared to the S. Typhimurium wild type. In TLR2-deficient mice, IL-17A and IL-22 expression was blunted during S. Typhimurium infection, suggesting that activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway contributes to the expression of these cytokines. T cells incubated with supernatants from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) treated with curli fibrils released IL-17A in a TLR2-dependent manner in vitro. Lower levels of IL-6 and IL-23 production were detected in the supernatants of the TLR2-deficient BMDCs treated with curli fibrils. Consistent with this, three distinct T-cell populations-CD4(+) T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, and γδ T cells-produced IL-17A in response to curli fibrils in the intestinal mucosa during S. Typhimurium infection. Notably, decreased IL-6 expression by the dendritic cells and decreased IL-23 expression by the dendritic cells and macrophages were observed in the cecal mucosa of mice infected with the curli mutant. We conclude that TLR2 recognition of bacterial amyloid fibrils in the intestinal mucosa represents a novel mechanism of immunoregulation, which contributes to the generation of inflammatory responses, including production of IL-17A and IL-22, in response to bacterial entry into the intestinal mucosa. 10.1128/IAI.00911-12
    Beta amyloid peptide (Abeta42) is internalized via the G-protein-coupled receptor FPRL1 and forms fibrillar aggregates in macrophages. Yazawa H,Yu Z X,Takeda ,Le Y,Gong W,Ferrans V J,Oppenheim J J,Li C C,Wang J M FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology The 42 amino acid form of beta amyloid (Abeta42) plays a pivotal role in neurotoxicity and the activation of mononuclear phagocytes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our recent study revealed that FPRL1, a G-protein-coupled receptor, mediates the chemotactic and activating effect of Abeta42 on mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes and microglia), suggesting that FPRL1 may be involved in the proinflammatory responses in AD. We investigated the role of FPRL1 in cellular uptake and the subsequent fibrillar formation of Abeta42 by using fluorescence confocal microscopy. We found that upon incubation with macrophages or HEK293 cells genetically engineered to express FPRL1, Abeta42 associated with FPRL1 and the Abeta42/FPRL1 complexes were rapidly internalized into the cytoplasmic compartment. The maximal internalization of Abeta42/FPRL1 complexes occurred by 30 min after incubation. Removal of free Abeta42 from culture supernatants at 30 min resulted in a progressive recycling of FPRL1 to the cell surface and degradation of the internalized Abeta42. However, persistent exposure of the cells to Abeta42 over 24 h resulted in retention of Abeta42/FPRL1 complexes in the cytoplasmic compartment and the formation of Congo red positive fibrils in macrophages but not in HEK 293 cell transfected with FPRL1. These results suggest that besides mediating the proinflammatory activity of Abeta42, FPRL1 is also involved in the internalization of Abeta42, which culminates in the formation of fibrils only in macrophages. 10.1096/fj.01-0251com
    Recombinant expression of Epinephelus lanceolatus serum amyloid A (ElSAA) and analysis of its macrophage modulatory activities. Su Bor-Chyuan,Lin Wen-Chun,Huang Han-Ning,Chen Jyh-Yih Fish & shellfish immunology Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein that plays a crucial role in the inflammatory response. In this study, we identified an SAA homolog from Epinephelus lanceolatus (ElSAA). Molecular characterization revealed that ElSAA contains a fibronectin-like motif that is typical of SAAs. Recombinant ElSAA protein (rElSAA) was produced in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified as a soluble protein. To analyze its biological activity, mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were treated with various concentrations of rElSAA. Expression of several inflammation-related cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, was induced by rElSAA. This protein also triggered macrophage differentiation, as evidenced by increases in cell size and complexity. To determine whether rElSAA regulates macrophage polarization, we assessed gene expression of M1 and M2 markers. The results demonstrated that rElSAA induced the expression of both M1 and M2 markers, suggesting that it promotes the differentiation of macrophages into a mixed M1/M2 phenotype. To evaluate whether rElSAA enhances phagocytosis via an opsonization-dependent mechanism, GFP-labeled E. coli cells were pretreated with rElSAA, followed by incubation with Raw264.7 cells. Flow cytometry was used to monitor the phagocytic uptake of GFP-labeled E. coli by macrophages. Surprisingly, incubating E. coli with rElSAA did not enhance bacterial uptake by macrophages. However, preincubating Raw264.7 cells with various concentrations of rElSAA, followed by infection with E. coli (multiplicity of infection = 20 or 40), resulted in a clear enhancement of macrophage phagocytic capacity. In conclusion, we have identified SAA from E. lanceolatus and have demonstrated that rElSAA promotes inflammatory cytokine production and macrophage differentiation. In addition, rElSAA enhances phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages via an opsonization-independent mechanism. 10.1016/j.fsi.2017.03.032
    Serum amyloid A inhibits osteoclast differentiation to maintain macrophage function. Kim Jiseon,Yang Jihyun,Park Ok-Jin,Kang Seok-Seong,Yun Cheol-Heui,Han Seung Hyun Journal of leukocyte biology Serum amyloid A is an acute phase protein that is elevated under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, the serum levels of serum amyloid A are associated with the progression of inflammatory arthritis; thus, serum amyloid A might be involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we examined the effects of serum amyloid A on osteoclast differentiation and function. When bone marrow-derived macrophages, as osteoclast precursors, were stimulated with serum amyloid A in the presence of M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoclast differentiation and its bone-resorption activity were substantially inhibited. TLR2 was important in the inhibitory effect of serum amyloid A on osteoclast differentiation, because serum amyloid A stimulated TLR2. The inhibitory effect was absent in bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from TLR2-deficient mice. Furthermore, serum amyloid A inhibited the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation, but prevented downregulation of IFN regulatory factor-8, a negative regulator of osteoclast differentiation. In contrast, serum amyloid A sustained the endocytic capacity of bone marrow-derived macrophages and their ability to induce the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Taken together, these results suggest that serum amyloid A, when increased by inflammatory conditions, inhibits differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, likely to maintain macrophage function for host defense. 10.1189/jlb.3A0415-173R
    Modulation of macrophage activation and programming in immunity. Liu Guangwei,Yang Hui Journal of cellular physiology Macrophages are central mediators of the immune, contributing both to the initiation and the resolution of inflammation. The concept of macrophage activation and program has stimulated interest in its definition, and functional significance in homeostasis and diseases. It has been known that macrophages could be differently activated and programmed into different functional subtypes in response to different types of antigen stumuli or different kinds of cytokines present in the microenvironment and could thus profoundly influence immune responses, but little is known about the state and exact regulatory mechanism of macrophage activation and program from cell or molecular signaling level in immunity. In this review, we summarize the recent finding regarding the regulatory mechanism of macrophage activation and program toward M1 and M2, especially on M2 macrophages. 10.1002/jcp.24157