Extinction memory is facilitated by methylphenidate and regulated by dopamine and noradrenaline receptors.
Furini Cristiane R G,Behling Jonny A K,Zinn Carolina G,Zanini Mara Lise,Assis Brasil Eduardo,Pereira Luiza Doro,Izquierdo Ivan,de Carvalho Myskiw Jociane
Behavioural brain research
Extinction is defined as the learned inhibition of retrieval and is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear disorders. The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPH) is known to increase extracellular levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking their reuptake and studies have demonstrated that MPH can modulate hippocampal physiology and/or functions including long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the influence of MPH on fear extinction memory has been insufficiently studied. Here we investigate the effect of MPH infused into the CA1 region of the hippocampus on extinction memory in animals normally incapable of showing contextual fear conditioning (CFC) extinction because of weak training, and the possible mechanisms through which it acts during this process. For this, male Wistar rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region were submitted to a weak extinction protocol in a CFC apparatus. Animals that received intra-CA1 infusion of MPH (12.5μg/side) 20min before the extinction training (Ext Tr) expressed less freezing behavior than Veh-treated animals during both Ext Tr and extinction retention Test (Ext Test). Additionally, the administration of MPH+Timolol (1μg/side) or MPH+SCH23390 (1.5μg/side) intra-CA1 20min before the Ext Tr blocked the enhancing effect of the MPH on extinction learning. These results suggest that MPH in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is able to induce the consolidation of extinction memory and this process occurs through both β-adrenergic and D1/D5 dopaminergic receptors.
Peripheral and central effects of circulating catecholamines.
Tank A William,Lee Wong Dona
Physical challenges, emotional arousal, increased physical activity, or changes in the environment can evoke stress, requiring altered activity of visceral organs, glands, and smooth muscles. These alterations are necessary for the organism to function appropriately under these abnormal conditions and to restore homeostasis. These changes in activity comprise the "fight-or-flight" response and must occur rapidly or the organism may not survive. The rapid responses are mediated primarily via the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, secreted from the adrenal medulla. The catecholamine neurohormones interact with adrenergic receptors present on cell membranes of all visceral organs and smooth muscles, leading to activation of signaling pathways and consequent alterations in organ function and smooth muscle tone. During the "fight-or-flight response," the rise in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla and norepinephrine secreted from sympathetic nerve terminals cause increased blood pressure and cardiac output, relaxation of bronchial, intestinal and many other smooth muscles, mydriasis, and metabolic changes that increase levels of blood glucose and free fatty acids. Circulating catecholamines can also alter memory via effects on afferent sensory nerves impacting central nervous system function. While these rapid responses may be necessary for survival, sustained elevation of circulating catecholamines for prolonged periods of time can also produce pathological conditions, such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, hypertension, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this review, we discuss the present knowledge of the effects of circulating catecholamines on peripheral organs and tissues, as well as on memory in the brain.
Norepinephrine Induces PTSD-Like Memory Impairments Regulation of the β-Adrenoceptor-cAMP/PKA and CaMK II/PKC Systems in the Basolateral Amygdala.
Liu Xiang-Hui,Zhu Rong-Ting,Hao Bo,Shi Yan-Wei,Wang Xiao-Guang,Xue Li,Zhao Hu
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience
Glucocorticoids (GCs) can modulate the memory enhancement process during stressful events, and this modulation requires arousal-induced norepinephrine (NE) activation in the basolateral amygdale (BLA). Our previous study found that an intrahippocampal infusion of propranolol dose-dependently induced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like memory impairments. To explore the role of the noradrenergic system of the BLA in PTSD-like memory impairment, we injected various doses of NE into the BLA. We found that only a specific quantity of NE (0.3 μg) could induce PTSD-like memory impairments, accompanied by a reduction in phosphorylation of GluR1 at Ser845 and Ser831. Moreover, this phenomenon could be blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) inhibitor. These findings demonstrate that NE could induce PTSD-like memory impairments regulation of the β-adrenoceptor receptor (β-AR)-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and CaMK II/PKC signaling pathways.
Loss of Prefrontal Cortical Higher Cognition with Uncontrollable Stress: Molecular Mechanisms, Changes with Age, and Relevance to Treatment.
Datta Dibyadeep,Arnsten Amy F T
The newly evolved prefrontal cortex (PFC) generates goals for "top-down" control of behavior, thought, and emotion. However, these circuits are especially vulnerable to uncontrollable stress, with powerful, intracellular mechanisms that rapidly take the PFC "off-line." High levels of norepinephrine and dopamine released during stress engage α1-AR and D1R, which activate feedforward calcium-cAMP signaling pathways that open nearby potassium channels to weaken connectivity and reduce PFC cell firing. Sustained weakening with chronic stress leads to atrophy of dendrites and spines. Understanding these signaling events helps to explain the increased susceptibility of the PFC to stress pathology during adolescence, when dopamine expression is increased in the PFC, and with advanced age, when the molecular "brakes" on stress signaling are diminished by loss of phosphodiesterases. These mechanisms have also led to pharmacological treatments for stress-related disorders, including guanfacine treatment of childhood trauma, and prazosin treatment of veterans and civilians with post-traumatic stress disorder.
Antagonism of lateral amygdala alpha1-adrenergic receptors facilitates fear conditioning and long-term potentiation.
Lazzaro Stephanie C,Hou Mian,Cunha Catarina,LeDoux Joseph E,Cain Christopher K
Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)
Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala terazosin delivered before conditioning enhanced short- and long-term memory. Terazosin delivered after conditioning did not affect consolidation. In vitro, terazosin impaired lateral amygdala inhibitory postsynaptic currents leading to facilitation of excitatory postsynaptic currents and long-term potentiation. Since alpha1 blockers are prescribed for hypertension and post-traumatic stress disorder, these results may have important clinical implications.
Noradrenergic modulation of wakefulness/arousal.
Berridge Craig W,Schmeichel Brooke E,España Rodrigo A
Sleep medicine reviews
The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. Work over the past two decades provides unambiguous evidence that the locus coeruleus, and likely other noradrenergic nuclei, exert potent wake-promoting actions via an activation of noradrenergic β- and α₁-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area, the medial preoptic area and, most recently, the lateral hypothalamus. Conversely, global blockade of β- and α₁-receptors or suppression of norepinephrine release results in profound sedation. The wake-promoting action of central noradrenergic neurotransmission has clinical implications for treatment of sleep/arousal disorders, such as insomnia and narcolepsy, and clinical conditions associated with excessive arousal, such as post-traumatic stress disorder.
Hormonal regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and memory formation.
Krugers Harmen J,Hoogenraad Casper C
Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience
Humans and rodents retain memories for stressful events very well. The facilitated retention of these memories is normally very useful. However, in susceptible individuals a variety of pathological conditions may develop in which memories related to stressful events remain inappropriately present, such as in post-traumatic stress disorder. The memory enhancing effects of stress are mediated by hormones, such as norepinephrine and glucocorticoids which are released during stressful experiences. Here we review recently identified molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of stress hormones on synaptic efficacy and learning and memory. We discuss AMPA receptors as major target for stress hormones and describe a model in which norepinephrine and glucocorticoids are able to strengthen and prolong different phases of stressful memories.
Pharmacological treatment of PTSD - established and new approaches.
Steckler Thomas,Risbrough Victoria
A large proportion of humans will experience a traumatic event at least once in their lifetime, with up to 10% then going on to developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review we will discuss established pharmacological interventions for PTSD as well as highlight novel therapeutic strategies undergoing extensive pre-clinical research as well as ongoing clinical research. Such strategies include prophylactic treatments and use of pharmacotherapy as adjunctive treatment with established trauma-focused psychological therapies. These potential treatment approaches include modulation of stress effects on memory consolidation after trauma (e.g., glucocorticoid, corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine signalling modulators), as well as putative cognitive enhancers that target mechanisms of conditioned fear extinction and reconsolidation (e.g., glucocorticoid receptor modulators and modulators of glutamate signalling such as positive allosteric modulators of glutamate receptors, glycine transporter inhibitors, or glycine agonists). We will discuss evidence for and against these potential novel treatment strategies and their limitations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.
Redundant catecholamine signaling consolidates fear memory via phospholipase C.
Ouyang Ming,Young Matthew B,Lestini Melissa M,Schutsky Keith,Thomas Steven A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Memories for emotionally arousing experiences are typically vivid and persistent. The recurrent, intrusive memories of traumatic events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are an extreme example. Stress-responsive neurotransmitters released during emotional arousal are proposed to enhance the consolidation of fear memory. These transmitters may include norepinephrine and epinephrine (NE/E) because stimulating β-adrenergic receptors shortly after training can enhance memory consolidation. However, mice lacking NE/E acquire and consolidate fear memory normally. Here, we show by using pharmacologic and genetic manipulations in mice and rats that NE/E are not essential for classical fear memory consolidation because signaling by the β(2)-adrenergic receptor is redundant with signaling by dopamine at the D(5)-dopaminergic receptor. The intracellular signaling that is stimulated by these receptors to promote consolidation uses distinct G proteins to redundantly activate phospholipase C. The results support recent evidence indicating that blocking β-adrenergic receptors alone shortly after trauma may not be sufficient to prevent PTSD.
Norepinephrine and corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus predict PTSD-like symptoms in mice.
Kao C-Y,Stalla G,Stalla J,Wotjak C T,Anderzhanova E
The European journal of neuroscience
This study measured changes in brain extracellular norepinephrine (NE) and free corticosterone (CORT) levels in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder and related them to hyperarousal and fear memory retention. To this end, microdialysis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HPC) of male C57BL/6NCrl mice was performed during an acoustic startle response (ASR) and following an electric foot shock (FS), as well as during an ASR and recall of contextual fear (CF) 1 day later. Changes in ASR-stimulated NE levels in the mPFC corresponded to ASR 34 days after FS. Changes in basal and ASR-stimulated extracellular NE levels in the HPC, in contrast, were related to expression of early (day 2) and late (day 34) CF after FS. The increase in extracellular NE levels correlated in a U-shape manner with arousal levels and CF, thus suggesting a non-direct relationship. Stress of different modalities/strength (ASR, FS and CF) caused a similar relative increase in free CORT levels both in the mPFC and the HPC. One day after FS, ASR-induced increases in the CORT content in the mPFC tended to correlate with the FS-potentiated ASR in a U-shape manner. Taken together, these data show that the intracerebral increase in free CORT was likely related to an immediate response to stress, whereas NE neurotransmission in the forebrain predicted arousal and CF 1 month after trauma.
Epinephrine May Contribute to the Persistence of Traumatic Memories in a Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Animal Model.
Martinho Raquel,Oliveira Ana,Correia Gabriela,Marques Márcia,Seixas Rafaela,Serrão Paula,Moreira-Rodrigues Mónica
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience
The importance of catecholamines in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) still needs to be explored. We aimed to evaluate epinephrine's (EPI) causal role and molecular mechanism for the persistence of PTSD traumatic memories. Wild-type (WT) and EPI-deficient mice (phenylethanolamine--methyltransferase-knockout mice, Pnmt-KO) were induced with PTSD and behavioral tests were performed. Some Pnmt-KO mice were administered with EPI or vehicle. Catecholamines were quantified by HPLC-ED. , , and mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time PCR in hippocampus samples. It was observed an increase in EPI and freezing behavior, and a decrease in open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze test and time spent in the light in the light-dark test in WT mice in the PTSD-induction group compared to control. After induction of PTSD, Pnmt-KO mice showed a decrease in freezing, as well as an increase in open arm entries and transitions between compartments compared to WT. After PTSD induction, Pnmt-KO mice administered with EPI showed an increase in freezing compared with the vehicle. On day 0 of PTSD induction, it was observed an increase in mRNA expression of and genes in the hippocampus of WT mice compared to control, contrary to Pnmt-KO mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that EPI may be involved in the persistence of traumatic memories in PTSD, possibly through enhancement of the expression of and genes in the hippocampus. Peripheral administration of EPI restored contextual traumatic memories in Pnmt-KO mice, which suggests a causal role for EPI. The persistence of contextual traumatic memories may contribute to anxiety-like behavior and resistance of traumatic memory extinction in this PTSD mice model.
Locus Coeruleus Norepinephrine Drives Stress-Induced Increases in Basolateral Amygdala Firing and Impairs Extinction Learning.
Giustino Thomas F,Ramanathan Karthik R,Totty Michael S,Miles Olivia W,Maren Stephen
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stress impairs extinction learning, and these deficits depend, in part, on stress-induced norepinephrine (NE) release in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). For example, systemic or intra-BLA administration of propranolol reduces the immediate extinction deficit (IED), an impairment in extinction learning that occurs when extinction trials are administered soon after fear conditioning. Here, we explored whether locus coeruleus (LC)-NE regulates stress-induced changes in spike firing in the BLA and consequent extinction learning impairments. Rats were implanted with recording arrays in the BLA and, after recovery from surgery, underwent a standard auditory fear conditioning procedure. Fear conditioning produced an immediate and dramatic increase in the spontaneous firing of BLA neurons that persisted (and in some units, increased further) up to an hour after conditioning. This stress-induced increase in BLA firing was prevented by systemic administration of propranolol. Conditioning with a weaker footshock caused smaller increases in BLA firing rate, but this could be augmented by chemogenetic activation of the LC. Conditioned freezing in response to a tone paired with a weak footshock was immune to the IED, but chemogenetic activation of the LC before the weak conditioning protocol increased conditioned freezing behavior and induced an IED; this effect was blocked with intra-BLA infusions of propranolol. These data suggest that stress-induced activation of the LC increases BLA spike firing and causes impairments in extinction learning. Stress-induced increases in BLA activity mediated by LC-NE may be a viable therapeutic target for individuals with stress- and trauma-related disorders. Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show heightened amygdala activity; elevated levels of stress hormones, including norepinephrine; and are resistant to the extinction of fear memories. Here, we show that stress increases basolateral amygdala (BLA) spike firing. This could be attenuated by systemic propranolol and mimicked by chemogenetic activation of the locus coeruleus (LC), the source of forebrain norepinephrine (NE). Finally, we show that LC-NE activation is sufficient to produce extinction deficits, and this is blocked by intra-BLA propranolol. Stress-induced increases in BLA activity mediated by LC-NE may be a viable therapeutic target for individuals with PTSD and related disorders.
Differential effects of sertraline in a predator exposure animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.
Wilson C Brad,McLaughlin Leslie D,Ebenezer Philip J,Nair Anand R,Dange Rahul,Harre Joseph G,Shaak Thomas L,Diamond David M,Francis Joseph
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience
Serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and other neurotransmitters are modulated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) are elevated during the progression of the disorder. Currently, the only approved pharmacologic treatments for PTSD are the selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) sertraline and paroxetine, but their efficacy in treating PTSD is marginal at best. In combat-related PTSD, SSRIs are of limited effectiveness. Thus, this study sought to analyze the effects of the SSRI sertraline on inflammation and neurotransmitter modulation via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of PTSD. We hypothesized that sertraline would diminish inflammatory components and increase 5-HT but might also affect levels of other neurotransmitters, particularly NE. PTSD-like effects were induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group × 4 groups). The rats were secured in Plexiglas cylinders and placed in a cage with a cat for 1 h on days 1 and 11 of a 31-day stress regimen. PTSD rats were also subjected to psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. At the conclusion of the stress regimen, treatment group animals were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with sertraline HCl at 10 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days, while controls received i.p. vehicle. The animals were subsequently sacrificed on day 8. Sertraline attenuated inflammatory markers and normalized 5-HT levels in the central nervous system (CNS). In contrast, sertraline produced elevations in NE in the CNS and systemic circulation of SSRI treated PTSD and control groups. This increase in NE suggests SSRIs produce a heightened noradrenergic response, which might elevate anxiety in a clinical setting.