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    Improvement of vascular function by magnetic nanoparticle-assisted circumferential gene transfer into the native endothelium. Vosen Sarah,Rieck Sarah,Heidsieck Alexandra,Mykhaylyk Olga,Zimmermann Katrin,Plank Christian,Gleich Bernhard,Pfeifer Alexander,Fleischmann Bernd K,Wenzel Daniela Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Gene therapy is a promising approach for chronic disorders that require continuous treatment such as cardiovascular disease. Overexpression of vasoprotective genes has generated encouraging results in animal models, but not in clinical trials. One major problem in humans is the delivery of sufficient amounts of genetic vectors to the endothelium which is impeded by blood flow, whereas prolonged stop-flow conditions impose the risk of ischemia. In the current study we have therefore developed a strategy for the efficient circumferential lentiviral gene transfer in the native endothelium under constant flow conditions. For that purpose we perfused vessels that were exposed to specially designed magnetic fields with complexes of lentivirus and magnetic nanoparticles thereby enabling overexpression of therapeutic genes such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This treatment enhanced NO and VEGF production in the transduced endothelium and resulted in a reduction of vascular tone and increased angiogenesis. Thus, the combination of MNPs with magnetic fields is an innovative strategy for site-specific and efficient vascular gene therapy. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.09.024
    Mitochondria-Inspired Nanoparticles with Microenvironment-Adapting Capacities for On-Demand Drug Delivery after Ischemic Injury. Lin Yanxia,Liu Jianfeng,Bai Rui,Shi Jinmiao,Zhu Xiaoming,Liu Jian,Guo Jing,Zhang Wei,Liu Huiliang,Liu Zhiqiang ACS nano Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles (NPs), so-called "smart" NPs, possess great potentials in drug delivery. Presently, the intelligence of smart NPs is mainly based on their chemical or physical changes to stimuli, which are usually "mechanical" and fundamentally different from biological intelligence. Inspired by mitochondria (MT), a biosmart nanoparticle with microenvironment targeting and self-adaptive capacity (MTSNP) was fabricated for ischemic tissue repair. The nanoparticles were designed as shell@circular DNA@shell@core. The double shells were like the two-layered membranes of MT, the melatonin-loaded cores corresponded to the MT matrix, and the circular DNA corresponded to MTDNA. In function, melatonin-loaded cores simulated the cell-protective mechanism of MT, which naturally synthesized melatonin to resist ischemia, while circular DNA was constructed to mimic the biological oxygen-sensing mechanism, synthesizing VEGF for vascularization according to oxygen level, like the ATP supply by MT according to microenvironment demand. At the acute stage of ischemia, melatonin was rapidly released from MTSNP to scavenge reactive oxygen species and activated melatonin receptor I on MT to prevent cytochrome release, which would activate apoptosis. During the chronic stage, circular DNA could sense hypoxia and actively secrete VEGF for revascularization as a response. Importantly, circular DNA could also receive feedback of revascularization and shut down VEGF secretion as an adverse response. Then, the therapeutic potentials of the MTSNP were verified in myocardial ischemia by the multimodality of the methods. Such nanoparticles may represent a promising intelligent nanodrug system. 10.1021/acsnano.0c04727
    A nanomedicine transports a peptide caspase-3 inhibitor across the blood-brain barrier and provides neuroprotection. Karatas Hulya,Aktas Yesim,Gursoy-Ozdemir Yasemin,Bodur Ebru,Yemisci Muge,Caban Secil,Vural Atay,Pinarbasli Onur,Capan Yilmaz,Fernandez-Megia Eduardo,Novoa-Carballal Ramon,Riguera Ricardo,Andrieux Karine,Couvreur Patrick,Dalkara Turgay The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience Caspases play an important role as mediators of cell death in acute and chronic neurological disorders. Although peptide inhibitors of caspases provide neuroprotection, they have to be administered intracerebroventricularly because they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we present a nanocarrier system that can transfer chitosan nanospheres loaded with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-DEVD-FMK), a relatively specific caspase-3 inhibitor, across BBB. Caspase-3 was chosen as a pharmacological target because of its central role in cell death. Polyethylene glycol-coated nanospheres were conjugated to an anti-mouse transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody (TfRMAb) that selectively recognizes the TfR type 1 on the cerebral vasculature. We demonstrate with intravital microscopy that this nanomedicine is rapidly transported across the BBB without being measurably taken up by liver and spleen. Pre- or post-treatment (2 h) with intravenously injected Z-DEVD-FMK-loaded nanospheres dose dependently decreased the infarct volume, neurological deficit, and ischemia-induced caspase-3 activity in mice subjected to 2 h of MCA occlusion and 24 h of reperfusion, suggesting that they released an amount of peptide sufficient to inhibit caspase activity. Similarly, nanospheres inhibited physiological caspase-3 activity during development in the neonatal mouse cerebellum on postnatal day 17 after closure of the BBB. Neither nanospheres functionalized with TfRMAb but not loaded with Z-DEVD-FMK nor nanospheres lacking TfRMAb but loaded with Z-DEVD-FMK had any effect on either paradigm, suggesting that inhibition of caspase activity and subsequent neuroprotection were due to efficient penetration of the peptide into brain. Thus, chitosan nanospheres open new and exciting opportunities for brain delivery of biologically active peptides that are useful for the treatment of CNS disorders. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4246-09.2009
    Nanoparticle-induced neutrophil apoptosis increases survival in sepsis and alleviates neurological damage in stroke. Zhang Can Yang,Dong Xinyue,Gao Jin,Lin Wenjing,Liu Ze,Wang Zhenjia Science advances Human neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes and contribute to acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Neutrophil apoptosis is programed cell death to maintain immune homeostasis, but inflammatory responses to infections or tissue injury disrupt neutrophil death program, leading to many diseases. Precise control of neutrophil apoptosis may resolve inflammation to return immune homeostasis. Here, we report a method in which doxorubicin (DOX)-conjugated protein nanoparticles (NPs) can in situ selectively target inflammatory neutrophils for intracellular delivery of DOX that induces neutrophil apoptosis. We showed that neutrophil uptake of NPs required their activation and was highly selective. DOX release was triggered by acidic environments in neutrophils, subsequently inhibiting neutrophil transmigration and inflammatory responses. In two disease models, DOX-conjugated NPs notably increased mouse survival in sepsis and prevented brain damage in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, but the NPs did not suppress systemic immunity. Our studies offer a promising strategy to treat inflammatory diseases. 10.1126/sciadv.aax7964
    Systemic dendrimer-drug treatment of ischemia-induced neonatal white matter injury. Nance Elizabeth,Porambo Michael,Zhang Fan,Mishra Manoj K,Buelow Markus,Getzenberg Rachel,Johnston Michael,Kannan Rangaramanujam M,Fatemi Ali,Kannan Sujatha Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Extreme prematurity is a major risk factor for perinatal and neonatal brain injury, and can lead to white matter injury that is a precursor for a number of neurological diseases, including cerebral palsy (CP) and autism. Neuroinflammation, mediated by activated microglia and astrocytes, is implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury. Therefore, targeted drug delivery to attenuate neuroinflammation may greatly improve therapeutic outcomes in models of perinatal white matter injury. In this work, we use a mouse model of ischemia-induced neonatal white matter injury to study the biodistribution of generation 4, hydroxyl-functionalized polyamidoamine dendrimers. Following systemic administration of the Cy5-labeled dendrimer (D-Cy5), we demonstrate dendrimer uptake in cells involved in ischemic injury, and in ongoing inflammation, leading to secondary injury. The sub-acute response to injury is driven by astrocytes. Within five days of injury, microglial proliferation and migration occurs, along with limited differentiation of oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte death. From one day to five days after injury, a shift in dendrimer co-localization occurred. Initially, dendrimer predominantly co-localized with astrocytes, with a subsequent shift towards microglia. Co-localization with oligodendrocytes reduced over the same time period, demonstrating a region-specific uptake based on the progression of the injury. We further show that systemic administration of a single dose of dendrimer-N-acetyl cysteine conjugate (D-NAC) at either sub-acute or delayed time points after injury results in sustained attenuation of the 'detrimental' pro-inflammatory response up to 9days after injury, while not impacting the 'favorable' anti-inflammatory response. The D-NAC therapy also led to improvement in myelination, suggesting reduced white matter injury. Demonstration of treatment efficacy at later time points in the postnatal period provides a greater understanding of how microglial activation and chronic inflammation can be targeted to treat neonatal brain injury. Importantly, it may also provide a longer therapeutic window. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.07.009
    Intraperitoneal delivery of acetate-encapsulated liposomal nanoparticles for neuroprotection of the penumbra in a rat model of ischemic stroke. So Po-Wah,Ekonomou Antigoni,Galley Kim,Brody Leigh,Sahuri-Arisoylu Meliz,Rattray Ivan,Cash Diana,Bell Jimmy D International journal of nanomedicine Background:Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition, with metabolic derangement and persistent inflammation enhancing the initial insult of ischaemia. Recombinant tissue plasminogen remains the only effective treatment but limited as therapy must commence soon after the onset of symptoms. Purpose:We investigated whether acetate, which modulates many pathways including inflammation, may attenuate brain injury in stroke. As acetate has a short blood half-life and high amounts irritate the gastrointestinal tract, acetate was administered encapsulated in a liposomal nanoparticle (liposomal-encapsulated acetate, LITA). Methods:Transient ischemia was induced by 90 mins middle-cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley rats, and LITA or control liposomes given intraperitoneally at occlusion and daily for up to two weeks post-MCAO. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to estimate lesion volume at 24 h, 1 and 2 weeks post-MCAO and anterior lateral ventricular volume (ALVv) at 2 weeks post-MCAO. Locomotive behaviour was tested prior to the final MRI scan. After the final scan, brains were collected, and immunohistochemistry was performed. Results:Lesion volumes were decreased by ~80% from 24 h to one-week post-MCAO, in both control and LITA groups (⩽0.05). However, the lesion was increased by ~50% over the subsequent 1 to 2 weeks after MCAO in the control group (from 24.1±10.0 to 58.7±28.6 mm; ⩽0.05) but remained unchanged in the LITA group. ALVv were also attenuated by LITA treatment at 2 weeks post-MCAO (177.2±11.9% and 135.3±10.9% of contralateral ALVv for control and LITA groups, respectively; ⩽0.05). LITA-treated animals also appeared to have improved motor activity, moving with greater average velocity than control animals. Microglial immunoreactivity was ~40% lower in the LITA group compared to the control group (⩽0.05), but LITA did not modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, histone acetylation and lipid peroxidation. Conclusion:LITA appears to attenuate the harmful chronic neuroinflammation observed during brain remodeling after a focal ischemic insult. 10.2147/IJN.S193965