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    Role of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid for hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence from a 10-year experience. Maruyama Hitoshi,Sekimoto Tadashi,Yokosuka Osamu Journal of gastroenterology Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents primary liver cancer. Because the development of HCC limits the prognosis as well as the quality of life of the patients, its management should be properly conducted based on an accurate diagnosis. The liver is the major target organ of ultrasound (US), which is the simple, non-invasive, and real-time imaging method available worldwide. Microbubble-based contrast agents are safe and reliable and have become popular, which has resulted in the improvement of diagnostic performances of US due to the increased detectability of the peripheral blood flow. Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA), a second-generation contrast agent, shows the unique property of accumulation in the liver and spleen. Contrast-enhanced US with Sonazoid is now one of the most frequently used modalities in the practical management of liver tumors, including the detection and characterization of the nodule, evaluation of the effects of non-surgical treatment, intraoperative support, and post-treatment surveillance. This article reviews the 10-year evidence for contrast-enhanced US with Sonazoid in the practical management of HCC. 10.1007/s00535-015-1151-3
    The AFSUMB Consensus Statements and Recommendations for the Clinical Practice of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound using Sonazoid. Lee Jae Young,Minami Yasunori,Choi Byung Ihn,Lee Won Jae,Chou Yi-Hong,Jeong Woo Kyoung,Park Mi-Suk,Kudo Nobuki,Lee Min Woo,Kamata Ken,Iijima Hiroko,Kim So Yeon,Numata Kazushi,Sugimoto Katsutoshi,Maruyama Hitoshi,Sumino Yasukiyo,Ogawa Chikara,Kitano Masayuki,Joo Ijin,Arita Junichi,Liang Ja-Der,Lin Hsi-Ming,Nolsoe Christian,Gilja Odd Helge,Kudo Masatoshi Ultrasonography (Seoul, Korea) The first edition of the guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004, dealing with liver applications. The second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some nonliver applications. The third edition of the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guidelines was the joint World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB-EFSUMB) venture in conjunction with other regional US societies such as Asian Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, resulting in a simultaneous duplicate on liver CEUS in the official journals of both WFUMB and EFSUMB in 2013. However, no guidelines were described mainly for Sonazoid due to limited clinical experience only in Japan and Korea. The new proposed consensus statements and recommendations provide general advice on the use of Sonazoid and are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of Sonazoid in hepatic and pancreatobiliary applications in Asian patients and to improve patient management. 10.14366/usg.20057
    Focal Nodular Hyperplasia of the Liver: Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonographic Features With Sonazoid. Lee Jongmee,Jeong Woo Kyoung,Lim Hyo K,Kim Ah Young Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine OBJECTIVES:To investigate ultrasonographic features of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using Sonazoid (perflubutane; GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). METHODS:Thirty-one patients with 31 focal nodular hyperplasia nodules who underwent CEUS using Sonazoid between July 2012 and February 2015 were included in this study. After the microbubble contrast agent was injected, intermittent CEUS images were obtained during the following 4 phases: arterial (10-40 seconds), portal venous (60-90 seconds), delayed (3 minutes), and Kupffer (>10 minutes). Three abdominal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the images and achieved consensus for vascular (central artery, stellate vascularity, and centrifugal enhancement) and dynamic enhancement patterns during the late arterial, portal venous, delayed, and Kupffer phases. RESULTS:The patients included 12 men and 19 women (age range, 21-82 years; mean, 47 years). The mean diameter of the lesions ± SD was 2.2 ± 0.9 cm (range, 1.0-4.0 cm). On CEUS, 24 of 31 lesions (77.4%) showed central artery and stellate vascularity in the early arterial phase, and 25 (80.6%) showed centrifugal enhancement. Twenty-six lesions (83.9%) were hyperechoic during the late arterial phase and showed hyperenhancement or isoenhancement during the serial dynamic phases. Kupffer-phase images indicated that only 2 lesions (6.5%) were hypoechoic compared with surrounding liver parenchyma, whereas 29 (93.5%) remained either hyperechoic (2 [6.5%]) or isoechoic (27 [87.1%]). CONCLUSIONS:Contrast-enhanced US using Sonazoid for focal nodular hyperplasia showed typical vascular patterns of central artery vascularity, stellate vascularity, and centrifugal enhancement. Most cases were either hyperenhanced or isoenhanced on serial dynamic- and Kupffer-phase imaging. Based on these results, CEUS can provide useful information for noninvasive focal nodular hyperplasia diagnoses. 10.1002/jum.14490
    Kupffer phase image of Sonazoid-enhanced US is useful in predicting a hypervascularization of non-hypervascular hypointense hepatic lesions detected on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI: a multicenter retrospective study. Inoue Tatsuo,Hyodo Tomoko,Korenaga Keiko,Murakami Takamichi,Imai Yasuharu,Higaki Atsushi,Suda Takeshi,Takano Toru,Miyoshi Kennichi,Koda Masahiko,Tanaka Hironori,Iijima Hiroko,Ochi Hironori,Hirooka Masashi,Numata Kazushi,Kudo Masatoshi Journal of gastroenterology BACKGROUND:It remains unknown whether Kupffer-phase images in Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography (US) can be used to predict hypervascularization of borderline lesions. Therefore, we aimed to clarify whether Kupffer-phase images in Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography can predict subsequent hypervascularization in hypovascular borderline lesions detected on hepatobiliary-phase gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS:From January 2008 to March 2012, 616 low-intensity hypovascular nodules were detected in hepatobiliary-phase images of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI at nine institutions. Among these, 167 nodules, which were confirmed as hypovascular by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and Sonazoid-enhanced US, were evaluated in this study. Potential hypervascularization factors were selected based on their clinical significance and the results of previous reports. The Kaplan-Meier model and log-rank test were used for univariate analysis and the Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS:The cumulative incidence of hypervascularization of borderline lesions was 18, 37, and 43 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that tumor size (p = 0.0012) and hypoperfusion on Kupffer-phase images in Sonazoid-enhanced US (p = 0.004) were associated with hypervascularization of the tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size [HR: 1.086, 95 % confidence interval = 1.027-1.148, p = 0.004] and hypo perfusion on Kupffer-phase images [HR: 3.684, 95 % confidence interval = 1.798-7.546, p = 0.0004] were significantly different. CONCLUSIONS:Kupffer-phase images in Sonazoid-enhanced US and tumor diameter can predict hypervascularization of hypointense borderline lesions detected on hepatobiliary-phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. 10.1007/s00535-015-1094-8