Incidences and risk factors of metachronous vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers after cervical cancer diagnosis.
Matsuo Koji,Blake Erin A,Machida Hiroko,Mandelbaum Rachel S,Roman Lynda D,Wright Jason D
OBJECTIVE:To examine incidences and risk factors for metachronous vulvar, vaginal, and anal malignancies after a cervical cancer diagnosis. METHODS:This is a retrospective study examining data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program between 1973 and 2013. Cumulative incidences of vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers after the diagnosis of cervical cancer were assessed (n = 79,050). Multivariable analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for these metachronous cancers. RESULTS:Vaginal cancer (20-year cumulative incidence, 0.57%) was the most common type of metachronous malignancy, followed by vulvar cancer (0.33%), and anal cancer (0.16%, P < 0.001). Median time to diagnosis was 5.4 years for vaginal cancer, 6.5 years for vulvar cancer, and 13.5 years for anal cancer. On multivariable analysis, metachronous vulvar cancer was associated with older age (hazard ratio [HR] per year 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05, P < 0.001), squamous histology (HR 2.64, 95%CI 1.38-5.05, P = 0.003), and radiotherapy use (HR 2.52, 95%CI 1.66-3.84, P < 0.001); metachronous vaginal cancer was associated with older age (HR per year 1.03, 95%CI 1.02-1.04, P < 0.001) and Black race (HR 1.73, 95%CI 1.20-2.48, P = 0.003); and metachronous anal cancer was associated with older age (HR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01-1.05, P = 0.017). Overall survival of metachronous cancer was poor (5-year rates: 46.3% for vulvar, 43.0% for vaginal, and 47.5% for anal cancer, respectively). CONCLUSION:Although rare, the rate of ano-genital cancers continues to increase over time after a cervical cancer diagnosis. Long-term follow-up and surveillance after cervical cancer treatment is therefore reasonable to detect these metachronous malignancies, particularly in those with risk factors.