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    Evaluation of RealStar® Herpesvirus PCR Kit for Detection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV in Clinical Specimens. Yip Cyril C Y,Sridhar Siddharth,Leung Kit-Hang,Cheng Andrew K W,Chan Kwok-Hung,Chan Jasper F W,Cheng Vincent C C,Yuen Kwok-Yung BioMed research international Several commercial PCR kits are available for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV), but the test performance of one CE-marked in vitro diagnostic kit-RealStar® Herpesvirus PCR Kit-has not been well studied. This study evaluated the performance of RealStar® Herpesvirus PCR Kit 1.0 on the LightCycler® 480 Instrument II for detection and differentiation of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV in human clinical specimens. We evaluated the analytical sensitivity of the RealStar® and in-house multiplex real-time PCR assays using serial dilutions of nucleic acids extracted from clinical specimens. The analytical sensitivity of the RealStar® assay was 10, 32, and 100 copies/reaction for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, respectively, which was slightly higher than that of the in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. Reproducibility of the cycle threshold (Cp) values for each viral target was satisfactory with the intra- and interassay coefficient of variation values below 5% for both assays. One-hundred and fifty-three clinical specimens and 15 proficiency testing samples were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of RealStar® Herpesvirus PCR Kit against the in-house multiplex real-time PCR assay. The RealStar® assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to the in-house assay. Cp values of the RealStar® and in-house assays showed excellent correlation. RealStar® Herpesvirus PCR is a sensitive, specific, and reliable assay for the detection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV, with less extensive verification requirements compared to a laboratory developed assay. 10.1155/2019/5715180
    Performance evaluation of the Aptima HSV-1 and 2 assay for the detection of HSV in cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesion specimens. Sam Soya S,Caliendo Angela M,Ingersoll Jessica,Abdul-Ali Deborah,Kraft Colleen S Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology BACKGROUND:Timely and precise laboratory diagnosis of Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) is required to guide clinical management. OBJECTIVES:The study evaluated limit of detection (LOD) and performance characteristics of the Aptima HSV 1 & 2 assay in comparison to four assays. STUDY DESIGN:The multi-center study compared qualitative detection of HSV-1 and 2 by the Aptima HSV-1 and 2 assay (Hologic) to ELVIS culture, Lyra Direct (Quidel), AmpliVue (Quidel) and a laboratory developed test (LDT). LOD was performed using VTM and STM diluted viral concentrations and clinical performance was evaluated using 505 swab specimens. RESULTS:The Aptima LOD studies performed showed a lower detection limit for STM specimens as 1450 copies/mL and 430 copies/mL for HSV1 and HSV-2 respectively; the LOD for VTM specimens was 9370 copies/mL and 8045 copies/mL for HSV-1 and HSV-2 respectively. When the assays were analyzed based on the positive consensus result established the Aptima had 95% of percent positive agreement (PPA) and 100% negative percent agreement (NPA) for the HSV-1. For the HSV-2, the PPA and NPA for Aptima were 96% and 100% respectively. AmpliVue had 1.8% invalid rate, while Lyra had no invalid results but an inhibition rate of 0.8%. Aptima and LDT did not have any invalid or inhibited results. CONCLUSION:The results indicate that the Aptima HSV-1 & 2 assay is sensitive and the performance characteristics of the Aptima assay is comparable to the assays analyzed for the detection and differentiation of HSV-1 and 2 from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions. 10.1016/j.jcv.2017.12.006
    Comparison of Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 PCR with culture, immunofluorescence, and laboratory-developed TaqMan PCR for detection of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens. Gitman Melissa R,Ferguson David,Landry Marie L Journal of clinical microbiology The Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 direct PCR assay was compared with conventional cell culture, cytospin-enhanced direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and a laboratory-developed real-time TaqMan PCR (LDT HSV PCR) using extracted nucleic acid for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in dermal, genital, mouth, ocular, and other swab samples. One hundred seventy-one swabs were tested prospectively, and 58 were positive for HSV (34 HSV-1 and 24 HSV-2). Cytospin-DFA detected 50 (86.2%), conventional cell culture 51 (87.9%), Simplexa direct 55 (94.8%), and LDT HSV PCR 57 (98.3%) of 58 true positives. Simplexa direct detected more positives than DFA and culture, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.0736 and P = 0.3711, respectively, by the McNemar test). Samples that were positive by all methods (n = 48) were strong positives (LDT cycle threshold [CT] value, 14.4 to 26.1). One strongly positive sample was falsely negative by LDT HSV PCR due to a failure of TaqMan probe binding. Three samples falsely negative by Simplexa direct had high CT values by LDT HSV PCR (LDT CT, 35.8 to 38.2). Omission of the DNA extraction step by Simplexa direct led to a drop in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of LDT HSV PCR using extracted samples (94.8% versus 98.3%, respectively), but the difference was not significant (P = 0.6171). Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 direct PCR was the most expensive but required the least training of the assays used, had the lowest hands-on time and fastest assay time (75 min, versus 3 h by LDT HSV PCR), and provided the HSV type. 10.1128/JCM.01413-13
    Serological Profile of HSV-2 in STD Patients: Evaluation of Diagnostic Utility of HSV-2 IgM and IgG Detection. Amudha V P,Rashetha ,Sucilathangam G,Cinthujah B,Revathy C Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:The present study was undertaken to determine Herpes Simplex Virus-2 seroprevalence in sexually active adults aged 20-49 and to investigate the correlation with sociodemographic characteristics and to find its association with other sexually transmitted diseases especially HIV and also to assess the proportion of primary and reactivated HSV-2 cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This prospective study was carried out for a period of six months in a tertiary care hospital. Serum samples were taken from 91 patients attending the out Patient clinic of the Department of Venereology. The serological testing for HSV-2 was performed on all the specimens by using Euroimmun anti-HSV2 (gG2) IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA. RESULTS:Out of the 91 STD patients in the study group, 18 males (34.62%) and 14 females (36.84%) tested positive for HSV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity rate is 35.16%. More number of HSV-2 positive cases were seen among males, older age, rural residence, low socioeconomic status, single marital status, irregular condom usage during the sexual intercourses with new partners and with higher number of sexual partners during lifetime. HSV-2 IgM alone was positive in three cases, HSV-2 IgG alone was positive in 26 cases and three had a positive HSV-2 IgM and IgG result. Addition of IgM testing increased rate of detecting seroconversion, 31.87%, when only IgG ELISA was used, to 35.16 % patients when IgM test was added. In the study group four cases tested positive for VDRL, and one of them was a known positive case. Among the 55 HIV positive cases in the study group, HSV 2 was positive in 17 cases and among the 36 HIV negative cases HSV 2 was positive in 15 cases. (30.91% and 47.22%).Though the number of HIV cases were high, HSV 2 positivity among them was statistically not significant. CONCLUSION:The purpose of screening for HSV-2 is not only to identify seropositivity, but to help seropositive people identify symptoms and protect themselves from acquiring HIV and to protect their partners and seronegative people from acquiring HSV-2 and/or HIV. 10.7860/JCDR/2014/10586.5314
    Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa. Jalouli Miranda-Masoumeh,Jalouli Jamshid,Hasséus Bengt,Öhman Jenny,Hirsch Jan-Michaél,Sand Lars Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal BACKGROUND:It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS:We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. RESULTS:HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. 10.4317/medoral.20630
    AmpliVue Is a Practical and Timely Test for the Detection of HSV From Keratitis Specimens. Kowalski Regis P,Karenchak Lisa M,Dhaliwal Deepinder K,Mammen Alex Eye & contact lens OBJECTIVE:The laboratory diagnostic detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from eye samples must be practical, timely, and definitive for appropriate therapy. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or cell culture can be definitive, HSV results can be delayed. Enzyme Linked Virus Inducible System (ELVIS) is a test that can provide results within 24 to 48 hr. We evaluated "AmpliVue HSV 1+2 Assay" as a molecular colorimetric test that can detect HSV (1 or 2) DNA within 1 hr. METHODS:Cornea/conjunctival samples were tested retrospectively with AmpliVue against 53 true-positive and 20 true-negative specimens collected in chlamydial transport medium. All clinical specimens were tested by cell culture isolation, PCR, and ELVIS for routine patient care. RESULTS:The sensitivity of AmpliVue against ocular samples that were both culture-positive and PCR-positive was 84%. The specificity of AmpliVue was 100%. Only one clinical sample was HSV-2 positive, whereas all others tested positive for HSV-1. Based on PCR-positive and cell culture-negative samples, AmpliVue (11 of 17) tested more positive than ELVIS (0 of 17) (P=0.003, Fisher Exact). CONCLUSIONS:AmpliVue is moderately sensitive and highly specific as a practical and timely diagnostic test for detecting ocular HSV. Expertise is readily achieved and the test is straightforward with easy interpretation. Negative AmpliVue testing must be confirmed with PCR. AmpliVue has potential as an office-based diagnostic test. 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000393
    Multicenter Evaluation of Meridian Bioscience HSV 1&2 Molecular Assay for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 from Clinical Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Specimens. Faron Matthew L,Ledeboer Nathan A,Patel Anami,Beqa Safedin H,Yen-Lieberman Belinda,Kohn Debra,Leber Amy L,Mayne Donna,Northern William I,Buchan Blake W Journal of clinical microbiology Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes acute and relapsing symptoms characterized by ulcerative lesions. Laboratory diagnosis of HSV in cutaneous or mucocutaneous lesions has historically been performed with the use of viral cell culture systems; however, these tests are laborious and suffer decreased sensitivity for advanced-stage lesions. The recent availability of FDA-cleared moderately complex assays has resulted in the increased use of molecular diagnostics for the routine detection of HSV in superficial swab specimens. We performed a clinical evaluation of the recently FDA-cleared illumigene HSV 1&2 loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati OH) for the detection and differentiation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in cutaneous and mucocutaneous swab specimens. A total of 1,153 clinical swab specimens were collected and tested at 7 different clinical centers. Each specimen was tested for the presence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 using the illumigene assay, and results were compared to those of the enzyme-linked virus-inducible system (ELVIS) as the reference method. Overall, the illumigene assay demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 94.8% and 95.5%, respectively, for the detection of HSV-1. Detection of HSV-2 was similar, with a sensitivity of 98.9% and a specificity of 95.5%. Discrepant analysis was performed using an alternative molecular test (AmpliVue HSV1+2 assay; Quidel Molecular, San Diego, CA) on 91/99 specimens that were recorded as false positive (FP) or false negative (FN) compared to the reference method. In total, 57/78 (73%) FP and 9/13 (69%) FN illumigene results were supported by the AmpliVue result. The illumigene HSV 1&2 assay demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity to detect and differentiate HSV in clinical specimens and identified 57 additional specimens that were positive for HSV compared to culture. The use of LAMP eliminates the need for the cycling of temperatures and provides results in less than 60 min, with approximately 2 min of hands-on time per specimen. 10.1128/JCM.00483-16
    A high resolution melting (HRM) technology-based assay for cost-efficient clinical detection and genotyping of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2. Lieveld M,Carregosa A,Benoy I,Redzic N,Berth M,Vanden Broeck D Journal of virological methods Genital herpes can be caused by two very similar viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 or HSV-2. These two HSV types cannot be distinguished clinically, but genotyping is recommended in the first-episodes of genital herpes to guide counselling and management. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the preferred diagnostic method for HSV typing. However, commercial qPCR methods use expensive fluorescent labeled probes for detection. Furthermore, most low-cost methods are not able to differentiate between HSV-1 and -2. The aim of this study was to develop a high resolution melting (HRM) technology-based assay for sensitive HSV-1 and HSV-2 detection and genotyping. Using a panel of 46 clinical specimens, the performance of the HRM assay was compared to two commercial HSV tests: the HRM assay detected HSV in all 23 positive samples, with no false positive results (100% concordance with HSV I/II Real-TM assay). Additionally, the HRM assay correctly genotyped both HSV types in a subset of these clinical samples, as determined by the Realstar HSV PCR Kit. The HSV HRM assay provides a cost-effective alternative method to conventional more expensive assays and can be used in routine clinical specimens, in cases where it is particularly necessary to detect and distinguish HSV-1 from -2. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.07.005
    Comparative clinical evaluation of the IsoAmp(®) HSV Assay with ELVIS(®) HSV culture/ID/typing test system for the detection of herpes simplex virus in genital and oral lesions. Miller Nancy S,Yen-Lieberman Belinda,Poulter Melinda D,Tang Yi-Wei,Granato Paul A Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology BACKGROUND:The novel IsoAmp(®) HSV Assay employs isothermal helicase-dependent nucleic acid amplification and a user-friendly disposable test device to achieve rapid (<1.5h), on-demand qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 in oral and genital lesions. OBJECTIVES:To compare performance of the IsoAmp(®) HSV Assay with the ELVIS(®) HSV ID/typing (shell-vial culture and DFA) test system for clinical specimens collected from oral and genital lesions in symptomatic patients. STUDY DESIGN:A total of 994 specimens from male and female genital and oral lesions were obtained and evaluated at five study sites in the United States. Results from the IsoAmp(®) HSV Assay were compared to those from the ELVIS(®) system. Separate reproducibility studies were performed at 3 sites using a blinded and randomized study panel. Discrepant specimens were resolved by bidirectional sequencing analysis. RESULTS:After discrepant analysis, overall agreement of IsoAmp(®) with ELVIS(®) was 98.8% with 37.0% overall prevalence (all study sites). Reproducibility rates were well within expectations. CONCLUSION:The IsoAmp(®) HSV Assay showed excellent performance for clinical use for detection of HSV in genital and oral specimens. In contrast to ELVIS(®), IsoAmp(®) HSV offers excellent sensitivity plus rapid on-demand testing and simpler specimen preparation. 10.1016/j.jcv.2012.04.004
    Added value of ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) approach for detection of genotypic antiviral resistance of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Mercier-Darty Mélanie,Boutolleau David,Rodriguez Christophe,Burrel Sonia Antiviral research Classically, Sanger sequencing is considered the gold standard for detection of HSV drug resistance mutations (DRMs). As a complementary method, ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) has an improved ability to detect minor variants and mixed populations. The aim of this work was to apply UDS performed on MiSeq Illumina platform to the detection of HSV DRMs and to the evaluation of the subpopulation diversity in clinical samples in comparison with Sanger sequencing. A total of 59 HSV-positive clinical samples (31 HSV-1 and 28 HSV-2) recovered from 50 patients mainly immunocompromised (70%) were retrospectively analyzed. Remarkably, UDS analysis revealed significant differences of relative abundance according to the type of DRMs within TK and Pol: natural polymorphisms and amino acid changes associated with resistance to antivirals were identified as high-abundant mutations (>96%), whereas TK frameshifts conferring resistance to ACV were systematically detected at lower abundance (≈80%). This work also revealed that UDS can detect low-frequency DRMs and provides extensive information on viral population composition. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.05.017
    Detection of type-specific antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2: comparative analysis of a chemiluminescence immunoassay with a conventional ELISA. Maters Amelia W,Wright Christina V,Lee Maria Teresa,Schwichtenberg Greta,Detrick Barbara Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease Type-specific serologic tests for human herpes simplex virus (HSV) are critically important for sexually transmitted disease evaluation. We compared the LIAISON® HSV-1 and HSV-2 Type Specific assays relative to an established commercial ELISA. The overall agreement of the chemiluminescence immunoassay versus the ELISA assay was 99.6% (HSV-1) and 100% (HSV-2). The LIAISON® methodology has several advantages. 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.03.023