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    Multi-Disciplinary Approaches for Cell-Based Cartilage Regeneration. Johnstone Brian,Stoddart Martin J,Im Gun-Il Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society Articular cartilage does not regenerate in adults. A lot of time and resources have been dedicated to cartilage regeneration research. The current understanding suggests that multi-disciplinary approach including biologic, genetic, and mechanical stimulations may be needed for cell-based cartilage regeneration. This review summarizes contents of a workshop sponsored by International Combined Orthopaedic Societies during the 2019 annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society held in Austin, Texas. Three approaches for cell-based cartilage regeneration were introduced, including cellular basis of chondrogenesis, gene-enhanced cartilage regeneration, and physical modulation to divert stem cells to chondrogenic cell fate. While the complicated nature of cartilage regeneration has not allowed us to achieve successful regeneration of hyaline articular cartilage so far, the utilization of multi-disciplinary approaches in various fields of biomedical engineering will provide means to achieve this goal faster. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 38:463-472, 2020. 10.1002/jor.24458