Hypocholesterolemic Effect of the Lignin-Rich Insoluble Residue of Brewer's Spent Grain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.
Raza Ghulam Shere,Maukonen Johanna,Makinen Markus,Niemi Piritta,Niiranen Laura,Hibberd Ashley A,Poutanen Kaisa,Buchert Johanna,Herzig Karl-Heinz
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Insoluble residue (INS) is a lignin-rich fraction of brewer's spent grain (BSG) that also contains β-glucan and arabinoxylan, the major constituents of dietary fiber. We investigated the effects of INS in diet-induced obese mice in terms of lipid metabolism and metabolic diseases. Male mice (C57bl6) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a HFD + 20% INS, a HFD + 20% cellulose (CEL), a HFD with a combination of 20% INS-CEL (1:1), or a control diet for 14 weeks. Insulin and glucose tolerance tests were performed after 12 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids, bile acid, and fecal bile acid were measured after 14 weeks of feeding, and tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight gain was significantly reduced with all fibers, but only INS and INS-CEL decreased fasting plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol compared to HFD. CEL and INS-CEL significantly improved insulin resistance. Fecal bile acids were significantly increased by all fibers, but there was no change in plasma bile acid. Clostridium leptum was increased with all fibers, but universal bacterial diversity was only with INS and INS-CEL. In addition, INS significantly increased the abundance of Bacteriodes, while CEL decreased Atopobium and Lactobacillus. INS feeding significantly upregulated various genes of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, such as Srebp2, Hmgcr, Ldlr, Cyp7a1, Pparα, Fxr, and Pxr, in the liver. INS, INS-CEL, and CEL significantly attenuated liver steatosis. Our results suggest that INS from BSG induced beneficial systemic changes in mice via gut microbiota, bile acids, and gene expression in the liver.