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    MicroRNA-182 supplies negative feedback regulation to ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI in mice by targeting TLR4. Yang Jing,Chen Yu,Jiang Kangfeng,Zhao Gan,Guo Shuai,Liu Junfeng,Yang Yaping,Deng Ganzhen Journal of cellular physiology Acute lung injury (ALI), characterized by increased excessive pulmonary inflammation, is a pervasive inflammatory disease with clinically high incidence. MicroRNA (miRNAs) have been associated with the progression of multiple diseases and are regarded as novel regulators of inflammation. However, it remains largely unknown whether the miRNAs-mediated regulatory mechanism has an effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in ALI. We discovered that miR-182 distinctly lessened expression in the lung tissue of mice with ALI and macrophages stimulated by LPS. We also found that overexpression of miR-182 significantly cut down the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while this change was reversed by inhibition of miR-182. In addition, miR-182 suppressed the activation of NF-κB by targeting TLR4 expression. And it was confirmed that miR-182 directly regulated TLR4 expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3'-UTR of TLR4. Together, these data suggested that inhibition of TLR4 expression assuaged LPS-stimulated inflammation through negative feedback regulation of miR-182. 10.1002/jcp.29504
    Knockdown of lncRNA MALAT1 Alleviates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Inhibiting Apoptosis Through the miR-194-5p/FOXP2 Axis. Nan Chuan-Chuan,Zhang Ning,Cheung Kenneth C P,Zhang Hua-Dong,Li Wei,Hong Cheng-Ying,Chen Huai-Sheng,Liu Xue-Yan,Li Nan,Cheng Lixin Frontiers in cell and developmental biology Purpose:We aimed to identify and verify the key genes and lncRNAs associated with acute lung injury (ALI) and explore the pathogenesis of ALI. Research showed that lower expression of the lncRNA metastasis-associated lung carcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) alleviates lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Nevertheless, the mechanisms of MALAT1 on cellular apoptosis remain unclear in LPS-stimulated ALI. We investigated the mechanism of MALAT1 in modulating the apoptosis of LPS-induced human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC). Methods:Differentially expressed lncRNAs between the ALI samples and normal controls were identified using gene expression profiles. ALI-related genes were determined by the overlap of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), genes correlated with lung, genes correlated with key lncRNAs, and genes sharing significantly high proportions of microRNA targets with MALAT1. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was applied to detect the expression of MALAT1, microRNA (miR)-194-5p, and forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) mRNA in 1 μg/ml LPS-treated HPAEpiC. MALAT1 knockdown vectors, miR-194-5p inhibitors, and ov-FOXP2 were constructed and used to transfect HPAEpiC. The influence of MALAT1 knockdown on LPS-induced HPAEpiC proliferation and apoptosis via the miR-194-5p/FOXP2 axis was determined using Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry, and Western blotting analysis, respectively. The interactions between MALAT1, miR-194-5p, and FOXP2 were verified using dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Results:We identified a key lncRNA (MALAT1) and three key genes (EYA1, WNT5A, and FOXP2) that are closely correlated with the pathogenesis of ALI. LPS stimulation promoted MALAT1 expression and apoptosis and also inhibited HPAEpiC viability. MALAT1 knockdown significantly improved viability and suppressed the apoptosis of LPS-stimulated HPAEpiC. Moreover, MALAT1 directly targeted miR-194-5p, a downregulated miRNA in LPS-stimulated HPAEpiC, when FOXP2 was overexpressed. MALAT1 knockdown led to the overexpression of miR-194-5p and restrained FOXP2 expression. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-194-5p exerted a rescue effect on MALAT1 knockdown of FOXP2, whereas the overexpression of FOXP2 reversed the effect of MALAT1 knockdown on viability and apoptosis of LPS-stimulated HPAEpiC. Conclusion:Our results demonstrated that MALAT1 knockdown alleviated HPAEpiC apoptosis by competitively binding to miR-194-5p and then elevating the inhibitory effect on its target FOXP2. These data provide a novel insight into the role of MALAT1 in the progression of ALI and potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ALI patients. 10.3389/fcell.2020.586869
    Inhibition of Class IIa HDACs improves endothelial barrier function in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Kovacs-Kasa Anita,Kovacs Laszlo,Cherian-Shaw Mary,Patel Vijay,Meadows Mary L,Fulton David J,Su Yunchao,Verin Alexander D Journal of cellular physiology Acute lung injury (ALI) is an acute inflammatory process arises from a wide range of lung insults. A major cause of ALI is dysfunction of the pulmonary vascular endothelial barrier but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases is increasingly apparent, but the mechanisms by which HDACs regulate pulmonary vascular barrier function remain to be resolved. We found that specific Class IIa HDACs inhibitor, TMP269, significantly attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) barrier compromise in vitro and improved vascular barrier integrity and lung function in murine model of ALI in vivo. TMP269 decreased LPS-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation suggesting the role for Class IIa HDACs in LPS-induced cytoskeleton reorganization. TMP269 did not affect microtubule structure and tubulin acetylation in contrast to the HDAC6-specific inhibitor, Tubastatin A suggesting that Class IIa HDACs and HDAC6 (Class IIb) regulate endothelial cytoskeleton and permeability via different mechanisms. Furthermore, LPS increased the expression of ArgBP2 which has recently been attributed to HDAC-mediated activation of Rho. Depletion of ArgBP2 abolished the ability of LPS to disrupt barrier function in HLMVEC and both TMP269 and Tubastatin A decreased the level of ArgBP2 expression after LPS stimulation suggesting that both Class IIa and IIb HDACs regulate endothelial permeability via ArgBP2-dependent mechanism. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that Class IIa HDACs are involved in LPS-induced ALI in vitro and in vivo via specific mechanism which involved contractile responses, but not microtubule reorganization. 10.1002/jcp.30053
    Inhibition of Pendrin by a small molecule reduces Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute Lung Injury. Lee Eun Hye,Shin Mi Hwa,Gi Mia,Park Jinhong,Song Doona,Hyun Young-Min,Ryu Ji-Hwan,Seong Je Kyung,Jeon Yoon,Han Gyoonhee,Namkung Wan,Park Moo Suk,Choi Jae Young Theranostics Pendrin is encoded by and its mutation leads to congenital hearing loss. Additionally, pendrin is up-regulated in inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. In this study, the effects of a novel pendrin inhibitor, YS-01, were investigated in an LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice model, and the mechanism underlying the effect of YS-01 was examined. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg/kg) was intranasally instilled in wild type (WT) and pendrin-null mice. YS-01 (10 mg/kg) was administered intra-peritoneally before or after LPS inhalation. Lung injury parameters were assessed in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Pendrin levels in the BALF of 41 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to pneumonia and 25 control (solitary pulmonary nodule) patients were also measured. LPS instillation induced lung injury in WT mice but not in pendrin-null mice. Pendrin expression was increased by LPS stimulation both and . YS-01 treatment dramatically attenuated lung injury and reduced BALF cell counts and protein concentration after LPS instillation in WT mice. Proinflammatory cytokines and NFB activation were suppressed by YS-01 treatment in LPS-induced ALI mice. In BALF of patients whose ARDS was caused by pneumonia, pendrin expression was up-regulated compared to that in controls (mean, 24.86 vs. 6.83 ng/mL, 0.001). A novel pendrin inhibitor, YS-01, suppressed lung injury in LPS-induced ALI mice and our data provide a new strategy for the treatment of inflammatory airway diseases including sepsis-induced ALI. 10.7150/thno.46417
    Gut microbiome a promising target for management of respiratory diseases. Trivedi Riddhi,Barve Kalyani The Biochemical journal The intestinal microbial flora has risen to be one of the important etiological factors in the development of diseases like colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, anxiety and Parkinson's. The emergence of the association between bacterial flora and lungs led to the discovery of the gut-lung axis. Dysbiosis of several species of colonic bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and transfer of these bacteria from gut to lungs via lymphatic and systemic circulation are associated with several respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, etc. Current therapies for dysbiosis include use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics to restore the balance between various species of beneficial bacteria. Various approaches like nanotechnology and microencapsulation have been explored to increase the permeability and viability of probiotics in the body. The need of the day is comprehensive study of mechanisms behind dysbiosis, translocation of microbiota from gut to lung through various channels and new technology for evaluating treatment to correct this dysbiosis which in turn can be used to manage various respiratory diseases. Microfluidics and organ on chip model are emerging technologies that can satisfy these needs. This review gives an overview of colonic commensals in lung pathology and novel systems that help in alleviating symptoms of lung diseases. We have also hypothesized new models to help in understanding bacterial pathways involved in the gut-lung axis as well as act as a futuristic approach in finding treatment of respiratory diseases caused by dysbiosis. 10.1042/BCJ20200426
    Protective effects of melatonin and quercetin on experimental lung injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Taslidere Elif,Esrefoglu Mukaddes,Elbe Hulya,Cetin Asli,Ates Burhan Experimental lung research INTRODUCTION:Exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a well-known toxicant, causes tissue damage by inducing oxidative stress via formation of free radicals. The fundamental structure of the organs of rats and humans is similar, so administration of CCl4 to rats is an accepted experimental model to produce oxidative damage to various tissues including pulmonary tissue. In this study, we evaluated the protective capacity of melatonin and quercetin against CCl4-induced oxidative lung damage in rats. MATERIAL-METHODS:Rats were divided into five groups each containing seven rats as follows: Control group, Olive oil group CCl4 group, CCl4+Melatonin, and CCl4+Quercetin group. The tissue samples were processed by routine histological and biochemical procedures. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histopathologic damage score was calculated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activities were assayed. RESULTS:The lung sections of control groups showed normal histological characteristics. Fibrosis, interstitial hemorrhage, epithelial desquamation in bronchiole and alveoli, intra-alveolar edema, leukocyte, and macrophage infiltration were observed in lung sections of rats exposed to CCl4 alone. The findings were reduced in the treatments groups. The MDA level in the CCI4 group were significantly higher than in the other groups (p < .001), and the CAT and GSH levels in the CCI4+Mel and CCI4+Quer groups were significantly higher than in the CCI4 group (p < .05). CONCLUSION:In conclusion, we suggest that agents with antioxidant properties such as melatonin and quercetin may have positive effects in the treatment of pulmonary diseases characterized by especially edema, inflammation, and fibrosis. 10.3109/01902148.2013.866181
    Melatonin alleviates acute lung injury through inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome. Zhang Yong,Li Xiru,Grailer Jamison J,Wang Na,Wang Mingming,Yao Jianfei,Zhong Rui,Gao George F,Ward Peter A,Tan Dun-Xian,Li Xiangdong Journal of pineal research Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are clinically severe respiratory disorders, and there are currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved drug therapies. Melatonin is a well-known anti-inflammatory molecule, which has proven to be effective in ALI induced by many conditions. Emerging studies suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role during ALI. How melatonin directly blocks activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in ALI remains unclear. In this study, using an LPS-induced ALI mouse model, we found intratracheal (i.t.) administration of melatonin markedly reduced the pulmonary injury and decreased the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into lung. During ALI, the NLRP3 inflammasome is significantly activated with a large amount of IL-1β and the activated caspase-1 occurring in the lung. Melatonin inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by both suppressing the release of extracellular histones and directly blocking histone-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Notably, i.t. route of melatonin administration opens a more efficient therapeutic approach for treating ALI. 10.1111/jpi.12322
    Melatonin Alleviates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury via Regulation of miR-30e/NLRP3 Axis. Wu Xu,Ji Haiying,Wang Yuli,Gu Chenlin,Gu Wenyu,Hu Lijuan,Zhu Lei Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Melatonin is a well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant molecule, which plays a crucial role in various physiological functions. In this study, mice received a single dose of 15 Gy radiation delivered to the lungs and daily intraperitoneal administration of melatonin. After 7 days, mice were processed to harvest either bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for cytokine assays or lungs for flow cytometry and histopathological studies. Herein, we showed that melatonin markedly alleviated the oxidative stress and injury, especially suppressing the infiltration of macrophages (CD11b+CD11c-) and neutrophils (CD11b+Ly6G+) to the irradiated lungs. Moreover, in the irradiated RAW 264.7 cells, melatonin blocked the NLRP3 inflammasome activation accompanied with the inhibition of the IL-1 release and caspase-1 activity. However, melatonin restored the downregulated miR-30e levels. Quantitative PCR analysis of miR-30e and NLRP3 indicated the negative correlation between them. Notably, immunofluorescence staining showed that overexpression of miR-30e dramatically diminished the increased NLRP3 expression. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that NLRP3 was a target gene of miR-30e. Western blotting revealed that transfection with miR-30e mimics markedly reduced the expressions of NLRP3 and cleaved caspase-1, whereas this phenomenon was reversed by the miR-30e inhibitor. Consistent with this, the beneficial effect of melatonin under irradiated exposure was blunted in cells transfected with anti-miR-30e. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome contributed to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury. Meanwhile, melatonin exerted its protective effect through negatively regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. The melatonin-mediated miR-30e/NLRP3 signaling may provide novel therapeutic targets for radiation-induced injury. 10.1155/2019/4087298
    Diet-induced alterations in gut microflora contribute to lethal pulmonary damage in TLR2/TLR4-deficient mice. Ji Yewei,Sun Shengyi,Goodrich Julia K,Kim Hana,Poole Angela C,Duhamel Gerald E,Ley Ruth E,Qi Ling Cell reports Chronic intake of Western diet has driven an epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but how it induces mortality remains unclear. Here, we show that chronic intake of a high-fat diet (HFD), not a low-fat diet, leads to severe pulmonary damage and mortality in mice deficient in Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (DKO). Diet-induced pulmonary lesions are blocked by antibiotic treatment and are transmissible to wild-type mice upon either cohousing or fecal transplantation, pointing to the existence of bacterial pathogens. Indeed, diet and innate deficiency exert significant impact on gut microbiota composition. Thus, chronic intake of HFD promotes severe pulmonary damage and mortality in DKO mice in part via gut dysbiosis, a finding that may be important for immunodeficient patients, particularly those on chemotherapy or radiotherapy, where gut-microbiota-caused conditions are often life threatening. 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.05.040