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    Use of MSCs and MSC-educated macrophages to mitigate hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome. Chinnadurai Raghavan,Forsberg Matthew H,Kink John A,Hematti Peiman,Capitini Christian M Current stem cell reports Purpose of Review:Innovative and minimally toxic treatment approaches are sorely needed for the prevention and treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS). Cell therapies have been increasingly studied for their potential use as countermeasures for accidental and intentional ionizing radiation exposures which can lead to fatal ARS. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a cell therapy that have shown promising results in preclinical studies of ARS, and are being developed in clinical trials specifically for H-ARS. MSCs, MSC-educated macrophages (MEMs) and MSC-exosome educated macrophages (EEMs) all have the potential to be used as adoptive cell therapies for H-ARS. Here we review how MSCs have been reported to mitigate inflammation from radiation injury while also stimulating hematopoiesis during ARS. Recent findings:We discuss emerging work with immune cell subsets educated by MSCs, including MEMs and EEMs, in promoting hematopoiesis in xenogeneic models of ARS. We also discuss the first placental-derived MSC product to enter phase I trials, PLX-R18, and the challenges faced by bringing MSC and other cell therapies into the clinic for treating ARS. Summary:Although MSCs, MEMs and EEMs are potential cell therapy candidates in promoting hematopoietic HRS, challenges persist in translational clinical development of these products to the clinic. Whether any of these cellular therapies will be sufficient as stand-alone therapies to mitigate H-ARS or if they will be a bridging therapy that insures survival until a curative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant can be performed are the key questions that will have to be answered. 10.1007/s40778-020-00176-0
    WAG/RijCmcr rat models for injuries to multiple organs by single high dose ionizing radiation: similarities to nonhuman primates (NHP). Fish Brian L,MacVittie Thomas J,Szabo Aniko,Moulder John E,Medhora Meetha International journal of radiation biology Defined animal models are needed to pursue the FDA Animal Rule for approval of medical countermeasure for radiation injuries. This study compares WAG/RijCmcr rat and nonhuman primate (NHP) models for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE). Irradiation models include total body irradiation, partial body irradiation with bone marrow sparing and whole thorax lung irradiations. Organ-specific sequelae of radiation injuries were compared using dose-response relationships. Rats and NHP manifest similar organ dysfunctions after radiation, starting with acute gastrointestinal (GI-ARS) and hematopoietic (H-ARS) syndromes followed by lung, heart and kidney toxicities. Humans also manifest these sequelae. Latencies for injury were earlier in rats than in NHP. After whole thorax lung irradiations (WTLI) up to 13 Gy, there was recovery of lung function from pneumonitis in rats. This has not been evaluated in NHP. The latency, incidence, severity and progression of radiation pneumonitis was not influenced by early multi-organ injury from ARS in rats or NHP. Rats developed more severe radiation nephropathy than NHP, and also progressed more rapidly. Dosimetry, anesthesia, environment, supportive care, euthanasia criteria etc., may account for the alterations in radiation sensitivity observed between species. 10.1080/09553002.2018.1554921
    Macrophages Educated with Exosomes from Primed Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treat Acute Radiation Syndrome by Promoting Hematopoietic Recovery. Kink John A,Forsberg Matthew H,Reshetylo Sofiya,Besharat Soroush,Childs Charlie J,Pederson Jessica D,Gendron-Fitzpatrick Annette,Graham Melissa,Bates Paul D,Schmuck Eric G,Raval Amish,Hematti Peiman,Capitini Christian M Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation In the setting of radiation-induced trauma, exposure to high levels of radiation can cause an acute radiation syndrome (ARS) causing bone marrow (BM) failure, leading to life-threatening infections, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. We have previously shown that human macrophages educated with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by coculture can significantly enhance survival of mice exposed to lethal irradiation. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes isolated from MSCs could replace direct coculture with MSCs to generate exosome educated macrophages (EEMs). Functionally unique phenotypes were observed by educating macrophages with exosomes from MSCs (EEMs) primed with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at different concentrations (LPS-low EEMs or LPS-high EEMs). LPS-high EEMs were significantly more effective than uneducated macrophages, MSCs, EEMs, or LPS-low EEMs in extending survival after lethal ARS in vivo. Moreover, LPS-high EEMs significantly reduced clinical signs of radiation injury and restored hematopoietic tissue in the BM and spleen as determined by complete blood counts and histology. LPS-high EEMs showed significant increases in gene expression of STAT3, secretion of cytokines like IL-10 and IL-15, and production of growth factors like FLT-3L. LPS-EEMs also showed increased phagocytic activity, which may aid with tissue remodeling. LPS-high EEMs have the potential to be an effective cellular therapy for the management of ARS. 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.026