The Feasibility of Serum Multiple Tumor Markers Test Between Patients with Primary Pancreatic Cancer and Those with Benign Pancreatic Cystic Disease.
Lee Jai Hyuen
BACKGROUND:Although CA 19-9 is the primary marker used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, other serum tumor markers have also been utilized in the follow-up of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the clinical utility of CYFRA 21-1, AFP, CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125, NSE, and combinations of these markers in patients with pancreatic cancer. METHODS:We enrolled patients with primary pancreatic cancer and benign pancreatic cystic disease (n = 163). We performed sensitivity tests for multiple tumor markers, plotted receiver operating characteristic curves, and conducted multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard method. Survival data were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival. RESULTS:Among multiple tumor markers assessed in this study, CA 19-9 showed good diagnostic performance, with an area under the curve of 0.86 ± 0.04 in ROC analysis. Based on two different cutoff values, CYFRA 21-1 (≥ 2.0 and 1.83 ng/mL) had a respective sensitivity of 80.4% and 82.3% and was also more significant than the other tumor markers in a parallel test. There was a weak significant relationship between tumoral fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and CYFRA 21-1 or CA 19-9. Initial CA 125, CYFRA 21-1, and CEA could be utilized to categorize subgroups with different overall survival. In multivariate analyses, CA 125 (HR 18.8, p < 0.001) and CYFRA 21-1 levels (HR 0.962, p = 0.006) demonstrated independent prognostic significance for predicting overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to CA 19-9, the present study suggested that various tumor markers could be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are warranted to confirm the clinical usefulness of diverse biological markers in pancreatic cancer.
Markers of pancreatic cancer: working toward early detection.
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Because early detection of pancreatic cancer is the best way to cure this disease, investigators continue to try to identify accurate markers of early pancreatic cancer. Because early-stage pancreatic cancer is generally asymptomatic, the only reliable way to detect it is by targeting individuals at increased risk for pancreatic screening.
Circulating pancreatic cancer exosomal RNAs for detection of pancreatic cancer.
Kitagawa Tatsuya,Taniuchi Keisuke,Tsuboi Makiko,Sakaguchi Masahiko,Kohsaki Takuhiro,Okabayashi Takehiro,Saibara Toshiji
Diagnostic biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer are needed to improve prognosis for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the expression of four messenger RNAs (mRNAs: CCDC88A, ARF6, Vav3, and WASF2) and five small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs: SNORA14B, SNORA18, SNORA25, SNORA74A, and SNORD22) in serum of patients with pancreatic cancer and control participants for use in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Results were compared with the expression of sialylated Lewis (a) blood group antigen CA19-9, the standard clinical tumor biomarker. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR showed that all of the mRNAs and snoRNAs, except CCDC88A, were encapsulated in exosomes and secreted from cultured pancreatic cancer cells, and present in cell culture medium. In a discovery-stage clinical study involving 27 pancreatic cancer patients and 13 controls, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of two mRNAs (WASF2 and ARF6) and two snoRNAs (SNORA74A and SNORA25) was > 0.9 for distinguishing pancreatic cancer patients from controls; the AUC of CA19-9 was 0.897. Comparing serum levels of WASF2, ARF6, SNORA74A, SNORA25, and CA19-9 revealed that levels of WASF2 were the most highly correlated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. The AUCs of WASF2, ARF6, SNORA74A, and SNORA25 in serum from patients in the early stages of pancreatic cancer (stages 0, I, and IIA) were > 0.9, compared with an AUC of 0.93 for the level of CA19-9. The results of this study suggest that WASF2, ARF6, SNORA74A, and SNORA25 may be useful tools for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Monitoring serum levels of WASF2 mRNA may be particularly useful, as it was the most highly correlated with pancreatic cancer risk.
Mizrahi Jonathan D,Surana Rishi,Valle Juan W,Shroff Rachna T
Lancet (London, England)
Pancreatic cancer is a highly fatal disease with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 10% in the USA, and it is becoming an increasingly common cause of cancer mortality. Risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include family history, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and tobacco use. Patients typically present with advanced disease due to lack of or vague symptoms when the cancer is still localised. High quality computed tomography with intravenous contrast using a dual phase pancreatic protocol is typically the best method to detect a pancreatic tumour and to determine surgical resectability. Endoscopic ultrasound is an increasingly used complementary staging modality which also allows for diagnostic confirmation when combined with fine needle aspiration. Patients with pancreatic cancer are often divided into one of four categories based on extent of disease: resectable, borderline resectable, locally advanced, and metastatic; patient condition is also an important consideration. Surgical resection represents the only chance for cure, and advancements in adjuvant chemotherapy have improved long-term outcomes in these patients. Systemic chemotherapy combinations including FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, folinic acid [leucovorin], irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel remain the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced disease. Data on the benefit of PARP inhibition as maintenance therapy in patients with germline BRCA1 or BRACA2 mutations might prove to be a harbinger of advancement in targeted therapy. Additional research efforts are focusing on modulating the pancreatic tumour microenvironment to enhance the efficacy of the immunotherapeutic strategies.