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    C-reactive protein is an independent predictor for 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery: A retrospective analysis. Kim Byung-Gun,Lee Young-Kyun,Park Hee-Pyoung,Sohn Hye-Min,Oh Ah-Young,Jeon Young-Tae,Koo Kyung-Hoi Medicine Numerous factors are associated with mortality after hip fracture surgery in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality after hip fracture surgery in the elderly. The electronic medical records of 772 elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) undergoing hip fracture surgery from May 2003 to November 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients comprised a high CRP group (>10.0 mg/dL) and low CRP group (≤10.0 mg/dL), based upon preoperative CRP levels. The overall 1-year mortality was 14.1%; the value was significantly higher in the high CRP group than in the low CRP group (31.8% vs 12.5%; P < 0.001). On binary logistic regression, body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.99; P = 0.025), history of malignancy (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.47-4.57; P = 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA PS) class 3-4 (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.25-3.07; P = 0.003), preoperative albumin (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.25-0.61; P < 0.001), preoperative CRP > 10.0 mg/dL (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.09-3.80; P = 0.025), postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.15-4.59; P = 0.019), and creatinine on the second postoperative day (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45; P = 0.048) were independent predictors of 1-year mortality after hip surgery. Male gender and low preoperative hemoglobin were associated with in-hospital mortality, whereas delayed surgery and femoral neck fracture were related to the 6-month mortality. Low preoperative albumin and low body mass index predicted the 6-month and 1-year mortality. An increased preoperative CRP level, particularly >10.0 mg/dL, was associated with the 1-year mortality after hip fracture surgery in the elderly. In addition, a history of malignancy, high ASA PS score, and postoperative ICU admission were related to mortality after hip fracture. 10.1097/MD.0000000000005152
    Preoperative antithrombotic therapy and risk of blood transfusion and mortality following hip fracture surgery: a Danish nationwide cohort study. Daugaard C,Pedersen A B,Kristensen N R,Johnsen S P Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Hip fracture surgery is associated with high risk of bleeding and mortality. The patients often have cardiovascular comorbidity, which requires antithrombotic treatment. This study found that preoperative use of oral anticoagulants was not associated with transfusion or mortality following hip fracture surgery, whereas increased risk may exist for antiplatelet drugs. INTRODUCTION:Hip fracture surgery is associated with high bleeding risk and mortality; however, data on operative outcomes of hip fracture patients admitted while on antithrombotic therapy is sparse. We examined if preoperative antithrombotic treatment was associated with increased use of blood transfusion and 30-day mortality following hip fracture surgery. METHODS:Using data from the Danish Multidisciplinary Hip Fracture Registry, we identified 74,791 hip fracture surgery patients aged ≥ 65 years during 2005-2016. Exposure was treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC), vitamin K antagonists (VKA), or antiplatelet drugs at admission for hip fracture. Outcome was blood transfusion within 7 days postsurgery and death within 30 days. RESULTS:A 45.3% of patients received blood transfusion and 10.6% died. Current NOAC use was associated with slightly increased risk of transfusion (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.14), but similar mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.75-1.03) compared with non-users. The pattern remained when restricting to patients with short surgical delay (< 24 h). VKA users did not have increased risk of transfusion or mortality. The risks of transfusion (aRR 1.15 95% CI 1.12-1.18) and 30-day mortality (aHR 1.18 95% CI 1.14-1.23) were increased among antiplatelet users compared with non-users. CONCLUSIONS:In an observational setting, neither preoperative NOAC nor VKA treatments were associated with increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality among hip fracture patients. NOAC was associated with slightly increased risk of transfusion. Preoperative use of antiplatelet drugs was associated with increased risk of transfusion and mortality. 10.1007/s00198-018-4786-0
    Early surgery for Hong Kong Chinese elderly patients with hip fracture reduces short-term and long-term mortality. Liu S Kk,Ho A Wh,Wong S H Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi INTRODUCTION:Studies have shown that early surgery reduces hospital and 1-year mortality in elderly patients with hip fracture, but no major study has examined such relationship in Hong Kong. This study aimed to explore the relationship of early surgery and mortality in a Chinese elderly population with hip fracture. METHODS:This observational study included patients attending public hospitals in Hong Kong. All patients who underwent surgery for geriatric hip fracture in public hospitals from January 2000 to December 2011 were studied. Data were retrieved and collected from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System of the Hospital Authority. Patients were divided into three groups according to timing of surgery: early (0-2 days after admission), delayed (3-4 days after admission), and late (≥5 days after admission) groups. Based on the date of death, we analysed 30-day and 1-year mortality, regardless of cause of death. Comparison of mortality rates was also made between the period before and after implementation of Key Performance Indicator formulated by the Hospital Authority. RESULTS:The overall 1-year mortality rate was 16.8%. The relative risks of 1-year mortality were 1.21 and 1.52 when the delayed and late groups were compared with the early group, respectively. The hazard ratios of long-term mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.20) and 1.37 (1.33-1.41), respectively for the same comparison. CONCLUSION:Prevalence of geriatric hip fracture will continue to rise and further increase the burden on our health care system. After implementation of Key Performance Indicator, most elderly patients with hip fracture underwent surgery within 2 days provided they were medically fit. Early surgery can reduce both short-term and long-term mortality. Setting up a fragility fracture registry would be beneficial for further studies. 10.12809/hkmj165005
    Does time from fracture to surgery affect mortality and intraoperative medical complications for hip fracture patients? An observational study of 73 557 patients reported to the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register. Leer-Salvesen Sunniva,Engesæter Lars B,Dybvik Eva,Furnes Ove,Kristensen Torbjørn B,Gjertsen Jan-Erik The bone & joint journal AIMS:The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and risk of intraoperative medical complications depending on delay to hip fracture surgery by using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) and the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR). PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 83 727 hip fractures were reported to the NHFR between 2008 and 2017. Pathological fractures, unspecified type of fractures or treatment, patients less than 50 years of age, unknown delay to surgery, and delays to surgery of greater than four days were excluded. We studied total delay (fracture to surgery, n = 38 754) and hospital delay (admission to surgery, n = 73 557). Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate relative risks (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, type of surgery, and type of fracture. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated for intraoperative medical complications. We compared delays of 12 hours or less, 13 to 24 hours, 25 to 36 hours, 37 to 48 hours, and more than 48 hours. RESULTS:Mortality remained unchanged when total delay was less than 48 hours. Total delay exceeding 48 hours was associated with increased three-day mortality (RR 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 2.34; p = 0.001) and one-year mortality (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22; p = 0.003). More intraoperative medical complications were reported when hospital delay exceeded 24 hours. CONCLUSION:Hospitals should operate on patients within 48 hours after fracture to reduce mortality and intraoperative complications. Cite this article: 2019;101-B:1129-1137. 10.1302/0301-620X.101B9.BJJ-2019-0295.R1
    Relationship between clinical outcomes and Dutch frailty score among elderly patients who underwent surgery for hip fracture. Winters A M,Hartog L C,Roijen Hif,Brohet R M,Kamper A M Clinical interventions in aging Background:Frailty is a geriatric condition that is associated with an increased risk of mortality and functional decline. To date, mainly the Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI) and Hospital Safety Management (VeiligheidsManagementSysteem [VMS]) frailty score are used to determine frailty in several hospitals in the Netherlands. However, it is yet unknown, which method has the best predictive value on clinical outcomes. Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of GFI and VMS on clinical outcomes among patients who underwent hip fracture surgery. Design:This is a prospective observational cohort study. Methods:We selected all patients aged 70 years or higher, who underwent hip fracture surgery in our general hospital, between November 2014 and November 2015. Among all patients, VMS, GFI and Barthel-20 index (BI) were assessed. McNemar's paired test and Cohen's κ were used to examine the difference and the level of agreement between the two scoring methods. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine overall survival and mortality, respectively, 3 years and 30 days after surgery. Results:A total of 280 patients were included in the study. The median follow-up was 25 months. No systematic difference was found between the two methods (=0.237), while a fair level of agreement could be measured (κ=0.363 [95% CI =0.23-50]). VMS showed a statistically significant difference in overall survival as compared to nonfrail patients (57 vs 80%, respectively [ <0.001] with an HR of 3.5 [95% CI =2.1-5.7; <0.001]). Classification according to GFI yielded a lower but still significant HR 2.3 (95% CI =1.2-4.1; =0.008). Conclusion:VMS can be used in classifying frailty, whereby VMS frailty score is associated with clinical outcomes as overall survival mortality in older patients with hip fracture and who underwent surgery. 10.2147/CIA.S181497
    Association of delay of urgent or emergency surgery with mortality and use of health care resources: a propensity score-matched observational cohort study. McIsaac Daniel I,Abdulla Karim,Yang Homer,Sundaresan Sudhir,Doering Paula,Vaswani Sandeep Green,Thavorn Kednapa,Forster Alan J CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne BACKGROUND:Delay of surgery for hip fracture is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, but the effects of surgical delays on mortality and resource use in the context of other emergency surgeries is poorly described. Our objective was to measure the independent association between delay of emergency surgery and in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs. METHODS:We identified all adult patients who underwent emergency noncardiac surgery between January 2012 and October 2014 at a single tertiary care centre. Delay of surgery was defined as the time from surgical booking to operating room entry exceeding institutionally defined acceptable wait times, based on a standardized 5-level priority system that accounted for surgery type and indication. Patients with delayed surgery were matched to those without delay using propensity scores derived from variables that accounted for details of admission and the hospital stay, patient characteristics, physiologic instability, and surgical urgency and risk. RESULTS:Of 15 160 patients, 2820 (18.6%) experienced a delay. The mortality rates were 4.9% (138/2820) for those with delay and 3.2% (391/12 340) for those without delay (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.93). Within the propensity-matched cohort, delay was significantly associated with mortality (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.18-2.06), increased length of stay (incident rate ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.11) and higher total costs (incident rate ratio 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11). INTERPRETATION:Delayed operating room access for emergency surgery was associated with increased risk of inhospital mortality, longer length of stay and higher costs. System issues appeared to underlie most delays and must be addressed to improve the outcomes of emergency surgery. 10.1503/cmaj.160576
    Comparison of combined lumbar and sacral plexus block with sedation versus general anaesthesia on postoperative outcomes in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (CLSB-HIPELD): study protocol for a prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Zhang Junfeng,Wang Xiaofeng,Zhang Hui,Shu Zhuolin,Jiang Wei BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Hip fracture in elderly people is a global public health problem, with substantial associated mortality and disability. Nearly all patients with hip fracture undergo surgical treatment, but optimal anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery in elderly patients is still inconclusive. Ultrasound-guided combined lumbar and sacral plexus block has been widely used in hip fracture surgery in recent years, especially for some high-risk patients. However, it is not clear whether it can improve the postoperative outcomes of elderly patients with hip fracture. METHOD AND ANALYSIS:This research project is a two-arm, parallel, multicentre, prospective randomised controlled trail. A total of 1086 patients aged 75 and older scheduled for hip fracture surgery in five clinical trial centres of China will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either combined lumbar and sacral plexus block plus sedation or general anaesthesia. The primary outcome will be the postoperative 1-year all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes will be the incidence of postoperative complications, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, early mobility after surgery, postoperative Visual Analogue Scale pain scores, postoperative delirium, length of stay in intensive care unit and hospital, cost-effective outcomes, Barthel Index and incidence of adverse events after discharge. Assessments will be conducted in four steps: preoperative, intraoperative, in-hospital data collection and post-discharge telephone follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study has been supported by Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning Foundation for Key Developing Disciplines (2015ZB0103) and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital [No: 2016-28-(2)]. At the time of manuscript submission, the protocol version is V.1.6 (March 2nd, 2018) with one subsequent approved amendment. Results will be disseminated via an international peer-reviewed publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03318133. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022898
    Acute hip fracture surgery anaesthetic technique and 30-day mortality in Sweden 2016 and 2017: A retrospective register study. Gremillet Caroline,Jakobsson Jan G F1000Research Hip fractures affect 1.6 million patients yearly worldwide, often elderly with complex comorbidity. Mortality following surgery for acute hip fracture is high and multifactorial; high age, comorbidities and complication/deterioration in health following surgery. Whether the anaesthesia technique affects the 30-day mortality rate has been studied widely without reaching a consensus. The primary aim of this study was to determine anaesthetic techniques used in Sweden and their impact on the 30-day mortality rate in elderly undergoing acute hip fracture surgery. Other aims were to study the impact of age, gender, ASA class, fracture type and delay in surgery on the 30-day mortality rate. Data from 13,649 patients ≥50 years old who had undergone acute hip fracture surgery and been reported to Swedish perioperative register (SPOR) between 2016 and 2017 were analysed.     The most commonly used anaesthetic technique was neuraxial anaesthesia (NA; 11,257, 82%), followed by general anaesthesia (GA; 2,190, 16%) and combined general and neuraxial anaesthesia (CA; 202, 1.5%) out of the 13,649 studied. The 30-day mortality rate was 7.7% for the entire cohort; GA 7.8%, NA 7.7% and CA 7.4%. Mortality was higher in elderly patients, those with a high ASA class, pertrochanteric fracture and males.     The present study showed that NA is by far the most common anaesthetic technique for acute hip fracture surgery in Sweden. However, the anaesthetic technique used during this type of surgery had no impact on the 30-day mortality rate in patients. Increasing age, ASA class and male gender increased the 30-day mortality. 10.12688/f1000research.15363.2