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    Radial probe EBUS versus CT-guided needle biopsy for evaluation of peripheral pulmonary lesions: an economic analysis. Steinfort Daniel P,Liew Danny,Irving Louis B The European respiratory journal Selection of the optimal procedure for minimally invasive diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) may be based on clinical factors; however, selection of diagnostic strategy may also be influenced by cost. Economic analysis of minimally invasive diagnosis of PPL has not been performed previously. Decision-tree analysis was applied to compare downstream costs of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial lung biopsy (EBUS-TBLB) with computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CT-PNB). Calculations were based on real costs derived from patient data. Sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were undertaken to identify the more cost-beneficial approach for varying input parameter values. Cost-effectiveness calculations were based on estimated disutility, according to the wait-trade-off technique. For base-case analysis, initial evaluation with CT-PNB was cost-beneficial (AU$2,724 versus EBUS-TBLB AU$2,748). The variable which exerted the most influence on cost-benefit outcomes was the cost of managing complications. CT-PNB remained the more cost-effective procedure at base-case parameters, although thresholds were identified during sensitivity analysis where EBUS-TBLB became more cost-effective. The costs of EBUS-TBLB and CT-PNB to evaluate PPL appear to be equivalent, but specific clinical-radiologic factors known to influence procedural outcomes will influence cost-benefit outcomes. Further evaluation of patient preferences and their influence on cost-effectiveness are required. 10.1183/09031936.00044612
    Endobronchial ultrasonography with guide-sheath for peripheral pulmonary lesions. Kikuchi E,Yamazaki K,Sukoh N,Kikuchi J,Asahina H,Imura M,Onodera Y,Kurimoto N,Kinoshita I,Nishimura M The European respiratory journal The usefulness of endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) with guide-sheath (GS) as a guide for transbronchial biopsy (TBB) for diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL)s and for improving diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in this study. EBUS-GS-guided TBB was performed in 24 patients with 24 PPLs of < or =30 mm in diameter (average diameter=18.4 mm). A 20-MHz radial-type ultrasound probe, covered with GS was inserted via a working bronchoscope channel and advanced to the PPL in order to produce an EBUS image. The probe with the GS was confirmed to reach the lesion by EBUS imaging and X-ray fluoroscopy. When the lesion was not identified on the EBUS image, the probe was removed and a curette was used to lead the GS to the lesion. After localising the lesion, the probe was removed, and TBB and bronchial brushing were performed via the GS. Nineteen peripheral lesions (79.2%) were visualised by EBUS. All patients whose PPLs were visible on EBUS images subsequently underwent an EBUS-GS-guided diagnostic procedure. A total of 14 lesions (58.3%) were diagnosed. Even when restricted to PPLs <20 mm in diameter, the diagnostic sensitivity was 53%. In conclusion, endobronchial ultrasonography with guide sheath-guided transbronchial biopsy was feasible and effective for diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions. 10.1183/09031936.04.00138603
    Additional transbronchial needle aspiration through a guide sheath for peripheral pulmonary lesions that cannot be detected by radial EBUS. Hayama Manabu,Izumo Takehiro,Chavez Christine,Matsumoto Yuji,Tsuchida Takaaki,Sasada Shinji The clinical respiratory journal BACKGROUND:Endobronchial ultrasound with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) has resulted to better diagnostic outcome for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs), although the yield is not satisfactory for lesions that cannot be located by EBUS. We aimed to evaluate whether the addition of a new technique, transbronchial needle aspiration through a guide sheath (GS-TBNA), can increase the yield for these cases. METHODS:This was a retrospective review of cases that were not located by EBUS during EBUS-GS for PPL diagnosis. From September 2012 to August 2014, 67 PPLs had 'invisible' EBUS-GS location prior to transbronchial sampling. The patients were divided into two groups according to the use of additional GS-TBNA: GS-TBNA group (n=22) and non-GS-TBNA group (n=45). Diagnostic yields were compared and multivariate analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with increased diagnostic yield. RESULTS:The diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the GS-TBNA group than in the non-GS-TBNA group (54.5% vs 17.8%, P<0.01). The complication rate was not significantly different between the GS-TBNA group and the non-GS-TBNA group (0% vs 4.4%, P=1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that only performing GS-TBNA was significantly associated with increased diagnostic yield (odds ratio 3.99, P=0.03). CONCLUSION:GS-TBNA is a safe technique for PPL diagnosis and may be useful when the EBUS probe cannot reach the lesion. 10.1111/crj.12413
    Biopsy of peripheral pulmonary lesions using real-time radial endobronchial ultrasound and a "double-barrel" bronchoscope. Chen Alexander,Misselhorn David Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) has contributed substantially to the diagnosis of centrally located lesions within the thorax. More recently, this technology has been applied to the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. One accepted technique for visualizing peripheral pulmonary lesions using radial EBUS involves use of a guide sheath placed within or adjacent to the lesion after localization using a radial EBUS probe. A diagnostic yield of >70% has been reported using this method, though direct visual feedback of needle aspiration within the mass is still lacking. Under continuous ultrasound guidance, the diagnostic yield of linear array EBUS is higher than 90%. In this case series, we present 3 cases in which transbronchial needle aspiration and forceps biopsy of peripheral pulmonary lesions were performed under continuous radial EBUS guidance using a modified "double-barrel" bronchoscope. 10.1097/LBR.0b013e3181966b2b
    Diagnostic yield of combined bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasonography, under LungPoint guidance for small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Tamiya Motohiro,Okamoto Norio,Sasada Shinji,Shiroyama Takayuki,Morishita Naoko,Suzuki Hidekazu,Yoshida Emi,Hirashima Tomonori,Kawahara Kunimitu,Kawase Ichiro Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The yield of biopsy performed during bronchoscopy is reduced if the lesion is smaller than 30 mm. We evaluated the performance of a new diagnostic technique combining endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) and a virtual bronchoscopic navigation system, LungPoint (Broncus Technologies, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA), for the diagnosis of small (≤30 mm) peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). METHODS:Between May 2011 and December 2011, we recruited 68 consecutive patients presenting with a PPL 30 mm or less in diameter determined by chest computed tomography. We used the LungPoint system before bronchoscopy to identify the bronchus into which the bronchoscope should be advanced. We used a thin bronchoscope. EBUS-GS was performed using an endoscope ultrasonography system equipped with a 20-MHz mechanical radial-type probe. We used a guide sheath with an external diameter of 1.95 mm, thin forceps and brushing. RESULTS:The diagnostic yield of the 68 PPL was 77.9%; it was 83.7% and 68.0% for the malignant and benign lesions, respectively. Notably, three cases were diagnosed by transbronchial needle-aspiration cytology alone. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the EBUS probe localization was the most significant contributor to successful diagnosis (diagnostic yield: within vs adjacent to the lesion = 92.1% vs 60.0%, respectively; P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The combination of EBUS-GS and LungPoint was useful for diagnosing small PPL. 10.1111/resp.12095
    Randomized study of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsy: thin bronchoscopic method versus guide sheath method. Oki Masahide,Saka Hideo,Kitagawa Chiyoe,Kogure Yoshihito,Murata Naohiko,Adachi Takashi,Ando Masahiko Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer INTRODUCTION:In endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsy (EBUS-TBB), techniques using a thin bronchoscope or a guide sheath have been proposed for accurate biopsy instrument reinsertion into the bronchial route indicated by a radial ultrasonic probe. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic yields of these techniques for peripheral pulmonary lesions. METHODS:Patients with suspected peripheral pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective, randomized, noninferiority study and assigned to undergo EBUS-TBB under fluoroscopic guidance using a prototype 3.4-mm thin bronchoscope or a 4.0-mm bronchoscope with a guide sheath. RESULTS:A total of 205 patients were enrolled and randomized, of whom 203 patients (101 thin bronchoscopic method; 102 guide sheath method) were included in the analysis. Diagnostic histologic specimens were obtained in 65% (41% for benign and 75% for malignant lesions) of the thin bronchoscopy group and 62% (25% for benign and 71% for malignant lesions) of the guide sheath group. Diagnostic performance of the thin bronchoscopic method was confirmed to be noninferior to the guide sheath method (difference in diagnostic yields, 3.6%; 90% confidence interval, -7.5 to 14.7%). Mean procedure time was significantly shorter in the thin bronchoscopy group than the guide sheath group (27 versus 33 minutes; p = 0.002). Complications including pneumothorax, moderate bleeding, and pneumonia occurred in 5% and 2% in the respective groups (p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS:EBUS-TBB using the thin bronchoscope was noninferior to the guide sheath method for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions and was associated with shorter procedural time. 10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182417e60
    Performance of transbronchial cryobiopsy in eccentrically and adjacently orientated radial endobronchial ultrasound lesions. Kho Sze Shyang,Chan Swee Kim,Yong Mei Ching,Tie Siew Teck ERJ open research Background:Radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) is an effective technique in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). However, lesion orientation with regards to the radial probe remains an important factor for effective biopsy. "Within" orientation was associated with significantly higher diagnostic yield. Cryobiopsy is a novel technique in obtaining larger tissue samples with the frozen tip allowing biopsy in a 360° direction, thus potentially achieving more effective biopsy in eccentrically and adjacently orientated lesions. We aimed to evaluate the performance and safety of transbronchial cryobiopsy forceps biopsy in eccentrically and adjacently orientated R-EBUS lesions. Methods:Retrospective review of R-EBUS transbronchial biopsy for PPL over 17 months. Results:114 R-EBUS scans were included for analysis during the study period. Forceps biopsy was performed in 76 (66.7%) cases and cryobiopsy in 38 (33.3%) cases. Baseline demographics and lesion characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Median (interquartile range) lesion size was 3.48 (2.63-4.51) cm. Overall, 41.2% of lesions were of eccentric orientation and 15.8% adjacent orientation; only 43% were concentric in orientation. Overall diagnostic yield was 67.5% (77 out of 114). Orientation remained an important factor affecting diagnostic yield. Transbronchial cryobiopsy significantly increased the diagnostic yield in eccentrically and adjacently orientated lesions to 75.0% (18 out of 24), compared to 48.8% (20 out of 41) obtained forceps biopsy (p<0.05); but not in concentric lesions. Cryobiopsy was associated with more mild and moderate bleeding complications compared to the forceps biopsy group. Conclusions:Transbronchial cryobiopsy under R-EBUS guidance is a safe procedure which potentially increases diagnostic yield in eccentrically and adjacently orientated PPLs. 10.1183/23120541.00135-2019
    Radial endobronchial ultrasonography with distance measurement through a thin bronchoscope for the diagnosis of malignant peripheral pulmonary lesions. Zhang Su-Juan,Zhang Ming,Zhou Jun,Zhang Qiu-Di,Xu Qian-Qian,Xu Xiong Translational lung cancer research Background:Peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) are being discovered more frequently. We investigated efficiency, safety, and influencing factors in radial probe endobronchial ultrasound with distance measurement (rEBUS-D) using a thin bronchoscope during transbronchial biopsy (TBB) for the diagnosis of malignant PPLs. Methods:Patients with PPLs who underwent rEBUS were retrospectively analyzed. Cases with rEBUS-D and a gold-standard final diagnosis were considered. Results:rEBUS was completed in 589 cases; 328 were analyzed. The lesion discovery rate was 85.06%; the overall rEBUS-D-TBB diagnostic rate was 54.88%. There were 193 cases of malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of rEBUS-D-TBB in the diagnosis of malignant PPLs were 63.73%, 100%, 100%, 65.85%, and 78.40%, respectively. Single- and multi-factor analyses showed that lesion size, ultrasound probe position, and a positive bronchus sign on thoracic computed tomography (CT) were significant factors influencing diagnosis (all P=0.000); probe position and the bronchus sign were independent influencing factors. The effect of lesion distribution on diagnosis was not significant. In seven cases, postoperative pathology showed mixed tumors. Two cases of malignant tumors were combined with benign pathology; rEBUS-D-TBB did not suggest two pathologies. Thirteen cases had 50-100 mL of blood loss (3.96%); no pneumothorax or infection was observed. Conclusions:rEBUS-D-TBB had high sensitivity, 100% specificity, excellent safety, and a lower cost than rEBUS-GS-TBB in the diagnosis of malignant PPLs. Larger lesions, a positive bronchus sign on CT, and ultrasound probe position at the lesion's center yielded higher diagnostic rates. 10.21037/tlcr.2017.12.11
    Radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsy for peripheral pulmonary malignancy: biopsy- or brushing-first? Huang Chun-Ta,Tsai Yi-Ju,Ho Chao-Chi,Yu Chong-Jen BMC pulmonary medicine BACKGROUND:Radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS)-guided transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is a common diagnostic modality for peripheral pulmonary lesions; however, there is uncertainty about the optimal sequence of TBB and bronchial brushing during the procedure. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether a biopsy-first or brushing-first strategy confers a better diagnostic yield and safety signal for R-EBUS-guided procedures for peripheral pulmonary malignancy. METHODS:From January 2017 to June 2018, consecutive patients referred for R-EBUS-guided TBB and bronchial brushing of peripheral pulmonary lesions and with a final malignant diagnosis were included. Patients were placed in a biopsy-first (biopsy followed by brushing) or a brushing-first (brushing followed by biopsy) group. The outcomes of interest were the diagnostic yield and complication profile of the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression and subgroup analysis were used to assess the impact of the procedure strategy. RESULTS:A total of 438 patients were included and the diagnostic yield of R-EBUS-guided TBB plus brushing for peripheral pulmonary malignancy was 73%. The diagnostic yield was associated with the solid lesion appearance (odds ratio [OR] 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-3.75) and R-EBUS probe position within the lesion (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.08-3.42), and the yield rates were comparable between the biopsy-first and brushing-first strategies. Moreover, the safety signal did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS:The two procedure strategies were indistinguishable in terms of diagnostic efficacy and adverse events for patients with peripheral pulmonary malignancy. Current evidence indicates that in patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions suspected of being malignant, either biopsy-first or brushing-first is a viable and acceptable diagnostic strategy during R-EBUS-guided procedures. 10.1186/s12890-019-0961-0
    The value of radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchial brushing in peripheral non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Yu Kai-Lun,Tsai Tzu-Hsiu,Ho Chao-Chi,Liao Wei-Yu,Lin Ching-Kai,Hsu Chia-Lin,Shih Jin-Yuan Scientific reports Radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) is one important diagnostic approach in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). However, the small samples obtained from R-EBUS-guided transbronchial biopsies are sometimes insufficient for pathological and molecular diagnosis. Herein, we investigated the suitability of R-EBUS-guided bronchial brushing specimens for NSCLC diagnosis and EGFR genotyping. We enrolled 941 consecutive patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions who underwent R-EBUS. Cytology-positive brushing specimens from non-squamous NSCLC patients were tested for EGFR mutations. Non-squamous NSCLC was diagnosed in 624 patients (66.3%). Positive cytology was documented in the brushing samples of 376 patients (60.3%). Higher diagnostic yields were obtained in patients exhibiting bronchus signs on chest tomography, and those with R-EBUS probe located within the lesion. EGFR genotyping was successfully performed in 363 samples (96.5% of cytology-positive brushing samples). EGFR genotyping concordance between brushing specimens and matched tissue samples was 88.7% (kappa = 0.745, P < 0.001). Furthermore, 144 non-squamous NSCLC patients (23.1%) with failed pathological diagnosis or EGER sequencing by R-EBUS-guided transbronchial biopsy required repeat biopsies. However, it was achieved successfully from the brushing specimens of 57 patients (39.6%). In conclusion, for patients with peripheral lung cancer, R-EBUS-guided bronchial brushing could provide an additional sampling method for diagnosis and EGFR genotyping. 10.1038/s41598-018-24300-7
    Comparison of diagnostic yield and safety profile of radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopic lung biopsy with computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy in evaluation of peripheral pulmonary lesions: A randomized controlled trial. Gupta Ayush,Suri Jagdish Chander,Bhattacharya Dipak,Sen Manas Kamal,Chakrabarti Shibdas,Singh Abhijeet,Adhikari Tulsi Lung India : official organ of Indian Chest Society BACKGROUND:Peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) pose a diagnostic challenge, and the optimal investigation in many such cases remains unclear. Computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CT-PNB) has been the modality of choice for such lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy but with high rates of pneumothorax. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with a radial probe is an alternate diagnostic modality with increased diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in the evaluation of PPL. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the diagnostic accuracy and complication rates of radial EBUS with CT-guided lung biopsy for the evaluation of PPL. METHODS:Fifty patients with PPL surrounded by lung parenchyma on all sides were randomly assigned to either radial EBUS or CT-PNB group (25 each). RESULTS:Both groups had similar clinicoradiologic characteristics. The diagnostic accuracy of radial EBUS was comparable to CT-PNB with no statistically significant difference (72 vs. 84%; P = 0.306). However, the yield was significantly lower in right upper lobe lesions (20% vs. 83.3%; P = 0.03). CT-PNB group had significantly higher pneumothorax rates than radial EBUS (20% vs. 0%; P = 0.03). The lesions that were more than 2 cm, those with ultrasound feature of continuous hyperechoic margin around the lesion (P = 0.007), and the position of the ultrasound probe within the lesion (P < 0.001) were associated with a higher diagnostic yield with radial EBUS. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that radial EBUS is a safer investigation than CT-PNB with a comparable diagnostic accuracy for PPL not abutting the chest wall (CTRI/2017/02/007762). 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_208_17
    Utility of Radial Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Lung Biopsy in Diffuse Lung Lesions. Kim Eun Jin,Kim Kyung Chan Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases BACKGROUND:Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) is widely used for diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions. However, the utility of R-EBUS-guided transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) for diffuse lung lesions (DLLs) remains unknown. We designed this study to evaluate the utility of R-EBUS-guided TBLB in DLLs. METHODS:This retrospective study enrolled patients admitted from January 2016 to November 2017 who underwent TBLB for DLLs. The R-EBUS-guided TBLB and blind TBLB groups were compared. DLL was defined as any lung disorder that involved more than one segment of the lung. In both the groups, fluoroscopy and guided sheath were not used during TBLB. RESULTS:A total of 127 patients underwent TBLB for DLLs (67 patients in the R-EBUS-guided TBLB group and 60 in the blind TBLB group). There were no differences in age, sex, and comorbid illnesses between the two groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in the TBLB diagnostic yield of the two groups (p=0.660) although more samples were collected from the R-EBUS-guided TBLB group (p=0.003). Procedure time was significantly longer in the R-EBUS-guided TBLB group than in the blind TBLB group (p<0.001). Thus, incidence of pneumothorax was significantly lower in the R-EBUS-guided TBLB group than in the blind TBLB group (p=0.032). CONCLUSION:Diagnostic yield in DLLs did not differ between the R-EBUS-guided TBLB and blind TBLB groups. Findings show that R-EBUS-guided TBLB in DLLs may reduce risk of pneumothorax. 10.4046/trd.2018.0073
    Radial endobronchial ultrasound for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ali Muhammad S,Trick William,Mba Benjamin I,Mohananey Divyanshu,Sethi Jaskaran,Musani Ali I Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) Tissue diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) can be challenging. In the past, flexible bronchoscopy was commonly performed for this purpose but its diagnostic yield is suboptimal. This has led to the development of new bronchoscopic modalities such as radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS), electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB). We performed this meta-analysis using data from previously published R-EBUS studies, to determine its diagnostic yield and other performance characteristics. Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched for R-EBUS studies in September 2016. Diagnostic yield was calculated by dividing the number of successful diagnoses by the total number of lesions. Meta-analysis was performed using MedCalc (Version 16.8). Inverse variance weighting was used to aggregate diagnostic yield proportions across studies. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot and Duval and Tweedie's test. 57 studies with a total of 7872 lesions were included in the meta-analysis. These were published between October 2002 and August 2016. Overall weighted diagnostic yield for R-EBUS was 70.6% (95% CI: 68-73.1%). The diagnostic yield was significantly higher for lesions >2 cm in size, malignant in nature and those associated with a bronchus sign on computerized tomography (CT) scan. Diagnostic yield was also higher when R-EBUS probe was within the lesion as opposed to being adjacent to it. Overall complication rate was 2.8%. This is the largest meta-analysis performed to date, assessing the performance of R-EBUS for diagnosing PPLs. R-EBUS has a high diagnostic yield (70.6%) with a very low complication rate. 10.1111/resp.12980
    Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound for peripheral pulmonary lesions. A 5-year institutional experience. Chen Alexander,Chenna Praveen,Loiselle Andrea,Massoni Jennifer,Mayse Martin,Misselhorn David Annals of the American Thoracic Society RATIONALE:Technological advances have improved the ability of bronchoscopists to access peripheral pulmonary lesions for tissue sampling. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) provides real-time feedback to guide biopsies of peripheral lesions, thereby potentially improving diagnostic yield over conventional bronchoscopy. OBJECTIVES:We assessed the overall diagnostic yield of peripheral bronchoscopy using radial probe EBUS for peripheral pulmonary lesions, as well as factors that might influence the diagnostic yield, such as radial ultrasound view, lesion size, and ability to locate the peripheral lesion. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of peripheral bronchoscopy cases in which radial probe EBUS was utilized to diagnose peripheral pulmonary lesions at a tertiary care university hospital. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Our study cohort comprised 496 patients who underwent bronchoscopies between January 2008 and December 2012 for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions. Radial probe EBUS was used alone for diagnostic purposes in 467 patients. A diagnosis was made on that basis in 321 (69%) of 467 patients. A diagnosis was obtained for 83 of 144 (58%) of nodules 1-2 cm in diameter, 99 of 137 (72%) of nodules 2.1-3 cm, 54 of 70 (77%) of nodules 3.1-4 cm, 41 of 47 (87%) of nodules 4.1-5 cm, and 35 of 40 (88%) of nodules larger than 5.1 cm. Of all 467 nodules, 446 (96%) were successfully identified using radial probe EBUS. When the radial probe position was within the target lesion, the diagnostic yield was 84% compared with 48% when the probe was positioned adjacent to the lesion. CONCLUSIONS:Radial probe EBUS can be used to guide biopsy during peripheral bronchoscopy. This technique provides real-time ultrasound-based confirmation of target lesion localization prior to biopsy. Using radial probe EBUS, the vast majority of peripheral pulmonary nodules can be identified. Radial EBUS probe position relative to the target lesion significantly affects the diagnostic yield. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201311-384OC
    [The diagnostic utility of thin-slice CT navigation combined with radial endobronchial ultrasound for peripheral pulmonary lesions]. Gao T,He S,Zhu J Q,Wang G Q,Zhang L Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases To evaluate the diagnostic value of thin-slice CT navigation combined with radial endobronchial ultrasound in peripheral lung lesions. The clinical data of patients with peripheral lung lesions diagnosed by thin-slice CT navigation combined with radial endobronchial ultrasound in National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College from November 2015 to August 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The success rate of thin-slice CT for guiding radial endobronchial ultrasound was statistically analyzed, and the diagnostic rate, sensitivity and specificity of thin-slice CT combined with radial endobronchial ultrasound were analyzed. 140 consecutive patients with 145 lesions were included, 139 lesions in 136 patients were found by thin-layer CT guidance, the success rate was 95.9%; 137 lesions in 135 patients were examined by histology and/or cytology, and 106 lesions were finally diagnosed, the diagnostic rate was 77.37%; and the diagnosis sensitivity and specificity was 88.45% and 99.96%. Histological and cytological diagnostic rate, sensitivity and specificity was 72.18% versus 63.50%, 70.58% versus 66.85%, 100% versus 88.23%, respectively. Factors influencing the diagnostic rate of thin-slice CT navigation combined with radial endobronchial ultrasound include the relationship between the lesion and the target bronchus, the location of the probe and the lesion, and the size of the lesion, and the difference between the farthest generation of bronchoscopy insertion and the bronchial generation of lesions. Five patients had mild bleeding and one ultrasonic probe was damaged. Thin-slice CT has a higher positive rate in guiding peripheral lung lesions with radial ultrasound, and this method has a higher diagnostic value for peripheral lung lesions. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2019.12.003
    Diagnostic Performance of Radial Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound without a Guide-Sheath and the Feasibility of Molecular Analysis. Moon Seong Mi,Choe Junsu,Jeong Byeong Ho,Um Sang Won,Kim Hojoong,Kwon O Jung,Lee Kyungjong Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases BACKGROUND:Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS), is effective for tissue diagnosis of lung lesions. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of R-EBUS both a guide-sheath and fluoroscopy and identified factors associated with accurate diagnosis. The feasibility of molecular and genetic testing, using specimens obtained by R-EBUS, was also investigated. METHODS:The study retrospectively reviewed 211 patients undergoing R-EBUS without a guide-sheath and fluoroscopy, June 2016-May 2017. After excluding 27 patients of which the target lesion was not reached, 184 were finally included. Multivariate logistic regression was used, to identify factors associated with accurate diagnosis. RESULTS:Among 184 patients, R-EBUS-guided biopsy diagnosed malignancy in 109 patients (59%). The remaining 75 patients (41%) with non-malignant results underwent additional work-ups, and 34 were diagnosed with malignancy. Based on final diagnosis, diagnostic accuracy was 80% (136/170), and sensitivity and specificity for malignancy were 76% (109/143) and 100% (27/27), respectively. In multivariate analysis, peripheral location (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.925; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.203-12.811; p=0.023), and central position of the probe (aOR, 2.435; 95% CI, 1.424-7.013; p=0.035), were associated with accurate diagnosis of malignancy. Molecular and genetic analyses were successful, in all but one case, with inadequate specimens. CONCLUSION:R-EBUS-guided biopsy without equipment, is effective for tissue diagnosis. Peripheral location and central position of the radial probe, were crucial for accurate diagnosis. Performance of molecular and genetic testing, using samples obtained by R-EBUS, was satisfactory. 10.4046/trd.2018.0082
    Clinical outcomes of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound using a guide sheath for diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions in patients with pulmonary emphysema. Lee Kyu Min,Lee Geewon,Kim Ahreum,Mok Jeongha,Lee Ji Won,Jeong Yeon Joo,Jo Eun-Jung,Kim Mi Hyun,Lee Kwangha,Kim Ki Uk,Park Hye-Kyung,Lee Min Ki,Eom Jung Seop Respiratory research BACKGROUND:Generally, structural destruction of lung parenchyma, such as pulmonary emphysema, is considered to be related to the low diagnostic yields and high complication rates of lung biopsies of peripheral lung lesions. Currently, little is known about the clinical outcomes of using endobronchial ultrasound with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) to diagnose peripheral lesions in patients with emphysema. METHODS:This retrospective study was performed to identify the clinical outcomes of EBUS-GS in patients with pulmonary emphysema. This study included 393 consecutive patients who received EBUS-GS between February 2017 and April 2018. The patients were classified according to the severity of their emphysema, and factors possibly contributing to a successful EBUS-GS procedure were evaluated. RESULTS:The overall diagnostic yield of EBUS-GS in patients with no or mild emphysema was significantly higher than in those with moderate or severe pulmonary emphysema (78% vs. 61%, P = 0.007). There were no procedure-related complications. The presence of a bronchus sign on CT (P <  0.001) and a "within the lesion" status on EBUS (P = 0.009) were independently associated with a successful EBUS-GS procedure. Although the diagnostic yield of EBUS-GS in patients with moderate-to-severe emphysema was relatively low, a bronchus sign and "within the lesion" status on EBUS were contributing factors for a successful EBUS-GS. CONCLUSIONS:EBUS-GS is a safe procedure with an acceptable diagnostic yield, even when performed in patients with pulmonary emphysema. The presence of a bronchus sign and "within the lesion" status on EBUS were predictors of a successful procedure. 10.1186/s12931-019-1149-0
    Localization of Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions Using a Method of Computed Tomography-Anatomic Correlation and Radial Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound Confirmation. Chen Alexander C,Loiselle Andrea,Zhou Li,Baty Jack,Misselhorn David Annals of the American Thoracic Society RATIONALE:Peripheral pulmonary lesions requiring a diagnosis continue to present challenges to clinicians. One significant barrier is the inability to reliably locate peripheral lesions by bronchoscopic approaches. Multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) scan reconstruction is available to most physicians and provides axial, coronal, and sagittal images that may be used to estimate target lesion location and guide bronchoscopists during procedures. OBJECTIVES:This study was performed to evaluate a systematic method of CT-anatomic correlation based on multiplanar reconstruction CT scanning with monoplanar fluoroscopy during bronchoscopy to locate peripheral pulmonary lesions and confirm lesion location, using radial probe endobronchial ultrasound. METHODS:A retrospective review of peripheral bronchoscopy cases in which radial probe endobronchial ultrasound for peripheral lesions was performed at a tertiary care, university hospital. All cases involved a systematic approach of reviewing axial, coronal, and sagittal CT reconstructions, coupled with monoplanar fluoroscopy during procedures to assist with locating peripheral lesions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Using the method of CT-anatomic correlation, 332 of 348 (95.4%) of all lesions were successfully localized and confirmed, using radial probe endobronchial ultrasound. Lesions 1-2 cm in size accounted for 45% of all lesions, and the ability to locate lesions was not significantly different based on lesion size. Mean time to lesion localization was 6.8 minutes. Larger lesions and lesions demonstrating an air bronchus sign on CT scan were located in less time. The overall diagnostic yield was 58.9%. CONCLUSIONS:A systematic approach applying CT-anatomic correlation with multiplanar CT scan reconstruction and monoplanar fluoroscopy during procedures can result in an efficient, and successful process for locating peripheral pulmonary lesions. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201601-069OC
    Radial-probe endobronchial ultrasound outcomes in the investigation of peripheral pulmonary lesions: a New Zealand perspective. Good William R,Christensen Pernille M,Herath Samantha,Dawkins Paul,Yap Elaine Internal medicine journal BACKGROUND:Radial-probe endobronchial ultrasound (radial-EBUS) is becoming an important investigation for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). A key advantage of radial-EBUS is the favourable risk profile compared with current gold-standard computerised tomography-guided biopsy. AIM:To investigate the diagnostic yield, predictors of positive yield and radial-EBUS safety in a New Zealand institution. We also determined whether molecular analysis was possible on the same tissue samples. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 68) from Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, undergoing radial-EBUS with guide-sheath for PPL from March 2015 to August 2016. Clinical, radiological and procedural data were collected. Radial-EBUS diagnostic yield was determined for malignant and benign diagnoses, and molecular analysis yield was determined on appropriate malignant samples. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting successful radial-EBUS. RESULTS:Overall diagnostic yield of radial-EBUS was 55.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 44.3-67.9). Malignant diagnostic sensitivity was 60.8% (95% CI: 46.1-74.2) and benign diagnostic sensitivity was 50% (95% CI: 23-77). Lesions close to the hilum (P = 0.039), concentric radial-probe positioning (P = 0.008) and the use of forceps as first instrument (P = 0.0049) significantly predicted successful diagnostic yield. Of the malignant cases 81.0% (95% CI: 58.1-94.6) were sufficient for molecular analysis. Pneumothorax occurred in 4.4% (95% CI: 0.9-12.4), none required chest drain intervention. There were no cases of significant pulmonary haemorrhage. CONCLUSION:Radial-EBUS was shown to be safe with diagnostic yield similar to international reports. Important predictors of success include distance from hilum, probe position and forceps as first instrument. We also demonstrated that molecular analysis is possible in radial-EBUS obtained samples. 10.1111/imj.14070
    The value of repeat radial-probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial biopsy after initial non-diagnostic results in patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions. Huang Chun-Ta,Tsai Yi-Ju,Ho Chao-Chi,Yu Chong-Jen BMC pulmonary medicine BACKGROUND:Radial-probe endobronchial ultrasound (rEBUS)-guided transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is invaluable in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs); however, in certain instances, the procedure has to be repeated because of initial non-diagnostic procedure(s). Little if any literature has been published on this issue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of repeat rEBUS-guided TBB in achieving a definitive diagnosis of PPLs. METHODS:All patients who underwent rEBUS-guided TBB of PPLs at National Taiwan University Hospital between 2011 and 2015 and had a repeat procedure after non-diagnostic initial procedures were identified as the study subjects. The primary outcome of interest was the diagnostic yield of repeat rEBUS-guided TBB for PPLs. Also, we sought to discover features associated with the yield of repeat procedures. RESULTS:Forty-three (11%) out of 384 patients with initial non-diagnostic TBB were included for analysis. A diagnosis of PPLs was able to be confirmed with repeat TBB in 23(53%) patients. The pathology of the first TBB was significantly associated with the yield of repeat procedures (P = 0.011). Further, patients with normal lung tissue in initial pathology rarely (2/12, 17%) had a definite diagnosis on repeat TBB. Yet, patients with pathology showing atypical cells and other non-specific findings were more likely (21/31, 68%) to obtain a confirmed diagnosis. The diagnostic yield of repeat procedures was not affected by the size, location or CT appearance of the lesions, or position of the rEBUS probe. No death or other serious adverse events occurred with the repeat rEBUS-guided procedures. CONCLUSIONS:If clinically indicated, it is reasonable to repeat rEBUS-guided TBB after an initial non-diagnostic procedure as the diagnostic yield will be at least 50% and the side effect profile is favorable. 10.1186/s12890-017-0478-3
    Diagnostic Value of Non-Real-Time Radial Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound (RP-EBUS) Guided Positioning Method for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions. Li Ning,Peng Yong,Chen Ying,Lv Yantian,Xu Guopeng,Ruan Ting Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of thin bronchoscopy lung biopsy for peripheral pulmonary lesions under non-real-time guidance of radial ultrasound (RP-EBUS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We used a retrospective analysis of ultrasound images of 165 patients with peripheral pulmonary disease admitted to Suzhou Municipal Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from February 2016 to December 2018 who were given RP-EBUS examination. Ultrasound images were obtained for all patients. There were 76 patients treated using traditional positioning method as the control group; 89 patients were treated by probe combined with bronchoscopy positioning method as the research group where the biopsy of the lesion along the path of the ultrasound probe was taken. The positive rate of the 2 methods was observed, and the factors affecting the quality of ultra-thin bronchoscopy under RP-EBUS non-real-time guidance were analyzed. RESULTS The detection rate of the study group was 77.64%, which was significantly higher than that in control group, which was 63.16% (χ²=5.238, P<0.05). The number of biopsies in the study group was 6±1.25, which was significantly lower than that of the control group which was 9±1.87 (t=4.116, P<0.05). The diagnostic positive rate of the RP-EBUS probe was significantly higher than that of the RP-EBUS probe (χ²=5.081, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The diagnostic positive rate of RP-EBUS non-real-time guided subtotal bronchoscopy lung biopsy for peripheral lung disease using probe combined with bronchoscopy positioning method was higher than the traditional positioning method, and the number of biopsies in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group, which was related to the size, location, whether the probe was wrapped, or the characteristics of the ultrasound image. 10.12659/MSM.918888
    Diagnostic Yield of Combined Pulmonary Cryobiopsies and Electromagnetic Navigation in Small Pulmonary Nodules. Taton Olivier,Bondue Benjamin,Gevenois Pierre Alain,Remmelink Myriam,Leduc Dimitri Pulmonary medicine Background:An increasing number of pulmonary nodules of unknown nature are detected as a result of screening by CT in high lung cancer risk patients. Objectives:The purposes of this study were to assess the diagnostic yield of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) combined with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) and to compare it with standard transbronchial biopsy (TBB) in pulmonary nodules of less than 2 cm in diameter. Methods:We prospectively included 32 patients (18 men and 14 women, mean age 68 ± 9 years) with nodules of less than 2 cm in diameter and no metastasis at FDG PET-CT. The nodule position was determined by ENB, radial endobronchial ultrasonography miniprobe, and fluoroscopy. Eight samples were obtained, six by TBB and two by TBLC. Results:Nodule diameter averaged 16 ± 3 mm. Twenty-five nodules were malignant and 18 were surgically resected. Surgery was avoided in four patients as the biopsies revealed a benign disease. The samples obtained by TBLC were five times larger than those by TBB. The diagnostic yields of TBLC and TBB were 69% and 38%, respectively (=0.017). Adverse events consisted in 15 mild or moderate bleedings and one pneumothorax. Conclusions:In the setting of peripheral pulmonary lesions of less than 20 mm in diameter, ENB-combined TBLC is feasible and safe, provides larger samples, and has higher diagnostic yield than TBB. 10.1155/2018/6032974
    Bronchoscopic navigation and tissue diagnosis. Ishiwata Tsukasa,Gregor Alexander,Inage Terunaga,Yasufuku Kazuhiro General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer has become increasingly important as the detection of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) grows with widespread adoption of CT-based lung cancer screening. Although CT-guided transthoracic needle aspiration has been the standard diagnostic approach for PPLs, transbronchial sampling by bronchoscopy is often performed due to its reduced rate of adverse events. However, the diagnostic yield of conventional bronchoscopy is often poor. Various bronchoscopic technologies have emerged over recent years to address this limitation, including thin/ultrathin bronchoscopes, radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (RP-EBUS), virtual navigation bronchoscopy (VBN), electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB), and robotic bronchoscopy. Bronchoscopic transparenchymal nodule access (BTPNA) and transbronchial access tool (TBAT) are novel techniques that leverage navigational bronchoscopic technologies to further improve access to lesions throughout the lung. The devices used for sampling tissue have similarly evolved, such as the introduction of cryobiopsy. These innovative bronchoscopic techniques allows higher diagnostic yield even in small PPLs. Given the complexity of these new techniques and technologies, it is important for physicians to understand their strengths and limitations. 10.1007/s11748-019-01241-0
    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided cryobiopsies in peripheral pulmonary lesions: a feasibility study. Schuhmann Maren,Bostanci Korkut,Bugalho António,Warth Arne,Schnabel Philipp A,Herth Felix J F,Eberhardt Ralf The European respiratory journal Peripheral lung lesions are sometimes difficult to reach even with endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and insufficient material is often obtained by transbronchial forceps biopsy. Cryoprobes can be used for performing tissue biopsies. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of the cryoprobe in combination with EBUS for the diagnosis of peripheral lung lesion. Patients with peripheral lung lesions of up to 4 cm were enrolled. After identifying the lung lesion by radial EBUS, forceps biopsies and cryobiopsies were performed in a randomised order. We evaluated safety and feasibility, and compared diagnostic yield and sample size. 39 patients were randomised and the peripheral lung lesion was reached in 31. The overall diagnostic yield was 60.5% and, in the lesions reached by EBUS, it was 74.2%. In 19 cases, the diagnosis was made with forceps as well as cryobiopsy and, in four cases, only with cryobiopsy. Cryobiopsies were significantly larger than forceps biopsies (11.17 mm(2) versus 4.69 mm(2), p<0.001). We observed one case of moderate bleeding. Transbronchial cryobiopsy with EBUS guidance is safe and useful to obtain histological samples. Larger tissue samples can be obtained by cryoprobe. 10.1183/09031936.00011313
    Cryobiopsy With Radial UltraSound Guidance (CYRUS): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study. Pannu Jasleen K,Roller Lance J,Lentz Robert J,Rickman Otis B,Aboudara Matthew C,Chen Heidi,Maldonado Fabien Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology BACKGROUND:Major airway bleeding is the most feared complication of transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBC). Radial endobronchial ultrasound (REBUS) has been used to assess the peripheral lung, primarily to identify pulmonary nodules, and also peripheral blood vessels. Using REBUS-guided TBC to avoid peripheral vasculature might reduce bleeding risk. This prospective randomized double-blind pilot trial was designed to investigate the feasibility of study procedures and inform the power calculation and clinical significance of a future large randomized trial. METHODS:Consecutive TBCs were randomized to be performed with or without REBUS guidance in the same patient. A nonblinded operator obtained each biopsy while a blinded second operator managed the bleeding after each biopsy and determined when hemostasis had been obtained. Feasibility of study procedures and the ability to recruit patients were of primary interest. Time to hemostasis after each biopsy was also examined. RESULTS:Forty TBCs were performed in 10 patients (4 biopsies per patient) over an enrollment period of 6 months. The time to control bleeding between biopsies was not statistically different between intervention and control arms [-14.3 (-120.1 to 92.0) s, P=0.7878]. Mean bleeding time was 139.4±59.895 seconds (REBUS 132.25± 89.305 s, non-REBUS 146.55±82.043 s). A trend towards the decreased grade of bleeding and less need for additional interventions was observed with REBUS use, but this difference did not reach statistical significance in this pilot investigation. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that REBUS-guided TBC is feasible. We did not observe any statistically significant difference in time to hemostasis or bleeding grade in this pilot study. 10.1097/LBR.0000000000000699
    Radial Probe Ultrasound-Guided Cryobiopsy. Berim Ilya G,Saeed Ali I,Awab Ahmed,Highley Adam,Colanta Agnes,Chaudry Fawad Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology Fluoroscopy-guided transbronchial forceps biopsy has a low diagnostic yield in patients with radiographic suspicion of interstitial lung disease. Cryobiopsy has a higher diagnostic yield likely due to preserved lung architecture and larger biopsies; however, there is an increased risk of major airway bleeding and pneumothorax. Simultaneous use of endobronchial balloon blocker allows for containment of bleeding after cryobiopsy to the affected lobe. In the current article we describe use of radial ultrasound in identification of a target lung parenchyma without a major blood vessel adjacent to distal bronchi. After fluoroscopic marking of the selected airway a 3 second cryobiopsy was performed after localization of cryoprobe. Simultaneous use of radial ultrasound and fluoroscopy can possibly decrease bleeding complication associated with cryobiopsy in patients with suspected interstitial lung disease. 10.1097/LBR.0000000000000368
    Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchialcryobiopsy in peripheral lung lesions; efficacy, safety, and comparison with transbronchial forceps biopsy. Torky Mohamed,Elshimy Wafaa S,Abdelwahab Mohamed,Attia Ghada A,Lopez Raquel,Mate Jose Luis,Centeno Carmen,Serra Pere,Tazi Mezalek Rachid,Pérez Eli Nancy,Manzano Juan Ruiz,Andreo Felipe,Rosell Antonio The clinical respiratory journal INTRODUCTION:Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (RP-EBUS) is a modern technique for diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. It is assumed that the addition of transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB) could increase the diagnostic value for RP-EBUS. OBJECTIVES:The main objectives were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RP-EBUS guided TBCB for diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions and comparing it with RP-EBUS guided transbronchial forceps biopsy. METHODS:60 patients with peripheral lung diseases were divided into two groups. Group I included 45 patients who were eligible for TBCB and they subjected to forceps transbronchial biopsy (forceps TBB) and TBCB guided by RP-EBUS. 15 patients who were not eligible for TBCB were included in group II and they were subjected to forceps TBB and / or cytology retrieval procedures guided by RP-EBUS. RESULTS:In group I, forceps TBB had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of; 67.5%, 100%, 100%, 18.8% and 69.8% respectively, while TBCB had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 75%, 100%, 100%, 23.1%, 76.7% respectively. The sensitivity in group II was 80% and the overall results including both groups were sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 85.2%, 100%, 100%, 42.8% and 86.7% respectively. Regarding the complications, only one patient (1.7%) had significant bleeding. One patient (1.7%) had pneumothorax and another patient (1.7%) suffered from hypoxemia. CONCLUSIONS:RP-EBUS guided TBCB is a safe and effective technique for diagnosis of peripheral lung lesions. TBCB has achieved higher diagnostic values and better quality of samples. 10.1111/crj.13301
    Endobronchial Ultrasound-Radial Probe-Assisted Cryobiopsy for Peripheral Lung Mass: A New Way for Better Yield? Goyal Rajiv,Gogia Pratibha,Chachra Vaibhav Journal of bronchology & interventional pulmonology Solitary pulmonary nodules pose a diagnostic challenge as traditional techniques like bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies or percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsies suffer either from poor yield or unacceptable complications. The advent of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-radial probe (RP) has helped to guide the operator to the lesion more accurately and thereby improve yield. Small biopsy forceps or cytology brushes can be passed through the guide sheath of the EBUS-RP, after removing the probe, to get specimens. However, a small specimen may sometimes prove inadequate for special molecular studies or genetic analysis. Recently, there have been feasibility reports of transbronchial cryobiopsies that can be safely performed with larger biopsy specimens. We report a case of solitary pulmonary nodules where EBUS-RP was used to guide a cryoprobe to get large transbronchial cryobiopsies successfully. 10.1097/LBR.0000000000000184
    Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) guided transbronchial cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of peripheral solitary pulmonary nodule. Kho S S,Tie S T The Medical journal of Malaysia Solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) always raises suspicion for early lung cancer, in which accurate and less invasive biopsy is needed. We report a case of transbronchial cryobiopsy of right upper lobe SPN under radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) guidance after an inconclusive computed tomography guided transthoracic needle aspiration. A diagnosis of Stage 1B adenocarcinoma of the lung was made. Patient subsequently underwent curative right upper lobectomy after ruling out mediastinal lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R-EBUS guided transbronchial cryobiopsy case reported from Malaysia.
    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy guided by endobronchial ultrasound radial miniprobe in interstitial lung diseases: preliminary results of a prospective study. Gnass Maciej,Filarecka Anna,Pankowski Juliusz,Soja Jerzy,Bugalho António,Szlubowski Artur Polish archives of internal medicine 10.20452/pamw.4253
    The value of using radial endobronchial ultrasound to guide transbronchial lung cryobiopsy. Gupta Ankit,Youness Houssein,Dhillon Samjot Singh,Harris Kassem Journal of thoracic disease Conventional transbronchial biopsies have a low diagnostic yield for interstitial lung disease (ILD) and peripheral lung nodules due to crush artifact and smaller tissue samples. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLC) circumvent these drawbacks but are associated with higher incidence of complications including life threatening airway bleeding and pneumothoraces. Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (RP-EBUS) can be used during the TBLC for assessing the biopsy site prior to the cryobiopsy to avoid vasculature and to decrease the risk of complications. There is no standardized protocol for this technique and the available literature mostly consists of single center case reports/series. The aim of this review is to investigate the existing literature for RP-EBUS assisted TBLC for diagnosing both ILD and peripheral lung nodules. We will describe the techniques used and compare the diagnostic yield and complication rates with other modalities. 10.21037/jtd.2018.10.116
    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy guided by radial mini-probe endobronchial ultrasound in interstitial lung diseases - a multicenter prospective study. Gnass Maciej,Filarecka Anna,Bartczak Artur,Szołkowska Małgorzata,Knapczyk Agnieszka,Lis Monika,Skrobot Monika,Soja Jerzy,Misiaszek Magadlena,Barszczok Łukasz,Czyżewski Damian,Szlubowski Artur Advances in respiratory medicine INTRODUCTION:Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is commonly used in diagnosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Ageneral anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, balloon blockers and fluoroscopy control is the most common modality. Simplifying the procedure without decreasing it's safety could result in wider use. Prospective, observational study was conducted in three Polish pulmonology centers to evaluate safety and diagnostic yield of TBLC under conscious sedation, without intubation and bronchial blockers and with radial-EBUS guidance instead of fluoroscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS:In patients suspected of ILD, in accordance with high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) selected lung segments were examined with radial-EBUS mini probe without aguide sheath. If the lung infiltrations were visible this locations were preferred. If not, specimens were taken from two different segments of the same lobe. Two to five biopsies with freezing time 5-8 seconds were performed. Moreover ultrasound examination was used to avoid injury of lung vessels. RESULTS:From March 2017 to September 2019 - 114 patients (M: 59, F: 55) of mean (SD) age 54 (14) years were included to the study on the basis of medical history and HRCT. Histopathology was conclusive in 90 (79%) patients and included 16 different diagnoses (sarcoidosis, EAA, COP predominantly). 24 inconclusive biopsies of unclassifiable pulmonary fibrosis were followed up. Complications included five cases (4.4%) of pneumothorax requiring achest tube drainage and aminor and moderate bleeding in few cases. There was no need for use of balloon bronchial blockers. CONCLUSIONS:TBLC under conscious sedation guided by radial EBUS mini-probe is novel, reasonable and safe technique for histological diagnosis of ILDs. 10.5603/ARM.2020.0086
    Molecular analysis of peripheral non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer sampled by radial EBUS. Guisier Florian,Salaün Mathieu,Lachkar Samy,Lamy Aude,Piton Nicolas,Obstoy Bérengère,Sabourin Jean-Christophe,Thiberville Luc Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Treatment optimization of non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancers (nonSq-NSCLC) relies on the molecular analysis of the tumour. We aimed to assess the predictive factors of molecular analysis feasibility (MAF) from samples of peripheral nonSq-NSCLC obtained by radial endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopy (r-EBUS) and 1.5 mm microbiopsy forceps. METHODS:We reviewed data from consecutive peripheral lung nodules sampled with r-EBUS between January 2012 and July 2014 at a single French University Hospital. nonSq-NSCLC were systematically analysed for EGFR, KRAS, ALK, HER2, PI3K and BRAF throughout the study, and c-MET and ROS1 alterations for the last 10 months. RESULTS:Of 111 nonSq-NSCLC diagnosed by r-EBUS (113 procedures, mean nodule diameter 28 ± 15 mm), 88 were analysed for EGFR and ALK, 87 for KRAS, 86 for HER2, PI3K and BRAF and 14 for c-MET. Forty-one mutations were identified (23 KRAS, 10 EGFR, 2 BRAF, 1 HER2 and 5 ALK rearrangements). Four c-MET overexpressions were noted. MAF rose from 67% for the first 57 procedures to 89% for the last 56 procedures (P = 0.02) likely due to a higher number of biopsies performed (2 ± 1 vs 3 ± 2, P = 0.005). Upper or middle lobe location (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38, P = 0.03), and at least three biopsies (OR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40, P = 0.02) were predictive factors of MAF. Percentage of tumour cells, size of lesion and distance to the pleura did not correlate with MAF. CONCLUSION:Multi-gene molecular analysis could be performed in nearly 80% of paraffin-embedded biopsies or smear specimens sampled by r-EBUS assisted bronchoscopy of peripheral tumoral lung nodules. 10.1111/resp.12737
    Small lung lesions invisible under fluoroscopy are located accurately by three-dimensional localization technique on chest wall surface and performed bronchoscopy procedures to increase diagnostic yields. Deng Chaosheng,Cao Xiaoming,Wu Dawen,Ding Haibo,You Ruixiong,Chen Qunlin,Chen Linying,Zhang Xin,Zhang Qiaoxian,Wu Yongquan BMC pulmonary medicine BACKGROUND:Nowadays, small peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) are frequently detected and the prognosis of lung cancer depends on the early diagnosis. Because of the high fee and requiring specialized training, many advanced techniques are not available in many developing countries and rural districts. METHODS:Three sets of opaque soft copper wires visible under the fluoroscopy (Flu) in the Flu-flexible bronchoscopy (FB) group (n = 24), which determined the three planes of the lesion, were respectively placed firmly on the surface of the chest wall with adhesive tape on the chest wall. The FB tip was advanced into the bronchus toward the crosspoint of the three perpendicular planes under Flu with careful rotation of a C-arm unit. Then the specimen were harvested focusing around the crosspoint for pathologic diagnosis. The rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) procedure was also performed. The average Flu time during FB procedures were recorded and diagnostic accuracy rates in the Flu-FB group were compared with the other group guided by radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) (n = 23). RESULTS:The location of the core point of the lesion, whether it was visible or not under the fluoroscopy could be recognized by three-dimensional localization technique. The accuracy rates of diagnostic yields were 62.5% in the Flu-FB group, and was similar as 65.2% in the R-EBUS group (P > 0.05). However, in the Flu-FB group, there was a decreasing tendency on accurate diagnosis rates of lower lobe (LL) lesions when comparing with non-LL lesions (3/8 = 37.5% vs 12/16 = 75%, P = 0.091) while in the R-EBUS group it was similar (9/12 = 75% vs 6/11 = 54.6%, P = 0.278). In the Flu-FB group, fluoroscopy time was negatively correlated with the lesion length (r = -0.613, P = 0.001), however, there was no significant difference between the lesions invisible or not (5.83 ± 1.45 min vs 7.67 ± 2.02 min, P = 0.116) under the fluoroscopy, as well as no significant difference among SPN, mGGO and GGO (6.12 ± 2.05 min, 7.25 ± 1.33 min and 7.80 ± 2.02 min, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Small PPL whether it is visible or not under fluoroscopy can be located accurately by our three-dimensional localization technique on chest wall surface and performed bronchoscopy procedures to increase diagnostic yields. It is more convenient, economical and reliable with the similar diagnostic yields than R-EBUS guided method. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR-DDD-16009715 . The date of registration: 3rd Nov, 2016. Retrospectively registered. 10.1186/s12890-016-0328-8
    Improved diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in peripheral pulmonary lesions: combination of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound and rapid on-site evaluation. Chen Chia-Hung,Cheng Wen-Chien,Wu Biing-Ru,Chen Chih-Yu,Chen Wei-Chun,Hsia Te-Chun,Liao Wei-Chih,Tu Chih-Yen,Shih Chuen-Ming,Hsu Wu-Huei,Wang Ko-Pen Journal of thoracic disease BACKGROUND:Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytologic specimens is a useful ancillary technique in needle aspiration procedures of pulmonary/mediastinal lesions, but few reports had been carried out to confirm the utility in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) by radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS). METHODS:To evaluate the impact of ROSE on the diagnostic yield of R-EBUS for PPLs, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic yields of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) or brushing using R-EBUS for patients with PPLs in a tertiary university hospital from December 2012 to December 2014. RESULTS:A total of 815 patients with PPLs were included. A definite diagnosis was made by R-EBUS-guided TBB or brushing for 627 patients (76.9%). A total of 279 patients (34.2%) were examined by a ROSE technique. The combination of R-EBUS guided TBB or brushing with ROSE raised the diagnostic yield in the diagnosis of PPLs, especially difficult cases: right apical and left apical-posterior segment locations, small PPLs <3 cm without bronchus signs on computed tomography (CT) scan, PPLs with pleural effusions, and the position of probe is not within. CONCLUSIONS:ROSE can improve the PPLs diagnostic yield when using R-EBUS guided TBB or brushing. 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.12.13
    Robotic Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: A Multicenter Pilot and Feasibility Study. Chen Alexander C,Pastis Nicholas J,Mahajan Amit K,Khandhar Sandeep J,Simoff Michael J,Machuzak Michael S,Cicenia Joseph,Gildea Thomas R,Silvestri Gerard A Chest BACKGROUND:The diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL) continues to present clinical challenges. Despite extensive experience with guided bronchoscopy, the diagnostic yield has not improved significantly. Robotic-assisted bronchoscopic platforms have been developed potentially to improve the diagnostic yield for PPL. Presently, limited data exist that evaluate the performance of robotic systems in live human subjects. RESEARCH QUESTION:What is the safety and feasibility of robotic-assisted bronchoscopy in patients with PPLs? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:This was a prospective, multicenter pilot and feasibility study that used a robotic bronchoscopic system with a mother-daughter configuration in patients with PPL 1 to 5 cm in size. The primary end points were successful lesion localization with the use of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) imaging and incidence of procedure related adverse events. Robotic bronchoscopy was performed in patients with the use of direct visualization, electromagnetic navigation, and fluoroscopy. After the use of R-EBUS imaging, transbronchial needle aspiration was performed. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) was used on all cases. Transbronchial needle aspiration alone was sufficient when ROSE was diagnostic; when ROSE was not diagnostic, transbronchial biopsy was performed with the use of the robotic platform, followed by conventional guided bronchoscopic approaches at the discretion of the investigator. RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were enrolled at five centers. One patient withdrew consent, which left 54 patients for data analysis. Median lesion size was 23 mm (interquartile range, 15 to 29 mm). R-EBUS images were available in 53 of 54 cases. Lesion localization was successful in 51 of 53 patients (96.2%). Pneumothorax was reported in two of 54 of the cases (3.7%); tube thoracostomy was required in one of the cases (1.9 %). No additional adverse events occurred. INTERPRETATION:This is the first, prospective, multicenter study of robotic bronchoscopy in patients with PPLs. Successful lesion localization was achieved in 96.2% of cases, with an adverse event rate comparable with conventional bronchoscopic procedures. Additional large prospective studies are warranted to evaluate procedure characteristics, such as diagnostic yield. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03727425. 10.1016/j.chest.2020.08.2047