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    Reliability of PD-L1 assays using small tissue samples compared with surgical specimens. Kim Insu,Kim Ahrong,Lee Chang Hun,Lee Geewon,Kim Ahreum,Jo Eun Jung,Kim Mi-Hyun,Mok Jeongha,Lee Kwangha,Kim Ki Uk,Park Hye-Kyung,Lee Min Ki,Eom Jung Seop Medicine Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays are widely used for complementary or companion diagnostic purposes during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, limited information is available on the clinical reliability of the PD-L1 IHC assay using small biopsy samples.Participants included 46 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who underwent PD-L1 testing using 3 PD-L1 IHC assays (22C3, SP142, and SP263) for both small biopsy samples and surgical specimens from November 2017 to June 2018. The PD-L1 IHC assay results were analyzed with cut-off values of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 50%. The PD-L1 IHC results obtained from the surgical specimens were regarded as the reference values.The 22C3, SP142, and SP263 PD-L1 IHC assays were performed in 26 (57%), 20 (43%), and 46 (100%) patients, respectively. Biopsy methods included radial probe endobronchial ultrasound using a guide sheath, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, bronchoscopic biopsy, and percutaneous needle aspiration in 26 (57%), 4 (9%), 12 (25%), and 4 (9%) patients, respectively. The 22C3, SP142, and SP263 PD-L1 assays had concordance rates of 73-96, 65-80, and 72%-91%, respectively, compared with the reference values.PD-L1 testing with 3 commercial PD-L1 IHC assays using small biopsy samples is reliable in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. 10.1097/MD.0000000000014972
    The use of endobronchial ultrasonography in assessment of bronchial wall remodeling in patients with asthma. Soja Jerzy,Grzanka Piotr,Sładek Krzysztof,Okoń Krzysztof,Ćmiel Adam,Mikoś Magdalena,Mikrut Sławomir,Pulka Grażyna,Gross-Sondej Iwona,Niżankowska-Mogilnicka Ewa,Szczeklik Andrzej Chest BACKGROUND:Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a new technique that enables the assessment of bronchial wall layers. The aim of the study was to verify the utility of EBUS for the assessment of bronchial wall remodeling in patients with asthma. METHODS:In 35 patients with asthma and 23 control subjects, high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning and EBUS were used to measure bronchial wall thickness in the 10th segment of the right lung. With a radial 20-MHz probe, EBUS identified the 5-laminar structure of the bronchial wall. Layer 1 (L(1)) and layer 2 (L(2)) were analyzed separately, and layers 3 through 5 (L(3-5)), which corresponded to cartilage, were analyzed jointly. Digitalized EBUS images were used for the quantitative assessment of bronchial wall thickness and the wall area (WA) of the layers. Finally, bronchial biopsy specimens were taken for measuring the thickness of the reticular basement membrane (RBM). The thickness and WA of the bronchial wall layers, which were assessed using EBUS, were correlated with FEV(1) and RBM. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in the measurements of total bronchial wall thickness using EBUS and HRCT scanning. The thickness and WA of the bronchial wall and its layers were significantly greater in patients with asthma than in the control subjects. A negative correlation among the thicknesses of L(1), L(2), and L(3-5) and FEV(1), and a positive correlation with RBM were observed only in the patients with asthma. CONCLUSIONS:EBUS allows precise measurement of the thickness and WA of bronchial wall layers. The correlation of these parameters with asthma severity suggests implementation of EBUS in the assessment of bronchial wall remodeling in patients with asthma. 10.1378/chest.08-2759
    The Value of Combined Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Lung Biopsy and Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Peripheral Pulmonary Infectious Lesions. Li Guangsheng,Huang Jie,Li Yuechuan,Feng Jing Canadian respiratory journal Background:Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a new technology that allows for unbiased detection of pathogens. However, there are few reports on mNGS of lung biopsy tissues for pulmonary infection diagnosis. In addition, radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) is widely used to detect peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs), but it is rarely used in the diagnosis of peripheral lung infection. Objective:The present study aims to evaluate the combined application of R-EBUS-guided transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) and mNGS for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary infectious lesions. Methods:From July 2018 to April 2019, 121 patients from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital diagnosed with PPLs and lung infection were enrolled in this prospective randomized study . Once the lesion was located, either TBLB or R-EBUS-guided-TBLB was performed in randomly selected patients, and mNGS was applied for pathogen detection in lung biopsy tissues. The results of mNGS were compared between the TBLB group and R-EBUS-guided TBLB group. In addition, the clinical characteristics and EBUS images from 61 patients receiving bronchoscopy for peripheral lung infectious detection were analyzed and compared with the results of mNGS. Results:The positivity rate of mNGS in R-EBUS-guided TBLB was (78.7%, 48/61) that was significantly higher than (60.0%, 36/60) in the TBLB group. Difference in the position of R-EBUS probe and image characteristics of peripheral lung infectious lesions affected the positivity rate of mNGS. Tissue collected by R-EBUS within the lesion produced higher positivity rate than samples collected adjacent to the lesion (=0.030, odds ratio 17.742; 95% confidence interval, from 1.325 to 237.645). Anechoic areas and luminant areas of ultrasonic image characteristics were correlated with lower positivity rate of mNGS (respectively, =0.019, odds ratio 17.878; 95% confidence interval, from 1.595 to 200.399; =0.042, odds ratio 16.745; 95% confidence interval, from 1.106 to 253.479). Conclusions:R-EBUS-guided TBLB is a safe and effective technique in the diagnosis of peripheral lung infectious lesions. R-EBUS significantly facilitates the accurate insertion of bronchoscope into the lesions, which improves positivity rate of mNGS analysis in pathogen detection. The R-EBUS probe position within lesion produced a higher positivity rate of mNGS analysis. Nevertheless, the presence of anechoic and luminant areas on ultrasonic image was correlated with poor mNGS positivity rate. 10.1155/2020/2367505
    Comparison of endobronchial ultrasound and high resolution computed tomography as tools for airway wall imaging in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Gorska Katarzyna,Korczynski Piotr,Mierzejewski Michal,Kosciuch Justyna,Zukowska Malgorzata,Maskey-Warzechowska Marta,Krenke Rafal Respiratory medicine INTRODUCTION:Airway remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in bronchial wall thickening. Bronchial wall thickness (BWT) can be assessed in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS). AIMS:To compare BWT measured by EBUS and HRCT in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and COPD, and to evaluate the relationship between the BWT and pulmonary function. METHODS:The study included patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (n = 24), COPD (n = 36) and controls (n = 12). Bronchoscopy with EBUS (radial probe) and HRCT were performed to measure the BWT in the segmental bronchus. RESULTS:Good overall agreement between EBUS and HRCT measurements of BWT was demonstrated. Median HRCT-BWT did not reveal any significant differences between individuals with asthma and COPD, and control subjects: 1.56 (1.27-1.70) mm, 1.62 (1.45-1.90) mm, and 1.63 (1.41-1.77) mm, respectively (p = 0.315). In contrast, median BWT measured by EBUS was significantly higher in asthma and COPD groups when compared to controls: 1.20 (1.02-1.41) mm, 1.19 (1.10-1.48) mm, and 0.99 (0.90-1.08) mm, respectively (p = 0.006). There were no differences in BWT in mild-to-moderate asthma and COPD or significant correlations between BWT and the results of pulmonary function tests. CONCLUSIONS:The use of EBUS to assess BWT in asthma and COPD is feasible and it shows good compatibility with HRCT. A tendency towards lower BWT values in EBUS when compared to HRCT was observed. The finding that EBUS measurements demonstrated the differences between BWT in patients with obstructive lung diseases and controls, may suggest that EBUS is a more sensitive method to study the BWT than HRCT. 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.06.011
    GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis diagnosis. Sánchez-Cabral Olivia,Santillán-Díaz Cira,Flores-Bello Ángel Paul,Herrera-Ortega Mildred Ivannia,Sandoval-Gutiérrez José Luis,Santillán-Doherty Patricio,Martínez-Mendoza Dina Annals of translational medicine Background:Early tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic is one of the critical steps to TB control. GeneXpert MTB/RIF has been widely proven for a prompt TB diagnosis. The use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy samples may increase diagnostic accuracy. We aim to assess the diagnostic of TB with GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy. Methods:Patients with suspected diagnosis of TB and negative smear microscopies, with TB culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were enrolled from 2016 to 2018 at National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Mexico. Results:We included 54 patients (77.8% males) aged 30 to 65 years. The sensitivity of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy was 81.3% (95% CI, 62.1-100%), with a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 100-100%) and a negative predictive value of 92.7% (95% CI, 84.7-100%). Twenty-two patients of the total population have HIV, the sensitivity of the test in these patients was 87.5% (95% CI, 64.6-100%). Also, 28 patients with a peripheral localized lesion which had a solid pattern were identified (51.9%). The sensitivity in patients with peripheral localized lesions was 88.9% (68.4-100%). Conclusions:The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay with transbronchial lung cryobiopsy test is as efficient as broncho alveolar lavage for TB diagnosis. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy increases a major diagnostic opportunity when the nature of illness is malignant. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy is efficient in HIV patients, especially in patients with peripheral localized lesion. 10.21037/atm.2020.02.100