Acidic electrolyzed water efficiently improves the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Mopan) wine.
Zhu Wanqi,Zhu Baoqing,Li Yao,Zhang Yanyan,Zhang Bolin,Fan Junfeng
The ability of acidic (AcW) and alkaline electrolyzed waters (AlW) to improve the flavour of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) wine was evaluated. Wines made with AcW (WAcW) were significantly better than wines made with AlW or pure water (PW) in aroma, taste, and colour. Volatile analysis showed that WAcW has high alcohol and ester contents, including 2-phenylethanol, isopentanol, isobutanol, ethyl dodecanoate, phenethyl acetate, and butanedioic acid diethyl ester. The total amino acid content of persimmon slurry soaked with AcW reached 531.2 mg/l, which was much higher than those of the slurries soaked in AlW (381.3 mg/l) and PW (182.7 mg/l). The composition of major amino acids in the AcW-soaked slurry may contribute to the strong ester flavour of WAcW. This is the first report to suggest that electrolyzed functional water (EFW) can be used to improve wine flavour, leading to the possible use of EFW in food processing.
Effect of reduced glutathione on the quality characteristics of apple wine during alcoholic fermentation.
Xu Junnan,Qi Yiman,Zhang Jie,Liu Miaomiao,Wei Xinyuan,Fan Mingtao
To investigate the effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) on the quality characteristics of apple wine, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L of GSH were added to apple juice before alcoholic fermentation. Meanwhile, apple wine fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae which had been pre-incubated with GSH (100 mg/L) was another experimental group. Mono-phenols, GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were determined by HPLC. Aroma compounds were analysed by GC-MS. Further, E-nose was applied to monitor the odor. After fermentation, GSH content was the same in all of the samples. However, for the apple wine with GSH addition, GSSG content increased significantly. Notably, GSH could reduce the color index, protect chlorogenic acid and phloretin, decrease the content of epicatechin and catechin as well as change the profile of aroma compounds (higher levels of 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl benzoate, linalool, etc.). GSH may be used for flavor enhancement and quality improvement of apple wine.