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    Melatonin treatment in peri- and postmenopausal women elevates serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels without influencing total cholesterol levels. Tamura Hiroshi,Nakamura Yasuhiko,Narimatsu Akio,Yamagata Yoshiaki,Takasaki Akihisa,Reiter Russel J,Sugino Norihiro Journal of pineal research The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism in peri- and postmenopausal women. Forty-six women were enrolled in these studies. The relationship between night-time serum melatonin levels and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was investigated in 36 women. Night-time serum melatonin levels had a negative correlation with serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and a loose positive correlation with HDL-cholesterol. To examine the effects of exogenous melatonin on lipid metabolism, serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were determined in 10 women before the onset of therapy and after 1 month of oral melatonin administration (1 mg melatonin daily). Melatonin administration significantly increased the serum levels of HDL-cholesterol. These results show that melatonin may influence cholesterol metabolism and suggest that the melatonin administration may become a new medical application for improvement of lipid metabolism and prevention of cardiovascular disease in peri- and postmenopausal women. 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2008.00561.x
    Cardiovascular diseases: protective effects of melatonin. Tengattini Sandra,Reiter Russel J,Tan Dun-Xian,Terron M Pilar,Rodella Luigi F,Rezzani Rita Journal of pineal research This brief review considers some of the cardiac diseases and conditions where free radicals and related reactants are believed to be causative. The report also describes the beneficial actions of melatonin against oxidative cardiovascular disorders. Based on the data available, melatonin seems to have cardioprotective properties via its direct free radical scavenger and its indirect antioxidant activity. Melatonin efficiently interacts with various reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (receptor independent actions) and it also upregulates antioxidant enzymes and downregulates pro-oxidant enzymes (receptor-dependent actions). Moreover, melatonin enters all cells and subcellular compartments and crosses morphophysiologic barriers. These findings have implications for the protective effects of melatonin against cardiac diseases induced by oxidative stress. Melatonin attenuates molecular and cellular damages resulting from cardiac ischemia/reperfusion in which destructive free radicals are involved. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of melatonin are also involved in the protection against a chronic vascular disease, atherosclerosis. The administration of melatonin, as a result of its antioxidant features, has been reported to reduce hypertension and cardiotoxicity induced by clinically used drugs. The results described herein help to clarify the beneficial effects of melatonin against these conditions and define the potential clinical applicability of melatonin in cardiovascular diseases. 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2007.00518.x
    Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system. Paredes Sergio D,Forman Katherine A,García Cruz,Vara Elena,Escames Germaine,Tresguerres Jesús A F Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart. 10.1515/hmbci-2014-0016
    Cardiovascular effects of melatonin receptor agonists. Paulis Ludovit,Simko Fedor,Laudon Moshe Expert opinion on investigational drugs INTRODUCTION:Melatonin synchronizes circadian rhythms with light/dark period and it was demonstrated to correct chronodisruption. Several melatonin receptor agonists with improved pharmacokinetics or increased receptor affinity are being developed, three of them are already in clinical use. However, the actions of melatonin extend beyond chronobiology to cardiovascular and metabolic systems as well. Given the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and their common occurrence with chronodisruption, it is of utmost importance to classify the cardiometabolic effects of the newly approved and putative melatoninergic drugs. AREAS COVERED:In the present review, the available (although very sparse) data on such effects, in particular by the approved (circadin, ramelteon, agomelatine) or clinically advanced (tasimelteon, piromelatine = Neu-P11, TIK-301) compounds are summarized. The authors have searched for an association with blood pressure, vascular reactivity, ischemia, myocardial and vascular remodeling and metabolic syndrome. EXPERT OPINION:The data suggest that cardiovascular effects of melatonin are at least partly mediated via MT(1)/MT(2) receptors and associated with its chronobiotic action. Therefore, despite the sparse direct evidence, it is believed that these effects will be shared by melatonin analogs as well. With the expected approval of novel melatoninergic compounds, it is suggested that the investigation of their cardiovascular effects should no longer be neglected. 10.1517/13543784.2012.714771
    Melatonin and cardiovascular disease: myth or reality? Dominguez-Rodriguez Alberto,Abreu-Gonzalez Pedro,Reiter Russel J Revista espanola de cardiologia (English ed.) 10.1016/j.recesp.2011.10.009
    Beneficial effects of melatonin in cardiovascular disease. Reiter Russel J,Tan Dun-Xian,Paredes Sergio D,Fuentes-Broto Lorena Annals of medicine The experimental data obtained from both human and rodent studies suggest that melatonin may have utility in the treatment of several cardiovascular conditions. In particular, melatonin's use in reducing the severity of essential hypertension should be more widely considered. In rodent studies melatonin has been shown to be highly effective in limiting abnormal cardiac physiology and the loss of critical heart tissue resulting from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Melatonin may also be useful in reducing cardiac hypertrophy in some situations and thereby limiting the frequency of heart failure. Finally, some conventional drugs currently in use have cardiotoxicity as a side-effect. Based on studies in rodents, melatonin, due to its multiple anti-oxidative actions, is highly effective in abrogating drug-mediated damage to the heart. Taken together, the findings from human and animal studies support the consideration of melatonin as a cardioprotective agent. 10.3109/07853890903485748
    Clinical Application of Melatonin in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases: Current Evidence and New Insights into the Cardioprotective and Cardiotherapeutic Properties. Pourhanifeh Mohammad Hossein,Dehdashtian Ehsan,Hosseinzadeh Azam,Sezavar Seyed Hashem,Mehrzadi Saeed Cardiovascular drugs and therapy Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading global cause of mortality and disability, tending to happen in younger individuals in developed countries. Despite improvements in medical treatments, the therapy and long-term prognosis of CVDs such as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, atherosclerosis, heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and other CVDs threatening human life are not satisfactory enough. Therefore, many researchers are attempting to identify novel potential therapeutic methods for the treatment of CVDs. Melatonin is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent with a wide range of therapeutic properties. Recently, several investigations have been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness and efficiency in CVDs therapy, focusing on mechanistic pathways. Herein, this review aims to summarize current findings of melatonin treatment for CVDs. 10.1007/s10557-020-07052-3
    Effects of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases: progress in the past year. Sun Hang,Gusdon Aaron M,Qu Shen Current opinion in lipidology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland. Numerous studies have suggested that melatonin plays an important role in various cardiovascular diseases. In this article, recent progress regarding melatonin's effects on cardiovascular diseases is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS:In the past year, studies have focused on the mechanism of protection of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial hypoxia-reoxygenation injury, pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, atherosclerosis, valvular heart diseases, and other cardiovascular diseases. SUMMARY:Studies have demonstrated that melatonin has significant effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial chronic intermittent hypoxia injury, pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, valvular heart diseases, vascular diseases, and lipid metabolism. As an inexpensive and well tolerated drug, melatonin may be a new therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000314
    Melatonin in cardiovascular disease. Dominguez-Rodriguez Alberto Expert opinion on investigational drugs This editorial refers to "Cardiovascular effects of melatonin receptor agonists". The hormone melatonin is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland, retina, several peripheral tissues and organs. In the circulation, the concentration of melatonin follows a circadian rhythm, with high levels at night providing timing cues to target tissues endowed with melatonin receptors. Based on the data available, the last 18 years indicate that melatonin influences multiple factors of the cardiovascular function. Multiple evidences reveal that the rhythmicity of melatonin has a crucial role in a variety of cardiovascular pathophysiological processes including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and possibly as an antilipidemic function. Melatonin receptors receive and transduce melatonin's message to influence daily and seasonal rhythms of physiology. The melatonin message is translated through the interaction between the melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) and its coupling to G proteins, which are potential therapeutic targets in disorders ranging from insomnia, circadian sleep disorders, depression and cardiovascular diseases. Based on the data available, melatonin seems to have cardioprotective properties via its direct free radical scavenger activity. Melatonin efficiently interacts with several reactive oxygen species (receptor-independent actions). Collectively, these protective actions of melatonin may have potential clinical applicability for individuals with cardiovascular disease. 10.1517/13543784.2012.716037