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    Causes and risk factors for acute dialysis initiation among patients with end-stage kidney disease-a large retrospective observational cohort study. Arulkumaran Nish,Navaratnarajah Arunraj,Pillay Camilla,Brown Wendy,Duncan Neill,McLean Adam,Taube David,Brown Edwina A Clinical kidney journal Background:Patients who require acute initiation of dialysis have higher mortality rates when compared with patients with planned starts. Our primary objective was to explore the reasons and risk factors for acute initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Our secondary objective was to determine the difference in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) change in the year preceding RRT between elective and acute dialysis starts. Methods:We conducted a single-centre retrospective observational study. ESKD patients either started dialysis electively (planned starters) or acutely and were known to renal services for >90 (unplanned starters) or <90 days (urgent starters). Results:In all, 825 consecutive patients initiated dialysis between January 2013 and December 2015. Of these, 410 (49.7%) patients had a planned start. A total of 415 (50.3%) patients had an acute start on dialysis: 244 (58.8%) unplanned and 171 (41.2%) urgent. The reasons for acute dialysis initiation included acute illness (58%) and unexplained decline to ESKD (33%). Cardiovascular disease [ = 30 (22%)] and sepsis [ = 65 (48%)] accounted for the majority of acute systemic illness. Age and premorbid cardiovascular disease were independent risk factors for acute systemic illness among unplanned starts, whereas autoimmune disease accounted for the majority of urgent starts. The rate of decline in GFR was greater in the month preceding RRT among acute dialysis starters compared with planned starters (P < 0.001). Conclusions:Cardiovascular disease and advancing age were independent risk factors for emergency dialysis initiation among patients known to renal services for >3 months. The rapid and often unpredictable loss of renal function in the context of acute systemic illness poses a challenge to averting emergency dialysis start. 10.1093/ckj/sfy118
    Once-monthly continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) for haemoglobin maintenance in haemodialysis patients with chronic renal anaemia. Duman Neval,Uyanik Abdullah,Unsal Abdulkadir,Sezer Siren,Camsari Taner,Cirit Mustafa,Yilmaz Mehmet Emin,Altun Bülent,Duranay Murat,Yildiz Alaattin,Sahin Idris,Dogukan Ayhan,Ustundag Sedat,Karayaylali Ibrahim,Kahveci Arzu,Sindel Sukru,Kiykim Ahmet Alper,Yenicerioglu Yavuz,Akbas Ertugrul,Ozdener Fatih Clinical kidney journal BACKGROUND:This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-monthly continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) for maintenance of stable haemoglobin (Hb) levels in adult chronic renal anaemia patients on dialysis according to local clinical judgment in Turkey. METHODS:This was a prospective, open-label, single-arm, multi-centre study conducted in 20 centres in Turkey. After a 4-week screening period, eligible patients receiving conventional erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were converted to monthly intravenous CERA and entered a 16-week CERA dose-titration period (DTP) followed by an 8-week efficacy evaluation period (EEP) and a 4-week safety follow-up. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients whose Hb concentration remained stable within ±1.0 g/dL of their reference Hb and within the range of 10.0-12.0 g/dL during the EEP. RESULTS:A total of 173 patients were screened, 132 entered the DTP and 84 completed the study. Thirty-nine patients [46.4% (95% confidence interval: 35.5-57.7%)] maintained stable target Hb concentrations. The mean change in time-adjusted average Hb concentration was 0.29 ± 1.08 g/dL between baseline and the EEP. The mean CERA monthly dose was 112.4 ± 76.78 µg during the EEP, and the CERA dose was adjusted in 39 patients (36.4%). Eleven patients (8.4%) reported 13 treatment-related adverse events, the most frequent adverse events being infections and infestations, gastrointestinal and vascular disorders. CONCLUSIONS:Once-monthly CERA maintains stable Hb concentrations in chronic renal anaemia patients on dialysis in Turkey. The study results confirm the known efficacy and safety profile of CERA. 10.1093/ckj/sfu079
    Anemia management trends in hospital-based dialysis centers (HBDCs), 2010 to 2013. Coritsidis George N,Maglinte Gregory A,Acharya Anjali,Saxena Anjali,Chang Chun-Lan,Hill Jerrold,Gitlin Matthew,Lafayette Richard A Clinical therapeutics BACKGROUND:Few data have been reported on anemia management practices in hospital-based dialysis centers (HBDCs), which are uniquely different from other freestanding dialysis centers. Examining data from HBDCs would help determine if HBDCs and the general US dialysis population have similar trends related to how anemia is managed in dialysis patients. OBJECTIVE:Given recent changes in the prescribing information of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and in end-stage renal disease-related health policy and reimbursement, this study describes trends in anemia management practices in HBDCs from January 2010 through March 2013. METHODS:Electronic medical records of 5404 adult hemodialysis patients in 50 US-based HBDCs were analyzed retrospectively. Patients included in the study cohort were aged ≥18 years and had at least 1 hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and 1 dose of an ESA between January 2010 and March 2013. End points included Hb concentration, darbepoetin alfa dosing, epoetin alfa dosing, and iron biomarkers (transferrin saturation and ferritin) and dosing. RESULTS:From 2010 to 2013, mean monthly Hb levels declined from 11.4 to 10.7 g/dL; the percentage of patients with mean monthly Hb levels <10 g/dL increased from 11.3% to 24.4%; and the percentage of patients with mean monthly Hb levels >12 g/dL declined from 30.1% to 11.2%. The median darbepoetin alfa cumulative 4-week dose also declined 38.8%, and the weekly epoetin alfa dose declined 24%. From January 2010 to March 2013, the percentage of patients with transferrin saturation >30% increased from 35.8% to 43.6%, the percentage of patients with ferritin levels >500 ng/mL increased from 62.0% to 77.9%, the percentage of patients with ferritin levels ≥800 ng/mL increased from 28.9% to 47.3%, and the median cumulative 4-week intravenous iron dose increased 50%. CONCLUSIONS:These study results support growing evidence that meaningful changes have occurred over the last 3 years in how anemia is clinically managed in US hemodialysis patients. Study limitations include that changes in patient clinical/demographic characteristics over time were not controlled for and that study findings may not be applicable to HBDCs that have different patient populations and/or do not use an electronic medical record system. Continuing to evaluate anemia management practices in HBDCs would provide additional information on the risks and benefits of anemia care. Consistent with national data, the findings from this study indicate that from 2010 to 2013, HBDCs modified anemia management practices for dialysis patients, as evidenced by reductions in mean monthly Hb levels and ESA dosing and by increases in iron biomarkers and dosing. 10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.01.015
    Ovarian fibrothecoma in a young pregnant woman with lupus nephritis undergoing hemodialysis. Gołasa Paulina,Woziwodzka Karolina,Krzanowski Marcin,Urbanik Andrzej,Kuźniewski Marek,Krzanowska Katarzyna Polish archives of internal medicine 10.20452/pamw.4484
    Serum Potassium Levels and Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Yusuf Akeem A,Hu Yan,Singh Bhupinder,Menoyo José A,Wetmore James B American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Hyperkalemia is common in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. However, few studies have examined the association between serum potassium level and mortality. METHODS:This study used annual cohorts of hemodialysis patients during 2007-2010. To determine hyperkalemia prevalence, monthly hyperkalemia was defined as serum potassium level ≥5.5 mEq/l; prevalence was calculated as a ratio of hyperkalemia episodes to follow-up time, reported separately by long and short interdialytic interval. To determine the impact of hyperkalemia on mortality, patients in the 2010 cohort were followed from first potassium measurement until death or a censoring event; hyperkalemia was defined, sequentially, by potassium levels 5.5-6.0 mEq/l at 0.1 mEq/l intervals. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association between hyperkalemia and mortality. RESULTS:The 4 annual cohorts ranged from 28,774 to 36,888 patients. Mean age was approximately 63 years, about 56% were men, 51% were white and 44% had end-stage renal disease caused by diabetes. Hyperkalemia prevalence was consistently estimated at 16.3-16.8 events per 100 patient-months. Prevalence on the day after the long interdialytic interval was 2.0-2.4 times as high as on the day after the short interval. Hyperkalemia, when defined as serum potassium ≥5.7 mEq/l, was associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio (AHR) 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.28, p = 0.037, vs. <5.7 mEq/l) after adjustment. AHRs increased progressively as the hyperkalemia threshold increased, reaching 1.37 (95% CI 1.16-1.62, p < 0.0001) for ≥6.0 mEq/l. CONCLUSIONS:The long interdialytic interval was associated with increased likelihood of hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia was associated with all-cause mortality beginning at serum potassium ≥5.7 mEq/l; mortality risk estimates increased ordinally through ≥6.0 mEq/l, suggesting a threshold at which serum potassium becomes substantially more dangerous. 10.1159/000448341
    Treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis. Cozzolino Mario,Messa Piergiorgio Polish archives of internal medicine 10.20452/pamw.4170
    Novel Approach to Cardiovascular Outcome Prediction in Haemodialysis Patients. Chiu Diana,Abidin Nik,Johnstone Laura,Chong Michelle,Kataria Vaidehi,Sewell Janet,Sinha Smeeta,Kalra Philip A,Green Darren American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular mortality is high in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Arterial stiffness and global longitudinal strain (GLS) are important non-atheromatous cardiovascular risk predictors. No study has encompassed both parameters in a combined model for prediction of outcomes in HD patients. This is important because left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can result from fibrotic remodelling secondary to increased arterial stiffness. METHODS:Two hundred and nineteen HD patients had pulse wave velocity (PWV) and echocardiography (including GLS) assessments. Patients were followed-up until death, transplantation or November 16, 2015, whichever happened first. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine factors associated with PWV and GLS. A multivariable Cox regression model investigated factors associated with all-cause, cardiac death and events. RESULTS:One hundred and ninety eight HD patients had full datasets (median age 64.2, 68.7% males) with a mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 61.7 ± 10.1% and GLS -13.5 ± 3.3%; 51% had LV hypertrophy. Forty eight deaths (15 cardiac) and 44 major cardiac events occurred during a median follow-up of 27.6 (25th-75th percentile, 17.3-32.7) months. In separate survival models, PWV and GLS were independently associated with all-cause mortality; however, in a combined model, LV mass indexed to height2.7 (LVMI/HT2.7; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and PWV (adjusted HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.47) were significant. PWV was neither associated with cardiac death nor associated with related cardiac events. However, GLS was associated with cardiac death (adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.54) and cardiac events (adjusted HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.25). CONCLUSIONS:PWV and LVMI/HT2.7 were superior to GLS in prediction of all-cause mortality. However, GLS was associated with cardiac death and events even when accounting for LVEF and LVMI/HT2.7. 10.1159/000444924
    The first year on haemodialysis: a critical transition. Broers Natascha J H,Cuijpers Anne C M,van der Sande Frank M,Leunissen Karel M L,Kooman Jeroen P Clinical kidney journal The first year following the start of haemodialysis (HD) is associated with increased mortality, especially during the first 90-120 days after the start of dialysis. Whereas the start of dialysis has important effects on the internal environment of the patient, there are relatively few studies assessing changes in phenotype and underlying mechanisms during the transition period following pre-dialysis to dialysis care, although more insight into these parameters is of importance in unravelling the causes of this increased early mortality. In this review, changes in cardiovascular, nutritional and inflammatory parameters during the first year of HD, as well as changes in physical and functional performance are discussed. Treatment-related factors that might contribute to these changes include vascular access and pre-dialysis care, dialysate prescription and the insufficient correction of the internal environment by current dialysis techniques. Patient-related factors include the ongoing loss of residual renal function and the progression of comorbid disease. Identifying phenotypic changes and targeting risk patterns might improve outcome during the transition period. Given the scarcity of data on this subject, more research is needed. 10.1093/ckj/sfv021
    Renal function at the time of nephrology referral but not dialysis initiation as a risk for death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pinier Cédric,Gatault Philippe,François Maud,Barbet Christelle,Longuet Hélène,Rabot Nolwenn,Noble Johann,Bailly Elodie,Buchler Matthias,Sautenet Bénédicte,Halimi Jean-Michel Clinical kidney journal Background:Renal patients with diabetes mellitus are at very high risk of death before and after chronic dialysis initiation. Risk factors for death in this population are not clearly identified. Methods:We performed a retrospective survival analysis in 861 patients with diabetes mellitus consecutively followed up in the 2000-13 period in a nephrology setting. Results:The mean age was 70  ±  10 years [men 65.2%; diabetes duration 13.7  ±  10.3 years; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 42.4  ±  21.0 mL/min/1.73 m). During follow-up (median 60 months; up 15 years), 263 patients died (184 before and 79 after dialysis initiation) and 183 started chronic dialysis. In multivariate analyses, age, elevated systolic and low diastolic arterial pressures, peripheral artery disease, cancer, loop diuretic use and atrial fibrillation at baseline and acute kidney injury (AKI), heart failure (HF) and amputation during follow-up were identified as risk factors for death. After adjustments on these parameters, eGFRs at the time of the first outpatient visit-eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m {hazard ratio [HR] 1.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.17]}, P = 0.005 and eGFR <30 [HR 1.53 (1.05-2.05)], P = 0.004, but not eGFR <60-were powerful risk factors for death. When initiation of dialysis was entered into the multivariate models, it was not associated with a risk of premature death [HR 1.19 (95% CI 0.91-1.55), P = 0.2069], even in patients >80 years of age [HR 1.08 (95% CI 0.64-1.81), P = 0.7793]. Conclusions:In patients with diabetes mellitus, high systolic and low diastolic arterial pressure, peripheral artery disease and development of AKI and HF are significant risk factors for death. In addition to these parameters, eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m at the time of referral is also a powerful risk factor for death. 10.1093/ckj/sfy032
    Patients' Characteristics Affect the Survival Benefit of Warfarin Treatment for Hemodialysis Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. A Historical Cohort Study. Brancaccio Diego,Neri Luca,Bellocchio Francesco,Barbieri Carlo,Amato Claudia,Mari Flavio,Canaud Bernard,Stuard Stefano American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Stroke prevention in dialysis-dependent patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is an unresolved clinical dilemma. Indeed, no randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants in this population, has been conducted so far. Observational research on the use of warfarin in patients on dialysis has shown conflicting results. This uncertainty is mirrored by the wide variations in warfarin prescription patterns across centers. We sought to evaluate the association between the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and mortality among hemodialysis patient with AF and to assess potential factors affecting the risk-benefit profile of warfarin in this population. METHODS:A total of 91,987 patients registered in the European Clinical Dialysis Database® system from January 2004 to January 2015. Of which, 9,238 patients were identified with a diagnosis of AF. After excluding ineligible patients, a 1:1 propensity score matched cohort of 1,324 warfarin users and non-users were assembled. RESULTS:VKA use was associated with both increased 90-day survival (hazard ratio, HR 0.47, p < 0.01) and 6-year survival (HR 0.76, p < 0.01); however, a trend indicated a stronger early benefit (p for time-interaction <0.01). Moderation analysis showed that patients' age and clinical history of stroke strongly influenced warfarin-related benefits on survival. CONCLUSION:VKA may provide an early survival benefit; however, this is partially offset later during the follow-up. In addition, heterogeneous risk-benefit profiles were observed among subgroups of dialysis-dependent patients with AF, further emphasizing the complexities of tailoring stroke prevention strategies in this population. 10.1159/000448898
    How Do We Improve the Quality of Life of Haemodialysis Patients? Now That's a Good Question. Rayner Hugh C American journal of nephrology 10.1159/000476080
    Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockers Increases Serum Potassium in Anuric Hemodialysis Patients. Movilli Ezio,Camerini Corrado,Gaggia Paola,Zubani Roberto,Cancarini Giovanni American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are increasingly used in uremic patients (pts). However, their effect on serum potassium (sK) concentrations in anuric pts on chronic hemodialysis treatment (HD) is controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate sK before and after the start of ACEi/ARB therapy. METHODS:In the period 1/1/2015 - 31/12/2015, 112 out of 240 prevalent HD pts on thrice weekly HD treatment followed at our institution started the ACEi/ARB therapy. The mean age was 67 ± 14 years, 67/112 were men, dialysis vintage was 6-212 months. In the 3 months before (PRE; N° 36 HD sessions) and after (POST; N° 36 HD sessions) the start of ACEi/ARB therapy, the following variables were evaluated in pre dialysis after the long interdialysis interval: sK (mean of 12 determinations; mmol/L), maximum sK (maximum K value observed during observations; sKmax; mmol/L), serum sodium (sNa; mmol/L), pre dialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP; mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mm Hg), body weight (BW; Kg), interdialytic weight gain (IWG; Kg), Kt/V, serum bicarbonate concentrations (sBic; mmol/L), protein catabolic rate (PCRn; g/KgBW/day). SBP, DBP, IWG are the mean of the 24 HD sessions. Out of 112 patients, 102 were on antihypertensive therapy. The duration of HD and blood and dialysate flow rates were kept constant. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. Student t test for paired and unpaired data for normally distributed variables, Mann-Whitney test for medians, χ2 test for categorical data were employed to compare groups. A significant difference was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS:sK increased from 5.0 ± 0.4 mmol/L PRE to 5.7 ± 0.5 mmol/L POST (p < 0.0001). sKmax increased from 5.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L PRE to 6.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L POST (p < 0.0001). The percentage of pts with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82% PRE to 29% POST (p < 0.0001). Mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52% (p < 0.001); in 31% of the patients, it was necessary to reduce the K dialysate concentration. None of the patients had severe hyperkalemia PRE, but 19% developed severe hyperkalemia POST (p < 0.0001) necessitating treatment withdrawal. Mean sK in these pts varied from 5.2 ± 0.3 mmol/L PRE to 6.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L at the moment of withdrawal (p < 0.0001) and sKmax from 5.5 ± mmol/L PRE to 6.9 ± 0.3 mmol/L (p< 0.0001). After withdrawal of ACEi/ARB, sK and sKmax concentrations decreased to basal levels within 1 month. There were no significant changes of BW, IWG, SBP, DBP, Na, Hb, Kt/V, sBic, and PCRn in both periods. CONCLUSIONS:ACEi/ARB therapy is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in anuric hemodialysis patients. The proportion of patients with normal sK concentrations decreased from 82 to 29% and with mild hyperkalemia increased from 18 to 52%. Severe hyperkalemia necessitating the interruption of ACEi/ARB therapy developed in 19% of patients. This suggests great caution in the widest utilization of this class of drugs in HD patients. 10.1159/000491552
    Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single-Dose Rivaroxaban in Chronic Hemodialysis. Dias Clapton,Moore Kenneth Todd,Murphy Joe,Ariyawansa Jay,Smith William,Mills Roger M,Weir Matthew R American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:This study aimed to characterize the single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of rivaroxaban 15 mg administered before and after dialysis in subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and to compare this profile in subjects with ESRD to that in healthy control subjects (creatinine clearance ≥80 ml/min). METHODS:This was an open-label, single-dose, single-center, parallel-group study of rivaroxaban in ESRD subjects who had been clinically stable on maintenance hemodialysis for ≥3 months. In 8 subjects with ESRD, a 15-mg dose of rivaroxaban was administered 2 ± 0.5 h before a hemodialysis session and repeated 7-14 days later at 3 h after a 4-h hemodialysis session. Eight healthy control subjects, matched for age, sex, and body mass index, received one 15-mg rivaroxaban dose. RESULTS:Compared to healthy subjects, area under the rivaroxaban plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) increased by 56% following post-dialysis administration. Assuming similar bioavailability between groups, this reflects an approximate 35% decrease in overall drug clearance in ESRD subjects. Pre-dialysis dosing resulted in only 5% lowering of AUC versus post-dialysis dosing, confirming the minimal impact of dialysis on the PK of rivaroxaban. PD effects, as assessed by change in prothrombin time, percent factor Xa inhibition, and anti-Xa activity, were generally concordant with observed changes in plasma PK. CONCLUSIONS:Changes in PK and PD parameters in chronic dialysis patients were generally comparable to changes observed previously in patients with moderate-to-severe renal impairment who were not undergoing dialysis, and support use of a 15-mg dose in this patient population. 10.1159/000445328