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    Baicalin attenuates endometritis in a rabbit model induced by infection with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus via NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. Miao Y,Ishfaq M,Liu Y,Wu Z,Wang J,Li R,Qian F,Ding L,Li J Domestic animal endocrinology In this study, a rabbit endometritis model was developed to study cow endometritis. In addition, the protective effects of baicalin (a flavonoid) against endometritis were investigated. Clinical symptoms, differential leukocyte counting, uterine secretion smear microscopy and chemical examination, urine testing, and signs of necropsy showed abnormal changes and inflammatory responses in the uterus of rabbits. Histopathological results revealed visible inflammatory exudates and blood spots between intercellular spaces which confirmed that the rabbit endometritis model was successfully developed. Most importantly, these inflammatory signs were partially attenuated with baicalin treatment. The data revealed that the increased body temperature and leukocyte cells, pus, and the detachment of epithelial cells were alleviated with baicalin administration in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological tissue changes such as inflammatory cells infiltrates, hyperemia, hemorrhages, and shedding of epithelial cells were partially attenuated with baicalin treatment. In addition, the mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes (iNOS, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-6) was significantly altered in RAW264.7 cells after LPS treatment. Further, the phosphorylated protein expression of JNK, p65, and IκBα were significantly reduced with LPS treatment. Intriguingly, baicalin pretreatment reversed the alteration in mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes and significantly reduced the phosphorylation of JNK, p65, and IκBα. In summary, our results suggest that baicalin has protective effects on bacterial-induced endometritis in rabbits that involve the suppression of NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokines. 10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106508
    The influence of experimentally induced endometritis on the PPAR expression profile in the bovine endometrium. Socha B M,Łada P,Szczepańska A A,Łupicka M,Korzekwa A J Theriogenology Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The PPARs activity can be modified e.g. by arachidonic acid metabolites. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the main infectious agent of endometritis in dairy cows. We hypothesized that PPAR expression profile change in the bovine endometrium under the influence of LPS or E. coli. In experiment 1, endometrial explants were obtained post mortem from heifers and incubated without (control) or with LPS for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. In experiment 2, heifers were intrauterine infused with 0.9% NaCl (control) or with E. coli suspension in 0.9% NaCl. Endometrial biopsies were performed before (0 h) and 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h after the infusions. In experiment 1, the increase in protein expression was observed for PPARα 48 h, for PPARβ/δ 24, 72 and 96 h, whereas for PPARγ 12, 24 and 96 h after LPS treatment relative to the control groups. In experiment 2, the up-regulation in protein expression was observed for PPARα 48 and 72 h, for PPARβ/δ 72 and 96 h, for PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 12 and 96 h after the intrauterine infusion with E. coli suspension compared to the control group. Changes in mRNA and protein PPAR expression profile in endometrial explants under the exposure of LPS indicate participation of these nuclear receptors in signal transduction during stimulation with LPS. The patterns of mRNA and protein PPAR expression in endometrial bioptates suggest that during experimentally induced endometritis in vivo, PPARs role may be connected both with enhancement of inflammation as well restoring physiological conditions in uterus. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.09.013
    Characterization of integrons in multiple antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates from bovine endometritis. Zhao Hong-Xia,Shen Jian-Zhong,An Xiao-Ping,Fan Hong-Liang,Cao Jin-Shan,Li Pei-feng Research in veterinary science To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and three classes of integrons in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains (n=57) isolated from bovine endometritis in Inner Mongolia of China, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of three types of integrons were characterized. Most isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, furazolidone, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, while 57 isolates were all resistant to sulfamethoxydiazine and trimethoprim. High resistant incidence rates were exhibited to sulfadiazine, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, cefazolin, chloramphenicol. Forty-six of 57 E. coli strains were resistant to above 10 antibiotics (80.70%). The integrase gene and gene cassettes of integrons were amplified by PCR. DNA sequencing and analysis were used to identify the genetic content of the integron-variable regions. Neither class II nor class III integron was detected, while 36.8% (n=21) of the isolates were positive for the presence of intI1 gene. Analysis of gene cassettes revealed that six gene cassettes were found, which encoded resistance to trimethoprim (dhfr, dhfrI, dfrA17) and aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5). Among them, the gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 was found most prevalent (66.7%). The resistance profile of positive-integron isolates was relatively broad and they were resistant to more than eight antimicrobials (n ≥ 8). The correlation analysis revealed the incidence of integrons among the isolates were related to the multiple antibiotic resistance profile, indicating integrons play an important role in the dissemination and spread of the antimicrobial resistant strains. 10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.09.004
    Biofilm forming potentiality of isolated from bovine endometritis and their antibiotic resistance profiles. Raheel Ismail Abd Elhafez Radwan,Hassan Walid Hamdy,Salem Shaaban Salem Radwan,Salam Hala Sayed Hassan Journal of advanced veterinary and animal research Objective:The objectives of this study were to determine the biofilm-forming capability and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered from bovine endometritis samples. Materials and Methods:A total of 120 uterine specimens were collected from cows suffering from endometritis for bacteriological examination. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for all isolated by using the disc diffusion method. The isolates were phenotypically studied for biofilm-forming ability by cultivation on yeast extract -casamino acids Congo red agar (CRA). Some randomly selected isolates were chosen for the molecular identification of some virulence and resistance genes. Results:A total of 58(48.3%) isolates could be isolated from the 120 samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing exhibited that 91.4%, 79.3%, 79.3%, 74.1%, and 58.6% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim, respectively. On the other hand, 91.4% and 70.7% isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and doxycycline, respectively. Cultivation on CRA revealed that 46.6% of isolates were biofilm producers. The molecular detection of resistance and virulence genes declared that all isolates harbored , 1, A, S, bla , and H with a percentage of 100%, C (40%), and A (10%). H was the most prevalent biofilm-associated gene. Conclusion:The present study highlights the high prevalence of multi-drug- resistant associated with bovine endometritis. The detection of the H gene is circumstantial evidenced that this gene has a crucial role in biofilm formation in intrauterine pathogenic . 10.5455/javar.2020.g440
    Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows. Kassé F N,Fairbrother J M,Dubuc J Journal of dairy science The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Using E. coli, hra1, and kpsMTII as predictors for subsequent PPM, positive predictive values were 23, 31, and 42%, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were 91, 80, and 78%, respectively. Overall, these results showed that E. coli and some VF were associated with PPM. 10.3168/jds.2015-10094
    Sensitivity to antibiotics of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli from the uteri of cows with metritis/endometritis. Malinowski Edward,Lassa Henryka,Markiewicz Hanna,Kaptur Maciej,Nadolny Marek,Niewitecki Wiesław,Ziętara Jacek Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of 161 Arcanobacterium pyogenes strains and 99 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the uteri of 312 cows with metritis/endometritis. Animals with pathological discharges were clinically diagnosed per rectum and per vaginum, and then swabs from the lumen of the uterus were aseptically collected. Bacteriological examination of swabs was according to commonly accepted procedures with the additional use of API tests. Sensitivity to antibiotics was tested by the disk diffusion method and performed in Mueller-Hinton agar. Arc. pyogenes strains were the most sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Amc) (97.3%), bacitracin (96.7%), ceftiofur (95.8%) and cephapirin (77.5%). E. coli strains were the most sensitive to norfloxacin (98.1%), marbofloxacin (95.8%), gentamycin (88%), Amc (80.7%) and ceftiofur (73.1%). Arc. pyogenes and E. coli were most resistant to oxytetracycline (63.7% and 31%, respectively). 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.12.010