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    Effects of 24 Months of Treatment With Romosozumab Followed by 12 Months of Denosumab or Placebo in Postmenopausal Women With Low Bone Mineral Density: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2, Parallel Group Study. McClung Michael R,Brown Jacques P,Diez-Perez Adolfo,Resch Heinrich,Caminis John,Meisner Paul,Bolognese Michael A,Goemaere Stefan,Bone Henry G,Zanchetta Jose R,Maddox Judy,Bray Sarah,Grauer Andreas Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Over 12 months, romosozumab increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, resulting in increased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with low BMD (NCT00896532). Herein, we report the study extension evaluating 24 months of treatment with romosozumab, discontinuation of romosozumab, alendronate followed by romosozumab, and romosozumab followed by denosumab. Postmenopausal women aged 55 to 85 years with a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck T-score ≤-2.0 and ≥-3.5 were enrolled and randomly assigned to placebo, one of five romosozumab regimens (70 mg, 140 mg, 210 mg monthly [QM]; 140 mg Q3M; 210 mg Q3M) for 24 months, or open-label alendronate for 12 months followed by romosozumab 140 mg QM for 12 months. Eligible participants were then rerandomized 1:1 within original treatment groups to placebo or denosumab 60 mg Q6M for an additional 12 months. Percentage change from baseline in BMD and bone turnover markers (BTMs) at months 24 and 36 and safety were evaluated. Of 364 participants initially randomized to romosozumab, placebo, or alendronate, 315 completed 24 months of treatment and 248 completed the extension. Romosozumab markedly increased LS and TH BMD through month 24, with largest gains observed with romosozumab 210 mg QM (LS = 15.1%; TH = 5.4%). Women receiving romosozumab who transitioned to denosumab continued to accrue BMD, whereas BMD returned toward pretreatment levels with placebo. With romosozumab 210 mg QM, bone formation marker P1NP initially increased after treatment initiation and gradually decreased to below baseline by month 12, remaining below baseline through month 24; bone resorption marker β-CTX rapidly decreased after treatment, remaining below baseline through month 24. Transition to denosumab further decreased both BTMs, whereas after transition to placebo, P1NP returned to baseline and β-CTX increased above baseline. Adverse events were balanced between treatment groups through month 36. These data suggest that treatment effects of romosozumab are reversible upon discontinuation and further augmented by denosumab. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/jbmr.3452
    One Year of Romosozumab Followed by Two Years of Denosumab Maintains Fracture Risk Reductions: Results of the FRAME Extension Study. Lewiecki E Michael,Dinavahi Rajani V,Lazaretti-Castro Marise,Ebeling Peter R,Adachi Jonathan D,Miyauchi Akimitsu,Gielen Evelien,Milmont Cassandra E,Libanati Cesar,Grauer Andreas Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits sclerostin, has the dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. As previously reported in the pivotal FRActure study in postmenopausal woMen with ostEoporosis (FRAME), women with a T-score of ≤ -2.5 at the total hip or femoral neck received subcutaneous placebo or romosozumab once monthly for 12 months, followed by open-label subcutaneous denosumab every 6 months for an additional 12 months. Upon completion of the 24-month primary analysis period, eligible women entered the extension phase and received denosumab for an additional 12 months. Here, we report the final analysis results through 36 months, including efficacy assessments of new vertebral, clinical, and nonvertebral fracture; bone mineral density (BMD); and safety assessments. Of 7180 women enrolled, 5743 (80%) completed the 36-month study (2851 romosozumab-to-denosumab; 2892 placebo-to-denosumab). Through 36 months, fracture risk was reduced in subjects receiving romosozumab versus placebo for 12 months followed by 24 months of denosumab for both groups: new vertebral fracture (relative risk reduction [RRR], 66%; incidence, 1.0% versus 2.8%; p < 0.001), clinical fracture (RRR, 27%; incidence, 4.0% versus 5.5%; p = 0.004), and nonvertebral fracture (RRR, 21%; incidence, 3.9% versus 4.9%; p = 0.039). BMD continued to increase for the 2 years with denosumab treatment in both arms. The substantial difference in BMD achieved through 12 months of romosozumab treatment versus placebo was maintained through the follow-up period when both treatment arms received denosumab. Subject incidence of adverse events, including positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular adverse events, were overall balanced between groups. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, 12 months of romosozumab led to persistent fracture reduction benefit and ongoing BMD gains when followed by 24 months of denosumab. The sequence of romosozumab followed by denosumab may be a promising regimen for the treatment of osteoporosis. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 10.1002/jbmr.3622
    FRAME Study: The Foundation Effect of Building Bone With 1 Year of Romosozumab Leads to Continued Lower Fracture Risk After Transition to Denosumab. Cosman Felicia,Crittenden Daria B,Ferrari Serge,Khan Aliya,Lane Nancy E,Lippuner Kurt,Matsumoto Toshio,Milmont Cassandra E,Libanati Cesar,Grauer Andreas Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Romosozumab is a bone-forming agent with a dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. In FRActure study in postmenopausal woMen with ostEoporosis (FRAME), postmenopausal women with osteoporosis received romosozumab 210 mg s.c. or placebo once monthly for 12 months, followed by denosumab 60 mg s.c. once every 6 months in both groups for 12 months. One year of romosozumab increased spine and hip BMD by 13% and 7%, respectively, and reduced vertebral and clinical fractures with persistent fracture risk reduction upon transition to denosumab over 24 months. Here, we further characterize the BMD gains with romosozumab by quantifying the percentages of patients who responded at varying magnitudes; report the mean T-score changes from baseline over the 2-year study and contrast these results with the long-term BMD gains seen with denosumab during Fracture REduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis every 6 Months (FREEDOM) and its Extension studies; and assess fracture incidence rates in year 2, when all patients received denosumab. Among 7180 patients (n = 3591 placebo, n = 3589 romosozumab), most romosozumab-treated patients experienced ≥3% gains in BMD from baseline at month 12 (spine, 96%; hip, 78%) compared with placebo (spine, 22%; hip, 16%). For romosozumab patients, mean absolute T-score increases at the spine and hip were 0.88 and 0.32, respectively, at 12 months (placebo: 0.03 and 0.01) and 1.11 and 0.45 at 24 months (placebo-to-denosumab: 0.38 and 0.17), with the 2-year gains approximating the effect of 7 years of continuous denosumab administration. Patients receiving romosozumab versus placebo in year 1 had significantly fewer vertebral fractures in year 2 (81% relative reduction; p < 0.001), with fewer fractures consistently observed across other fracture categories. The data support the clinical benefit of rebuilding the skeletal foundation with romosozumab before transitioning to antiresorptive therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/jbmr.3427
    Increased bone mineral density for 1 year of romosozumab, vs placebo, followed by 2 years of denosumab in the Japanese subgroup of the pivotal FRAME trial and extension. Miyauchi Akimitsu,Dinavahi Rajani V,Crittenden Daria B,Yang Wenjing,Maddox Judy C,Hamaya Etsuro,Nakamura Yoichi,Libanati Cesar,Grauer Andreas,Shimauchi Junichiro Archives of osteoporosis Romosozumab, which binds sclerostin, rebuilds the skeletal foundation before transitioning to antiresorptive treatment. This subgroup analysis of an international, randomized, double-blind study in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis showed efficacy and safety outcomes for romosozumab followed by denosumab in Japanese women were generally consistent with those for the overall population. PURPOSE:In the international, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 FRActure study, in postmenopausal woMen with ostEoporosis (FRAME; NCT01575834), romosozumab followed by denosumab significantly improved bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk. This report evaluates Japanese women in FRAME. METHODS:Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (T-score - 3.5 to - 2.5 at total hip or femoral neck) received romosozumab 210 mg or placebo subcutaneously monthly for 12 months, then each group received denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 24 months. The key endpoint for Japanese women was BMD change. Other endpoints included new vertebral, clinical, and nonvertebral fracture; the subgroup analysis did not have adequate power to demonstrate statistically significant reductions. RESULTS:Of 7180 enrolled subjects, 492 (6.9%) were Japanese (247 romosozumab, 245 placebo). BMD increases from baseline were greater (P < 0.001) for romosozumab-to-denosumab than placebo-to-denosumab at the lumbar spine (36 months, 12.7%), total hip (4.2%), and femoral neck (4.1%). Fracture risk was lower through 36 months for romosozumab-to-denosumab vs placebo-to-denosumab for new vertebral (1.7% vs 4.5%; relative risk reduction (RRR) 63%, P = 0.070), clinical (3.2% vs 7.3%; RRR 53%, P = 0.072), nonvertebral (2.8% vs 6.1%; RRR 50%, P = 0.12), and all other fracture types evaluated. Rates of adverse events and positively adjudicated serious cardiovascular events were generally balanced between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Efficacy and safety for romosozumab-to-denosumab were similar between Japanese women and the overall population. The sequence of romosozumab to rebuild the skeletal foundation before transitioning to antiresorptive treatment with denosumab is a promising regimen for Japanese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture. 10.1007/s11657-019-0608-z