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    The Structure of Dental Plaque Microbial Communities in the Transition from Health to Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease. Valm Alex M Journal of molecular biology The human oral cavity harbors diverse communities of microbes that live as biofilms: highly ordered, surface-associated assemblages of microbes embedded in an extracellular matrix. Oral microbial communities contribute to human health by fine-tuning immune responses and reducing dietary nitrate. Dental caries and periodontal disease are together the most prevalent microbially mediated human diseases worldwide. Both of these oral diseases are known to be caused not by the introduction of exogenous pathogens to the oral environment, but rather by a homeostasis breakdown that leads to changes in the structure of the microbial communities present in states of health. Both dental caries and periodontal disease are mediated by synergistic interactions within communities, and both diseases are further driven by specific host inputs: diet and behavior in the case of dental caries and immune system interactions in the case of periodontal disease. Changes in community structure (taxonomic identity and abundance) are well documented during the transition from health to disease. In this review, changes in biofilm physical structure during the transition from oral health to disease and the concomitant relationship between structure and community function will be emphasized. 10.1016/j.jmb.2019.05.016
    Oral microbial biofilms: an update. Mosaddad Seyed Ali,Tahmasebi Elahe,Yazdanian Alireza,Rezvani Mohammad Bagher,Seifalian Alexander,Yazdanian Mohsen,Tebyanian Hamid European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology Human oral cavity (mouth) hosts a complex microbiome consisting of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi and viruses. These bacteria are responsible for two common diseases of the human mouth including periodontal (gum) and dental caries (tooth decay). Dental caries is caused by plaques, which are a community of microorganisms in biofilm format. Genetic and peripheral factors lead to variations in the oral microbiome. It has known that, in commensalism and coexistence between microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in the oral microbiome is preserved. Nonetheless, under some conditions, a parasitic relationship dominates the existing situation and the rise of cariogenic microorganisms results in dental caries. Utilizing advanced molecular biology techniques, new cariogenic microorganisms species have been discovered. The oral microbiome of each person is quite distinct. Consequently, commonly taken measures for disease prevention cannot be exactly the same for other individuals. The chance for developing tooth decay in individuals is dependent on factors such as immune system and oral microbiome which itself is affected by the environmental and genetic determinants. Early detection of dental caries, assessment of risk factors and designing personalized measure let dentists control the disease and obtain desired results. It is necessary for a dentist to consider dental caries as a result of a biological process to be targeted than treating the consequences of decay cavities. In this research, we critically review the literature and discuss the role of microbial biofilms in dental caries. 10.1007/s10096-019-03641-9
    [Dissertation 25 years after date 42. Dental caries and the role of specific bacteria]. de Soet J J Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde During the past 25 years, oral microbiology has developed from researching a limited number of pathogenic microorganisms to a field in which the entire oral micro flora is studied. While 25 years ago, a limited number of species were studied, now the thousands of species that can be found in the mouth are the subject of research. We can now study the effects of bacteria and fungi on each other, but also make small steps in terms of features that microorganisms occupy in the network of the complex biofilm. The biofilm can be seen as a complex ecosystem, which may be unique to each individual and certainly should not always be treated antimicrobially. It is better to stimulate the healthy biofilm and to prevent transmission of pathogens by targeted infection prevention measures. These measures may only be applied if appropriate microbiological knowledge is present. 10.5177/ntvt.2015.10.15177
    The effect of smoking on caries-related microorganisms. Wu Jiayi,Li Mingyun,Huang Ruijie Tobacco induced diseases INTRODUCTION:Epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between smoking and dental caries. Bacteria are one of the essential factors of caries formation. The imbalance of cariogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria in dental plaque results in higher production of acid that can corrode dental hard tissue. The aim of our review is to summarize the effect of smoking on caries-related bacteria. METHODS:English articles available in Pubmed and ScienceDirect databases and published before December 2018 were searched. A variety of evidence was collected including not only the influence of cigarette products on bacteria strains but also their effect on bacterial composition in saliva and dental plaque . We particularly emphasize the mechanisms by which nicotine acts on oral bacteria. RESULTS:The components of cigarettes promote the growth of cariogenic microorganisms. The mechanisms of how nicotine enhances and are described separately in detail. The commensal bacteria, , show less competitive capability in the presence of nicotine. Smoking influences saliva by lowering the buffer capability, altering its chemical agent and bacterial components, and therefore promotes the formation of a caries-susceptible environment. CONCLUSIONS:Cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure promote the cariogenic activity of oral microorganisms and the formation of a caries-susceptible environment. This suggests that smokers should quit smoking, amongst other health reasons, also for their oral health. 10.18332/tid/105913
    The oral microbiome in dental caries. Struzycka Izabela Polish journal of microbiology Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population. The appearance of a caries lesion is determined by the coexistence of three main factors: acidogenic and acidophilic microorganisms, carbohydrates derived from the diet, and host factors. Socio-economic and behavioral factors also play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Caries develops as a result of an ecological imbalance in the stable oral microbiom. Oral microorganisms form dental plaque on the surfaces of teeth, which is the cause of the caries process, and shows features of the classic biofilm. Biofilm formation appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control Cariogenic microorganisms produce lactic, formic, acetic and propionic acids, which are a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Their presence causes a decrease in pH level below 5.5, resulting in demineralization of enamel hydroxyapatite crystals and proteolytic breakdown of the structure of tooth hard tissues. Streptococcus mutans, other streptococci of the so-called non-mutans streptococci group, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus play a key role in this process. Dental biofilm is a dynamic, constantly active metabolically structure. The alternating processes of decrease and increase of biofilm pH occur, which are followed by the respective processes of de- and remineralisation of the tooth surface. In healthy conditions, these processes are in balance and no permanent damage to the tooth enamel surface occurs.
    Beyond Streptococcus mutans: clinical implications of the evolving dental caries aetiological paradigms and its associated microbiome. Philip N,Suneja B,Walsh L British dental journal Aetiological concepts of dental caries have evolved over the years from being considered as a disease initiated by nonspecific microorganisms, to being regarded as an 'infectious' disease caused by specific bacteria, to the current paradigms that emphasise a 'mixed bacterial-ecological approach' as being responsible for lesion initiation and pathogenesis. These aetiological paradigms are not just intellectual concepts but have important implications on how clinicians manage this age-old disease in the twenty-first century. Despite evidence-backed recommendations for adopting more biological measures to counter the disease, a significant proportion of dentists continue following traditional caries management guidelines in their daily clinical practice. This paper will review the evolving dental caries aetiological concepts and highlight the current evidence for adopting a more ecological approach to caries prevention, risk assessment, and treatment. 10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.81
    Candida and dental caries in children, adolescents and adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eidt Gustavo,Waltermann Elen Darlise Marques,Hilgert Juliana Balbinot,Arthur Rodrigo Alex Archives of oral biology OBJECTIVE:This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether the presence of fungi of the genus Candida in oral cavity is associated with dental caries in children and adolescents (from 6 to 18 years) or in adults (older than 18 years). DESIGN:Electronic search was carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. Studies that evaluated the presence of Candida spp. and dental caries on those individuals were included. Data extraction and evidence quality assessment were performed by two independent investigators. Prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated considering 95 % confidence interval (CI). Meta-analysis was performed using random effect Mantel-Haenszel model. RESULTS:Thirty out of 123 publications selected for full-reading were included in the systematic review. Prevalence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity ranged from 7.7 % to 78 %. Prevalence of dental caries in individuals harbouring Candida spp. ranged from 27.2%-100% and was higher than in individuals not harbouring Candida spp. (PR = 1.72 [1.46-2.02]). Prevalence of dental caries was 2.3 times higher in individuals harbouring Candida spp. in mucosa. Moreover, dental caries prevalence was 80 % and 48 % higher in children/adolescents and adults harbouring Candida spp., respectively (95 % CI [1.44-2.25] and [1.20-1.83]). The quality of evidence of most studies (n = 21) was graded as fair. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that, regardless of age or sample site, individuals with the presence of Candida spp. have a higher prevalence of dental caries when compared to individuals without these microorganisms in the oral cavity. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104876