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    Can early exposure to probiotics in children prevent dental caries? A current perspective. Jindal Garima,Pandey Ramesh Kumar,Singh Rajeev Kumar,Pandey Neelisha Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research BACKGROUND:Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms which cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Probiotics have already been established in the treatment and prevention of various gastrointestinal system. Recently, role of probiotics has become an important issue for research in dentistry in the era of increased antibiotic resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The basis of the paper is the clinical studies and research done in relation to probiotics on oral health using PUBMED search database. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Although many clinical studies have demonstrated positive outcome in preventing caries and periodontal diseases, the data is still scarce in recommending probiotics for the oral health. Moreover, since initial colonization of oral cavity of the newborn is very important for developing immunity and prevention of future diseases. Hence, measures should be directed towards its preventive use in infants and children. The formulations produced for oral cavity should also be within reach of common man especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. This review endeavors to compile the research of probiotics on oral cavity and throws a light on its evolving status in developing countries. It also evaluates its use in children for a long-term benefit. 10.1016/j.jobcr.2012.05.001
    Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries. Almaz Merve Erkmen,Sönmez Işıl Şaroğlu Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi The purpose of this article was to assess the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries, reviewing clinical and in vitro studies. Ozone has proven to be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In dentistry, most of the published articles are based on ozone's antimicrobial effects and the treatment of caries. Most of the clinical studies reported ozone to be a promising alternative to conventional methods for caries management. However, a few studies have shown ozone to be insufficient for preventing caries and reducing microorganisms in open occlusal carious lesions. Ozone might be a useful tool to reduce and control oral infectious microorganisms in dental plaque and dental cavity. However, the results of in vitro studies are controversial; while some researchers reported that ozone therapy had a minimal or no effect on the viability of microorganisms, others suggested ozone to be highly effective in killing both gram-positive and gram-negative oral microorganisms. Therefore, more evidence is required before ozone can be accepted as an alternative to present methods for the management and prevention of caries. 10.1016/j.jfma.2013.06.020
    Dental caries vaccine. Shivakumar K M,Vidya S K,Chandu G N Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages. 10.4103/0970-9290.49066
    Critical Appraisal of Oral Pre- and Probiotics for Caries Prevention and Care. Zaura Egija,Twetman Svante Caries research In recent years, the concept of preventing caries-related microbial dysbiosis by enhancing the growth and survival of health-associated oral microbiota has emerged. In this article, the current evidence for the role of oral pre- and probiotics in caries prevention and caries management is discussed. Prebiotics are defined as "substrates that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit." With regard to caries, this would include alkali-generating substances such as urea and arginine, which are metabolized by some oral bacteria, resulting in ammonia production and increase in pH. While there is no evidence that urea added to chewing gums or mouth rinses significantly contributes to caries inhibition, multiple studies have shown that arginine in consumer products can exert an inhibitory effect on the caries process. Probiotics are "live microorganisms which when administrated in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." Clinical trials have suggested that school-based programs with milk supplemented with probiotics and probiotic lozenges can reduce caries development in preschool children and in schoolchildren with high caries risk. Due to issues with research ethics (prebiotics) and risk of bias (prebiotics, probiotics), the confidence in the effect estimate is however limited. Further long-term clinical studies are needed with orally derived probiotic candidates, including the health-economic perspectives. In particular, the development and evaluation of oral synbiotic products, containing both prebiotics and a probiotic, would be of interest in the future management of dental caries. 10.1159/000499037
    Microbial Etiology and Prevention of Dental Caries: Exploiting Natural Products to Inhibit Cariogenic Biofilms. Chen Xiuqin,Daliri Eric Banan-Mwine,Kim Namhyeon,Kim Jong-Rae,Yoo Daesang,Oh Deog-Hwan Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) Dental caries is one of the most common microbe-mediated oral diseases in human beings. At present, the accepted etiology of caries is based on a four-factor theory that includes oral microorganisms, oral environment, host, and time. Excessive exposure to dietary carbohydrates leads to the accumulation of acid-producing and acid-resistant microorganisms in the mouth. Dental caries is driven by dysbiosis of the dental biofilm adherent to the enamel surface. Effective preventive methods include inhibiting the cariogenic microorganisms, treatment with an anti-biofilm agent, and sugar intake control. The goal is to reduce the total amount of biofilm or the levels of specific pathogens. Natural products could be recommended for preventing dental caries, since they may possess fewer side effects in comparison with synthetic antimicrobials. Herein, the mechanisms of oral microbial community development and functional specialization are discussed. We highlight the application of widely explored natural products in the last five years for their ability to inhibit cariogenic microorganisms. 10.3390/pathogens9070569