[Comparison of efficacy and safety between the anterior and the posterior approaches to total hip arthroplasty].
Zhang Y J,Li J,Qi K,Xue C C,Xu W D
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy and safety between direct anterior approach (DAA) and posterior approach (PA) in total hip arthroplasty. METHODS:This study evaluated postoperative results of 92 consecutive total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon; 44 from the DAA, and 48 from PA. The age, body mass index, operation time, blood loss, hospital stay, positioning of the artificial hip, postoperative Harris score and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS:Both the average age of the patients separately (58.0±11.9) years in DAA group and (61.0±10.4) years in PA group and the body mass index (25.1±3.7) in DAA group and (24.7±3.3) in PA group, showed no significant difference between the two groups. The DAA group had significantly reduced the hospital stay (3.8±1.7) days vs.(4.9±2.3) days for the PA group (P<0.05) and operation time was (76.0±17.4) min in DAA group, and (71.0±14.3) min in PA group (P>0.05). The amount of blood loss: in group DAA (238.0±55.3) mL, and in group PA (387.0±61.2) mL (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the positioning of the artificial hip: the cup anteversion in DAA group and PA group was 17.3°±5.3° vs. 18.6°± 5.1°, the cup inclination was 38.5°±5.7° vs. 37.7°±5.2°. In DAA group, there was significantly less use of assistive devices [(24.6±7.8) d vs. (31.7±10.2) d, P<0.05], and the pain was significantly lower. Harris score at the end of 6 weeks of the follow-up: in DAA group 85.7±5.4, and in PA group 81.3±6.1 (P<0.05); at the end of the last follow-up: in DAA group 93.4±4.7, and in PA group 92.3±5.3 (P>0.05). Complications were encountered in the two groups. There were two intraoperative complications (4.4%), 1 great trochanter fracture and 1 lateral cutaneous nerve injury in DAA group. No dislocation was observed in DAA group. One dislocations and 1 groin pain were recorded in PA group. No prosthesis loosening, deep vein thrombosis, sciatic nerve injury and other complications occurred in the two groups. CONCLUSION:Total hip arthroplasty using the anterior approach allows for superior recovery and better stability.
John Charnley Award: Randomized Clinical Trial of Direct Anterior and Miniposterior Approach THA: Which Provides Better Functional Recovery?
Taunton Michael J,Trousdale Robert T,Sierra Rafael J,Kaufman Ken,Pagnano Mark W
Clinical orthopaedics and related research
BACKGROUND:The choice of surgical approach for THA remains controversial. Some studies suggest that the direct anterior approach (DAA) leads to less muscle damage than the miniposterior approach (MPA), but there is little high-quality evidence indicating whether this accelerates recovery, or whether this approach-which may be technically more demanding-is associated with component malposition or more complications. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:(1) Does the DAA result in faster return to activities of daily living than the MPA? (2) Does the DAA have superior patient-reported outcome measures than the MPA? (3) Does the DAA result in improved radiographic outcomes than the MPA? (4) Does the DAA have a higher risk of complications than the MPA? METHODS:Between March 1, 2013, and May 31, 2016, 116 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA were randomized to either the DAA or MPA; 15 patients withdrew after randomization, and one died 6 months after surgery from a stroke unrelated to the procedure. Recruitment stopped when 52 patients had been randomized into the DAA group and 49 in the MPA group (n = 101). After patient randomization, one high-volume surgeon performed all of the DAAs and three high-volume surgeons performed the MPA THAs. The groups did not differ in age (65 years; SD 11; range, 38-86 years), sex (52% women), or body mass index (mean 29 kg/m; SD 6 kg/m; range, 21-40 kg/m; all p > 0.40). Functional results included time to discontinue gait aids, discontinue all narcotics, and independence with various activities of daily living; accelerometer data evaluated activity level. Clinical and radiographic outcomes, Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, SF-12, and Harris hip scores to 1 year were also tabulated. The minimum followup was 365 days (mean ± SD, 627 ± 369 days). RESULTS:There were slight differences in early functional recovery that favored the DAA versus the MPA: time to discontinue walker use (10 versus 15 days, p = 0.01) and time to discontinue all gait aids (17 versus 24 days, p = 0.04). There were no other differences in early functional milestones, although at 2 weeks after surgery, mean steps per day were 3897 (SD 2258; range, 737-11,010) for the DAA versus 2235 for the MPA (SD 1688; range, 27-7450; p < 0.01). There was no difference in activity monitoring at 1 year. There were no differences in patient-reported outcome scores between the groups. There was no difference in the radiographic parameters measured in the two groups, including leg length discrepancy, component position, or offset, and there was no subsidence observed in any hip. There was no difference in complications between the DAA and the MPA groups (8% [four of 52] versus 10% [five of 49]; p = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS:Both the DAA and MPA approaches provided excellent early recovery with a low risk of complications. Patients undergoing the DAA had a slightly faster recovery, as measured by milestones of function and quantified by activity monitor data, but no substantive differences were evident at 2 months. Because the DAA is the less studied approach, longer term (> 1 year) complications may yet accrue, will be important to quantify, and may offset early benefits. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level I, therapeutic study.
Prospective, Randomized Study of Direct Anterior Approach vs Posterolateral Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Concise 5-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.
Barrett William P,Turner Shelly E,Murphy Jeffrey A,Flener Jana L,Alton Timothy B
The Journal of arthroplasty
BACKGROUND:Interest in direct anterior approach (DAA) has increased over the last decade. In our previously published study comparing DAA to posterolateral approach (PA), early 3-month benefits were noted in terms of pain and function. There was no difference noted at 6 or 12 months. This study reports average 5-year follow-up of our original study. METHODS:Originally there were 43 DAA patients and 44 PA patients. At an average 5-year follow-up, patients were evaluated clinically with a University of California at Los Angeles activity score, Harris hip score, and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Jr Survivorship analysis was calculated. Radiographs were evaluated for loosening and evidence of radiolucent lines. RESULTS:There were 2 deaths 1 in each group, neither was related to the implant or procedure. Four patients were lost to follow-up: 2 in the DAA group and 2 in the PA group. There was no statistical difference between surgical approaches in terms of Harris hip score, University of California at Los Angeles activity score, and Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Jr. The 7-year survivorship was not significantly different. There were no loose implants at average 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSION:Both DAA and PA yield good results at an average 5-year follow-up in terms of survivorship, function, rate of complications, and radiographic analysis.