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    Quinine Sulphate Microparticles as Treatment for Leishmaniasis. Allotey-Babington Grace Lovia,Amponsah Seth Kwabena,Nettey Thomas,Sasu Clement,Nettey Henry Journal of tropical medicine Background:Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite and transmitted by the female phlebotomine sandfly. The disease can affect the skin (least fatal) or internal organs (most fatal). Current treatment options for leishmaniasis have a number of adverse effects, and there appears to be resistance by the protozoan parasite ( spp.). Reports suggest that quinine sulphate, not indicated for leishmaniasis, is effective in killing the parasite. Indeed, the efficacy of any drug is dependent on the concentration at the target site, which is also almost dependent on drug formulation. The current study assessed the pharmacokinetic profile of the microparticulate formulation of quinine sulphate and its and efficacy against . Methods:Quinine sulphate was encapsulated in bovine serum albumin by the spray-drying method. Quinine sulphate microparticles were evaluated for size, zeta potential, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and release properties. Afterwards, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of quinine sulphate microparticles were estimated and efficacy studies were also conducted. Results:The size range of the quinine sulphate microparticles was between 2.0 and 5.0 m. Microparticles had an average zeta potential of -35.2 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 94.5%. Also, , , and AUC were all significantly desirable for quinine sulphate microparticles compared to the drug powder. Quinine sulphate microparticles significantly reduced parasite load in rat organs than amphotericin B. Conclusion:Overall, quinine sulphate microparticles had better pharmacokinetic profile and showed higher efficacy against parasites . Thus, quinine sulphate microparticles have the potential, especially, in treating visceral leishmaniasis. 10.1155/2020/5278518
    Inhibitory effects of Syzygium aromaticum and Camellia sinensis methanolic extracts on the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites. Batiha Gaber El-Saber,Beshbishy Amany Magdy,Tayebwa Dickson Stuart,Shaheen Hazem Mohammed,Yokoyama Naoaki,Igarashi Ikuo Ticks and tick-borne diseases Currently, chemotherapeutics against piroplasmosis are also associated with toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. Therefore, the discovery of new drug compounds is necessary for the effective control of bovine and equine piroplasms. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) have several documented medicinal properties. In the present study, the growth-inhibiting effects of S. aromaticum and C. sinensis methanolic extracts were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) values for methanolic S. aromaticum against Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and Theileria equi were 109.8 ± 3.8, 8.7 ± 0.09, 76.4 ± 4.5, 19.6 ± 2.2, and 60 ± 7.3 μg/ml, respectively. Methanolic C. sinensis exhibited IC values of 114 ± 6.1, 71.3 ± 3.7, 35.9 ± 6.8, 32.7 ± 20.3, and 60.8 ± 7.9 μg/ml against B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi, respectively. The toxicity assay on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cell lines showed that methanolic S. aromaticum and methanolic C. sinensis affected only the viability of the MDBK cell line with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC) of 894.7 ± 4.9 and 473.7 ± 7.4 μg/ml, respectively, while the viability of NIH/3T3 and HFF cell lines was not affected even at 1000 μg/ml. In the in vivo experiment, methanolic S. aromaticum and methanolic C. sinensis oral treatments at 150 mg/kg inhibited the growth of Babesia microti in mice by 69.2% and 42.4%, respectively. These findings suggest that methanolic S. aromaticum and methanolic C. sinensis extracts have the potential as alternative remedies for treating piroplasmosis. 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2019.04.016
    Assay methods for in vitro and in vivo anti-Babesia drug efficacy testing: Current progress, outlook, and challenges. Rizk Mohamed Abdo,El-Sayed Shimaa Abd El-Salam,Nassif Medhat,Mosqueda Juan,Xuan Xuenan,Igarashi Ikuo Veterinary parasitology Absence of an effective high-throughput drug-screening system for Babesia parasites is considered one of the main causes for the presence of a wide gap in the treatment of animal babesiosis when compared with other hemoprotozoan diseases, such as malaria. Recently, a simple, accurate, and automatic fluorescence assay was established for large-scale anti-Babesia (B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi and T. equi) drug screening. Such development will facilitate anti-Babesia drug discovery, especially in the post-genomic era, which will bring new chemotherapy targets with the completion of the Babesia genome sequencing project currently in progress. In this review, we present the current progress in the various assays for in vitro and in vivo anti-Babesia drug testing, as well as the challenges, highlighting new insights into the future of anti-Babesia drug screening. 10.1016/j.vetpar.2019.109013
    Ellagic acid microspheres restrict the growth of Babesia and Theileria in vitro and Babesia microti in vivo. Beshbishy Amani Magdy,Batiha Gaber El-Saber,Yokoyama Naoaki,Igarashi Ikuo Parasites & vectors BACKGROUND:There are no effective vaccines against Babesia and Theileria parasites; therefore, therapy depends heavily on antiprotozoal drugs. Treatment options for piroplasmosis are limited; thus, the need for new antiprotozoal agents is becoming increasingly urgent. Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in various plant products and has antioxidant, antibacterial and effective antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo without toxicity. The present study documents the efficacy of EA and EA-loaded nanoparticles (EA-NPs) on the growth of Babesia and Theileria. METHODS:In this study, the inhibitory effect of EA, β-cyclodextrin ellagic acid (β-CD EA) and antisolvent precipitation with a syringe pump prepared ellagic acid (APSP EA) was evaluated on four Babesia species and Theileria equi in vitro, and on the multiplication of B. microti in mice. The cytotoxicity assay was tested on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cell lines. RESULTS:The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) values of EA and β-CD EA on B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi and T. equi were 9.58 ± 1.47, 7.87 ± 5.8, 5.41 ± 2.8, 3.29 ± 0.42 and 7.46 ± 0.6 µM and 8.8 ± 0.53, 18.9 ± 0.025, 11 ± 0.37, 4.4 ± 0.6 and 9.1 ± 1.72 µM, respectively. The IC values of APSP EA on B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi and T. equi were 4.2 ± 0.42, 9.6 ± 0.6, 2.6 ± 1.47, 0.92 ± 5.8 and 7.3 ± 0.54 µM, respectively. A toxicity assay showed that EA, β-CD EA and APSP EA affected the viability of cells with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC) higher than 800 µM. In the experiments on mice, APSP EA at a concentration of 70 mg/kg reduced the peak parasitemia of B. microti by 68.1%. Furthermore, the APSP EA-atovaquone (AQ) combination showed a higher chemotherapeutic effect than that of APSP EA monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo antibabesial action of EA-NPs and thus supports the use of nanoparticles as an alternative antiparasitic agent. 10.1186/s13071-019-3520-x