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    Efficacy of Single-Shot Adductor Canal Block Combined With Posterior Capsular Infiltration on Postoperative Pain and Functional Outcome After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study. Wang Qiuru,Yue Yong,Li Donghai,Yang Zhouyuan,Yeersheng Releken,Kang Pengde The Journal of arthroplasty BACKGROUND:Adductor canal block (ACB) may preserve muscle strength and promote faster recovery than other methods of analgesia following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are contradictory reports on the efficacy of ACB. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of single-shot ACB combined with posterior capsular infiltration (PCI) vs multimodal periarticular infiltration analgesia in treating postoperative pain. METHODS:This study involved patients undergoing unilateral primary TKA at our institution from January 2018 to January 2019. Patients were randomized into 2 groups, one of which was treated with ACB combined with PCI, and the other with periarticular infiltration analgesia. Primary outcomes included postoperative pain as assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and consumption of morphine hydrochloride. The secondary outcome was functional recovery, as assessed by range of knee motion, quadriceps strength, and daily ambulation distance. Tertiary outcomes included the duration of hospital stay and postoperative adverse effects. RESULTS:Patients treated with ACB and PCI had lower resting VAS scores at 8 and 24 hours after surgery, and lower VAS scores during motion within 48 hours after surgery. Patients treated with ACB and PCI also consumed less morphine. There was no difference in functional recovery, duration of hospitalization, or incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION:The ACB combined with PCI can reduce postoperative pain sooner after TKA without affecting postoperative functional recovery and increasing complications. 10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.076
    Effects of multi-site infiltration analgesia on pain management and early rehabilitation compared with femoral nerve or adductor canal block for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Li Donghai,Tan Zhen,Kang Pengde,Shen Bin,Pei Fuxing International orthopaedics PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to combine intra-articular and peri-articular with wound infiltration analgesia (multi-site infiltration analgesia, MIA) for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and compare its pain management and early rehabilitation effect with the commonly used nerve block including adductor cannel block (FNB) and femoral nerve block (ACB). METHOD:We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial and 77 patients were included for analysis. The patients were randomized over three groups. The first group (26 patients) received multi-site infiltration analgesia (MIA group), the second group (27 patients) received femoral nerve block (FNB group), and the third group (24 patients) received adductor cannel block (ACB group). RESULTS:MIA showed better pain control at rest during the first 12 hours (p < 0.05 respectively) and less opioid consumption after operation than the other two groups (p < 0.05, respectively), but ACB and FNB revealed similar outcomes (p > 0.05). At the same time, there are no significant differences in pain score with activity, vital signs, and occurrence of complication (p > 0.05, respectively) among the three groups. When evaluated the early rehabilitation, MIA and ACB had similar outcomes on post-operative muscle strength (p > 0.05), but they showed better quadriceps strength when compared FNB (p < 0.05). Although the knee ROM of the patients with FNB showed better results (p < 0.05), their ambulation ability was inferior to those in MIA group (p < 0.05 and ACB group (p < 0.05) early after the operation, besides, MIA patients were superior to ACB patients (p < 0.05). Furthermore, MIA spent less time on operation and post-operative hospital stays when compared with FNB and ACB (p < 0.05, respectively), while the ACB and FNB were without significant difference (p < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION:ACB was not inferior to FNB on pain control, but it was better on early mobilization. However, MIA that combine intra-articular and peri-articular with wound infiltration analgesia after TKA was more effective on pain control at rest, with better efficacy on early rehabilitation and easier to perform when compared with these commonly used nerve block. We recommended our MIA for pain relief and fast rehabilitation after TKA. 10.1007/s00264-016-3278-0
    Comparison of adductor canal block with periarticular infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zhang Lu-Kai,Li Qiang,Zhu Fang-Bing,Liu Jun-Sheng,Zhang Zhi-Jin,Zhang Yu-Hang,Quan Ren-Fu Medicine BACKGROUND:Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is accompanied by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia, such as femoral nerve block, periarticular infiltration analgesia (PIA), and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, have been used for postoperative analgesia. Recently, randomized controlled trials have compared the efficacy of the adductor canal block (ACB) and the PIA in patients undergoing TKA. However, there is no definite answer as to the efficacy and safety of the ACB compared with the PIA. METHOD:Randomized controlled trials about relevant studies were searched from PubMed (1996 to May 2019), Embase (1980 to May 2019), and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, May 2019). Five studies which compared the ACB with the PIA methods were included in our meta-analysis. RESULTS:Five studies containing 413 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences between the ACB and the PIA group in visual analog scale (VAS) score at rest (P = .14) and movement (P = .18), quadriceps muscle strength (P = .95), complications (P = .78), length of stay (LOS) (P = .54), and time up and go (TUG) test (P = .09), While patients in the ACB group had less equivalent morphine consumption (P < .05) compared with the PIA group. CONCLUSIONS:Our pooled data indicated the ACB group reduced the equivalent morphine consumption compared with the PIA group, with no statistically significant differences in the VAS score, quadriceps muscle strength, TUG test, complications, and LOS. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018356
    Randomized Prospective Comparative Study of Adductor Canal Block vs Periarticular Infiltration on Early Functional Outcome After Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty. Kulkarni Mahesh M,Dadheech Ankit N,Wakankar Hemant M,Ganjewar Niranjan V,Hedgire Snehal S,Pandit Hemant G The Journal of arthroplasty BACKGROUND:Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with significant postoperative pain. Effective pain relief is essential for early postoperative rehabilitation. Periarticular infiltration (PAI) and adductor canal block (ACB) have become popular modes of pain management after TKA. Our aim is to compare their efficacy and impact on early functional outcome in patients undergoing TKA. METHODS:A single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 100 patients undergoing unilateral primary TKA for symptomatic osteoarthritis were allocated to either of the 2 groups (50 in each arm): postoperative ultrasound-guided single shot of ACB (group A) or intraoperative PAI (group B). All patients underwent TKA without patella resurfacing under spinal anesthesia. Preoperative workup, surgical technique, and postoperative management were standardized for all the patients. Patients were assessed for pain using visual analogue scale at 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery; hemoglobin level preoperatively and postoperatively on day 1 to calculate blood loss; hospital stay; tourniquet time; operative time; and postoperative complications by an independent observer blinded to the group allocation. RESULTS:Patients were matched for age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, and deformity. Visual analogue scale (scale 0-10) between PAI and ACB at 6, 12, and 24 hours were significantly different (P < .05) with higher scores seen in patients with ACB at all time points. Tourniquet time and operative time were significantly longer in the PAI than ACB. No significant difference in hospital stay was observed. No complications occurred during the study. CONCLUSION:PAI achieves better pain control as compared to ACB in patients undergoing unilateral TKA. 10.1016/j.arth.2019.05.049