Research on technology prospect risk of high-tech projects based on patent analysis.
Zhang Liwei,Liu Zhihui
The uncertainty of high technology has determined the high-risk character of high-tech projects. Thus, it is of great importance to effectively avoid the risk of high-tech projects by thoroughly analyzing projects' methodologies and fully understanding the technology prospect risk of projects in the feasibility study phase. This study proposes a systematic research framework to identify and analyze the technology prospect risk of projects based on patent analysis. Thus, text mining technology and principal component analysis are used to improve the traditional patent map method and construct a technology prospect risk map. Moreover, patent value evaluation and correlation analysis methods are combined to identify technology potential areas and calculate the value of technology prospect risk. At the same time, an empirical study is conducted with project cases in the field of optical communications, and the technology prospect risk situations of these projects are ascertained through qualitative and quantitative methods. The study is innovative and practical and offers a better combination of analysis methods for current technology development and specific projects.
Technological Innovations in Disease Management: Text Mining US Patent Data From 1995 to 2017.
Huang Ming,Zolnoori Maryam,Balls-Berry Joyce E,Brockman Tabetha A,Patten Christi A,Yao Lixia
Journal of medical Internet research
BACKGROUND:Patents are important intellectual property protecting technological innovations that inspire efficient research and development in biomedicine. The number of awarded patents serves as an important indicator of economic growth and technological innovation. Researchers have mined patents to characterize the focuses and trends of technological innovations in many fields. OBJECTIVE:To expand patent mining to biomedicine and facilitate future resource allocation in biomedical research for the United States, we analyzed US patent documents to determine the focuses and trends of protected technological innovations across the entire disease landscape. METHODS:We analyzed more than 5 million US patent documents between 1995 and 2017, using summary statistics and dynamic topic modeling. More specifically, we investigated the disease coverage and latent topics in patent documents over time. We also incorporated the patent data into the calculation of our recently developed Research Opportunity Index (ROI) and Public Health Index (PHI), to recalibrate the resource allocation in biomedical research. RESULTS:Our analysis showed that protected technological innovations have been primarily focused on socioeconomically critical diseases such as "other cancers" (malignant neoplasm of head, face, neck, abdomen, pelvis, or limb; disseminated malignant neoplasm; Merkel cell carcinoma; and malignant neoplasm, malignant carcinoid tumors, neuroendocrine tumor, and carcinoma in situ of an unspecified site), diabetes mellitus, and obesity. The United States has significantly improved resource allocation to biomedical research and development over the past 17 years, as illustrated by the decreasing PHI. Diseases with positive ROI, such as ankle and foot fracture, indicate potential research opportunities for the future. Development of novel chemical or biological drugs and electrical devices for diagnosis and disease management is the dominating topic in patented inventions. CONCLUSIONS:This multifaceted analysis of patent documents provides a deep understanding of the focuses and trends of technological innovations in disease management in patents. Our findings offer insights into future research and innovation opportunities and provide actionable information to facilitate policy makers, payers, and investors to make better evidence-based decisions regarding resource allocation in biomedicine.
The problem of patent thickets in convergent technologies.
Clarkson Gavin,DeKorte David
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Patent thickets are unintentionally dense webs of overlapping intellectual property rights owned by different companies that can retard progress. This article begins with a review of existing research on patent thickets, focusing in particular on the problem of patent thickets in nanotechnology, or nanothickets. After presenting visual evidence of the presence of nanothickets using a network analytic technique, it discusses potential organizational responses to patent thickets. It then reviews the existing research on patent pools and discusses pool formation in the shadow of antitrust enforcement. Based on recent research on patent pool formation, it examines the divergent fate of two recent pools and discusses the prospects for the future formation of nanotechnology patent pools, or nanopools.
The proximity of ideas: An analysis of patent text using machine learning.
This paper introduces a measure of the proximity in ideas using unsupervised machine learning. Knowledge transfers are considered a key driving force of innovation and regional economic growth. I explore knowledge relationships by deriving vector space representations of a patent's abstract text using Document Vectors (Doc2Vec), and using cosine similarity to measure their proximity in ideas space. I illustrate the potential uses of this method with an application to geographic localization in knowledge spillovers. For patents in the same technology field, their normalized text similarity is 0.02-0.05 S.D.s higher if they are located within the same city, compared to patents from other cities. This effect is much smaller than when knowledge transfers are measured using normalized patent citations: local patents receive about 0.23-0.30 S.D.s more local citations than compared to non-local control patents. These findings suggest that the effect of geography on knowledge transfers may be much smaller than the previous literature using citations suggests.
Assessment of the significance of patent-derived information for the early identification of compound-target interaction hypotheses.
Journal of cheminformatics
BACKGROUND:Patents are an important source of information for effective decision making in drug discovery. Encouragingly, freely accessible patent-chemistry databases are now in the public domain. However, at present there is still a wide gap between relatively low coverage-high quality manually-curated data sources and high coverage data sources that use text mining and automated extraction of chemical structures. To secure much needed funding for further research and an improved infrastructure, hard evidence is required to demonstrate the significance of patent-derived information in drug discovery. Surprisingly little such evidence has been reported so far. To address this, the present study attempts to quantify the relevance of patents for formulating and substantiating hypotheses for compound-target interactions. RESULTS:A manually-curated set of 130 compound-target interaction pairs annotated with what are considered to be the earliest patent and publication has been produced. The analysis of this set revealed that in stark contrast to what has been reported for novel chemical structures, only about 10% of the compound-target interaction pairs could be found in publications in the scientific literature within one year of being reported in patents. The average delay across all interaction pairs is close to 4 years. In an attempt to benchmark current capabilities, it was also examined how much of the benefit of using patent-derived information can be retained when a bioannotated version of SureChEMBL is used as secondary source for the patent literature. Encouragingly, this approach found the patents in the annotated set for 72% of the compound-target interaction pairs. Similarly, the effect of using the bioactivity database ChEMBL as secondary source for the scientific literature was studied. Here, the publications from the annotated set were only found for 46% of the compound-target interaction pairs. CONCLUSION:Patent-derived information is a significant enabler for formulating compound-target interaction hypotheses even in cases where the respective interaction is later reported in the scientific literature. The findings of this study clearly highlight the significance of future investments in the development and provision of databases and tools that will allow scientists to search patent information in a comprehensive, reliable, and efficient manner.