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    Clinical Features of Anti-MDA5 Antibody-positive Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease without Signs of Dermatomyositis. Sakamoto Noriho,Ishimoto Hiroshi,Nakashima Shota,Yura Hirokazu,Miyamura Takuto,Okuno Daisuke,Hara Atsuko,Kitazaki Takeshi,Kakugawa Tomoyuki,Ishimatsu Yuji,Satoh Minoru,Mukae Hiroshi Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) antibody is associated with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) in patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) or dermatomyositis (DM). We herein report three Japanese cases of anti-MDA5 antibody-positive RP-ILD without signs of CADM or DM. High-resolution computed tomography revealed patchy or subpleural distribution of consolidations and/or ground-glass opacities accompanied by traction bronchiectasis. All patients succumbed to respiratory failure within two months. Anti-MDA5 antibody-positive RP-ILD without signs of CADM or DM should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute/subacute ILD. Measurement of anti-MDA5 antibody and an intensive immunosuppressive regimen might rescue these patients from RP-ILD. 10.2169/internalmedicine.1516-18