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    Dynamic functional connectivity changes associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease. Fiorenzato Eleonora,Strafella Antonio P,Kim Jinhee,Schifano Roberta,Weis Luca,Antonini Angelo,Biundo Roberta Brain : a journal of neurology Dynamic functional connectivity captures temporal variations of functional connectivity during MRI acquisition and it may be a suitable method to detect cognitive changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we evaluated 118 patients with Parkinson's disease matched for age, sex and education with 35 healthy control subjects. Patients with Parkinson's disease were classified with normal cognition (n = 52), mild cognitive impairment (n = 46), and dementia (n = 20) based on an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Resting state functional MRI and a sliding-window approach were used to study the dynamic functional connectivity. Dynamic analysis suggested two distinct connectivity 'States' across the entire group: a more frequent, segregated brain state characterized by the predominance of within-network connections, State I, and a less frequent, integrated state with strongly connected functional internetwork components, State II. In Parkinson's disease, State I occurred 13.89% more often than in healthy control subjects, paralleled by a proportional reduction of State II. Parkinson's disease subgroups analyses showed the segregated state occurred more frequently in Parkinson's disease dementia than in mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition groups. Further, patients with Parkinson's disease dementia dwelled significantly longer in the segregated State I, and showed a significant lower number of transitions to the strongly interconnected State II compared to the other subgroups. Our study indicates that dementia in Parkinson's disease is characterized by altered temporal properties in dynamic connectivity. In addition, our results show that increased dwell time in the segregated state and reduced number of transitions between states are associated with presence of dementia in Parkinson's disease. Further studies on dynamic functional connectivity changes could help to better understand the progressive dysfunction of networks between Parkinson's disease cognitive states. 10.1093/brain/awz192
    Improving diagnostic accuracy of multiple system atrophy: a clinicopathological study. Miki Yasuo,Foti Sandrine C,Asi Yasmine T,Tsushima Eiki,Quinn Niall,Ling Helen,Holton Janice L Brain : a journal of neurology Clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy is challenging and many patients with Lewy body disease (i.e. Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies) or progressive supranuclear palsy are misdiagnosed as having multiple system atrophy in life. The clinical records of 203 patients with a clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy were reviewed to identify diagnostic pitfalls. We also examined 12 features supporting a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (red flag features: orofacial dystonia, disproportionate antecollis, camptocormia and/or Pisa syndrome, contractures of hands or feet, inspiratory sighs, severe dysphonia, severe dysarthria, snoring, cold hands and feet, pathological laughter and crying, jerky myoclonic postural/action tremor and polyminimyoclonus) and seven disability milestones (frequent falls, use of urinary catheters, wheelchair dependent, unintelligible speech, cognitive impairment, severe dysphagia, residential care). Of 203 cases, 160 (78.8%) were correctly diagnosed in life and had pathologically confirmed multiple system atrophy. The remaining 21.2% (43/203) had alternative pathological diagnoses including Lewy body disease (12.8%; n = 26), progressive supranuclear palsy (6.4%; n = 13), cerebrovascular diseases (1%; n = 2), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (0.5%; n = 1) and cerebellar degeneration (0.5%; n = 1). More patients with multiple system atrophy developed ataxia, stridor, dysphagia and falls than patients with Lewy body disease; resting tremor, pill-rolling tremor and hallucinations were more frequent in Lewy body disease. Although patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy shared several symptoms and signs, ataxia and stridor were more common in multiple system atrophy. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed increased likelihood of multiple system atrophy versus Lewy body disease and progressive supranuclear palsy if a patient developed orthostatic hypotension or urinary incontinence with the requirement for urinary catheters [multiple system atrophy versus Lewy body disease: odds ratio (OR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.7, P = 0.021; multiple system atrophy versus progressive supranuclear palsy: OR: 11.2, 95% CI: 3.2-39.2, P < 0.01]. Furthermore, autonomic dysfunction within the first 3 years from onset can differentiate multiple system atrophy from progressive supranuclear palsy (multiple system atrophy versus progressive supranuclear palsy: OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-9.7, P = 0.023). Multiple system atrophy patients with predominant parkinsonian signs had a higher number of red flag features than patients with Lewy body disease (OR: 8.8, 95% CI: 3.2-24.2, P < 0.01) and progressive supranuclear palsy (OR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.7-13.6, P < 0.01). The number of red flag features in multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar signs was also higher than in Lewy body disease (OR: 7.0, 95% CI: 2.5-19.5, P < 0.01) and progressive supranuclear palsy (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1-8.9, P = 0.032). Patients with multiple system atrophy had shorter latency to reach use of urinary catheter and longer latency to residential care than progressive supranuclear palsy patients, whereas patients with Lewy body disease took longer to reach multiple milestones than patients with multiple system atrophy. The present study has highlighted features which should improve the ante-mortem diagnostic accuracy of multiple system atrophy. 10.1093/brain/awz189
    Early complement genes are associated with visual system degeneration in multiple sclerosis. Fitzgerald Kathryn C,Kim Kicheol,Smith Matthew D,Aston Sean A,Fioravante Nicholas,Rothman Alissa M,Krieger Stephen,Cofield Stacey S,Kimbrough Dorlan J,Bhargava Pavan,Saidha Shiv,Whartenby Katharine A,Green Ari J,Mowry Ellen M,Cutter Gary R,Lublin Fred D,Baranzini Sergio E,De Jager Philip L,Calabresi Peter A Brain : a journal of neurology Multiple sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease with an unpredictable course and a wide range of severity; some individuals rapidly progress to a disabled state whereas others experience only mild symptoms. Though genetic studies have identified variants that are associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis, no variants have been consistently associated with multiple sclerosis severity. In part, the lack of findings is related to inherent limitations of clinical rating scales; these scales are insensitive to early degenerative changes that underlie disease progression. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the retina and low-contrast letter acuity correlate with and predict clinical and imaging-based outcomes in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, they may serve as sensitive phenotypes to discover genetic predictors of disease course. We conducted a set of genome-wide association studies of longitudinal structural and functional visual pathway phenotypes in multiple sclerosis. First, we assessed genetic predictors of ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer atrophy in a discovery cohort of 374 patients with multiple sclerosis using mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, optic neuritis and genetic ancestry and using a combination of single-variant and network-based analyses. For candidate variants identified in discovery, we conducted a similar set of analyses of ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer thinning in a replication cohort (n = 376). Second, we assessed genetic predictors of sustained loss of 5-letters in low-contrast letter acuity in discovery (n = 582) using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We then evaluated candidate variants/pathways in a replication cohort. (n = 253). Results of both studies revealed novel subnetworks highly enriched for connected genes in early complement activation linked to measures of disease severity. Within these networks, C3 was the gene most strongly associated with ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer atrophy (P = 0.004) and C1QA and CR1 were top results in analysis of sustained low-contrast letter acuity loss. Namely, variant rs158772, linked to C1QA, and rs61822967, linked to CR1, were associated with 71% and 40% increases in risk of sustained LCLA loss, respectively, in meta-analysis pooling discovery and replication cohorts (rs158772: hazard ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.25; P = 1.3 × 10-4; rs61822967: hazard ratio: 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.68; P = 4.1 × 10-4). In conclusion, early complement pathway gene variants were consistently associated with structural and functional measures of multiple sclerosis severity. These results from unbiased analyses are strongly supported by several prior reports that mechanistically implicated early complement factors in neurodegeneration. 10.1093/brain/awz188
    Opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels causes migraine attacks: a new target for the treatment of migraine. Al-Karagholi Mohammad Al-Mahdi,Hansen Jakob Møller,Guo Song,Olesen Jes,Ashina Messoud Brain : a journal of neurology Migraine is one of the most disabling and prevalent of all disorders. To improve understanding of migraine mechanisms and to suggest a new therapeutic target, we investigated whether opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) would cause migraine attacks. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 16 patients aged 18-49 years with one to five migraine attacks a month were randomly allocated to receive an infusion of 0.05 mg/min KATP channel opener levcromakalim and placebo on two different days (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03228355). The primary endpoints were the difference in incidence of migraine attacks, headaches and the difference in area under the curve (AUC) for headache intensity scores (0-12 h) and for middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (0-2 h) between levcromakalim and placebo. Between 24 May 2017 and 23 November 2017, 16 patients randomly received levcromakalim and placebo on two different days. Sixteen patients (100%) developed migraine attacks after levcromakalim compared with one patient (6%) after placebo (P = 0.0001); the difference of incidence is 94% [95% confidence interval (CI) 78-100%]. The incidence of headache over the 12 h observation period was higher but not significant after levcromakalim (n = 16) than after placebo (n = 7) (P = 0.016) (95% CI 16-71%). The AUC for headache intensity was significantly larger after levcromakalim compared to placebo (AUC0-12h, P < 0.0001). There was no change in mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity after levcromakalim compared to placebo (AUC0-2hP = 0.46). Opening of KATP channels caused migraine attacks in all patients. This suggests a crucial role of these channels in migraine pathophysiology and that KATP channel blockers could be potential targets for novel drugs for migraine. 10.1093/brain/awz199
    High dose vitamin D exacerbates central nervous system autoimmunity by raising T-cell excitatory calcium. Häusler Darius,Torke Sebastian,Peelen Evelyn,Bertsch Thomas,Djukic Marija,Nau Roland,Larochelle Catherine,Zamvil Scott S,Brück Wolfgang,Weber Martin S Brain : a journal of neurology Poor vitamin D status is associated with a higher relapse rate and earlier disability in multiple sclerosis. Based on these associations, patients with multiple sclerosis are frequently supplemented with the vitamin D precursor cholecalciferol, although it is unclear whether this regimen is of therapeutic benefit. To model consequences of this common practice, mice were fed for more than 3 months with a low, medium or high dose of cholecalciferol, representative of vitamin D deficiency, modest and disproportionally high supplementation, respectively, in patients with multiple sclerosis. Compared to vitamin D-deprived mice, its moderate supplementation reduced the severity of subsequent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which was associated with an expansion of regulatory T cells. Direct exposure of murine or human T cells to vitamin D metabolites inhibited their activation. In contrast, mice with 25-(OH) vitamin D levels above 200 nmol/l developed fulminant experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with massive CNS infiltration of activated myeloid cells, Th1 and Th17 cells. When dissecting this unexpected outcome, we observed that high, but not medium dose vitamin D had caused mild hypercalcaemia, which rendered T cells more prone to pro-inflammatory activation. Exposing murine or human T cells to equivalent calcium concentrations in vitro enhanced its influx, triggering activation, upregulation of pro-inflammatory gene products and enhanced transmigration across a blood-brain barrier model. These findings suggest that vitamin D at moderate levels may exert a direct regulatory effect, while continuous high dose vitamin D treatment could trigger multiple sclerosis disease activity by raising mean levels of T-cell excitatory calcium. 10.1093/brain/awz190
    Stereoelectroencephalography: retrospective analysis of 742 procedures in a single centre. Cardinale Francesco,Rizzi Michele,Vignati Elena,Cossu Massimo,Castana Laura,d'Orio Piergiorgio,Revay Martina,Costanza Martina Della,Tassi Laura,Mai Roberto,Sartori Ivana,Nobili Lino,Gozzo Francesca,Pelliccia Veronica,Mariani Valeria,Lo Russo Giorgio,Francione Stefano Brain : a journal of neurology This retrospective description of a surgical series is aimed at reporting on indications, methodology, results on seizures, outcome predictors and complications from a 20-year stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) activity performed at a single epilepsy surgery centre. Prospectively collected data from a consecutive series of 742 SEEG procedures carried out on 713 patients were reviewed and described. Long-term seizure outcome of SEEG-guided resections was defined as a binomial variable: absence (ILAE classes 1-2) or recurrence (ILAE classes 3-6) of disabling seizures. Predictors of seizure outcome were analysed by preliminary uni/bivariate analyses followed by multivariate logistic regression. Furthermore, results on seizures of these subjects were compared with those obtained in 1128 patients operated on after only non-invasive evaluation. Survival analyses were also carried out, limited to patients with a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Resective surgery has been indicated for 570 patients (79.9%). Two-hundred and seventy-nine of 470 patients operated on (59.4%) were free of disabling seizures at least 2 years after resective surgery. Negative magnetic resonance and post-surgical lesion remnant were significant risk factors for seizure recurrence, while type II focal cortical dysplasia, balloon cells, glioneuronal tumours, hippocampal sclerosis, older age at epilepsy onset and periventricular nodular heterotopy were significantly associated with seizure freedom. Twenty-five of 153 patients who underwent radio-frequency thermal coagulation (16.3%) were optimal responders. Thirteen of 742 (1.8%) procedures were complicated by unexpected events, including three (0.4%) major complications and one fatality (0.1%). In conclusion, SEEG is a safe and efficient methodology for invasive definition of the epileptogenic zone in the most challenging patients. Despite the progressive increase of MRI-negative cases, the proportion of seizure-free patients did not decrease throughout the years. 10.1093/brain/awz196
    A metabolic perspective on CSF-mediated neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. Wentling Maureen,Lopez-Gomez Carlos,Park Hye-Jin,Amatruda Mario,Ntranos Achilles,Aramini James,Petracca Maria,Rusielewicz Tom,Chen Emily,Tolstikov Vladimir,Kiebish Michael,Fossati Valentina,Inglese Matilde,Quinzii Catarina M,Katz Sand Ilana,Casaccia Patrizia Brain : a journal of neurology Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the CNS, characterized by inflammatory lesions and an underlying neurodegenerative process, which is more prominent in patients with progressive disease course. It has been proposed that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies neuronal damage, the precise mechanism by which this occurs remains uncertain. To investigate potential mechanisms of neurodegeneration, we conducted a functional screening of mitochondria in neurons exposed to the CSF of multiple sclerosis patients with a relapsing remitting (n = 15) or a progressive (secondary, n = 15 or primary, n = 14) disease course. Live-imaging of CSF-treated neurons, using a fluorescent mitochondrial tracer, identified mitochondrial elongation as a unique effect induced by the CSF from progressive patients. These morphological changes were associated with decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes I, III and IV and correlated with axonal damage. The effect of CSF treatment on the morphology of mitochondria was characterized by phosphorylation of serine 637 on the dynamin-related protein DRP1, a post-translational modification responsible for unopposed mitochondrial fusion in response to low glucose conditions. The effect of neuronal treatment with CSF from progressive patients was heat stable, thereby prompting us to conduct an unbiased exploratory lipidomic study that identified specific ceramide species as differentially abundant in the CSF of progressive patients compared to relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Treatment of neurons with medium supplemented with ceramides, induced a time-dependent increase of the transcripts levels of specific glucose and lactate transporters, which functionally resulted in progressively increased glucose uptake from the medium. Thus ceramide levels in the CSF of patients with progressive multiple sclerosis not only impaired mitochondrial respiration but also decreased the bioavailability of glucose by increasing its uptake. Importantly the neurotoxic effect of CSF treatment could be rescued by exogenous supplementation with glucose or lactate, presumably to compensate the inefficient fuel utilization. Together these data suggest a condition of 'virtual hypoglycosis' induced by the CSF of progressive patients in cultured neurons and suggest a critical temporal window of intervention for the rescue of the metabolic impairment of neuronal bioenergetics underlying neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis patients. 10.1093/brain/awz201
    Arylsulfatase A, a genetic modifier of Parkinson's disease, is an α-synuclein chaperone. Lee Jun Sung,Kanai Kazuaki,Suzuki Mari,Kim Woojin S,Yoo Han Soo,Fu YuHong,Kim Dong-Kyu,Jung Byung Chul,Choi Minsun,Oh Kyu Won,Li Yuanzhe,Nakatani Mitsuyoshi,Nakazato Tomoko,Sekimoto Satoko,Funayama Manabu,Yoshino Hiroyo,Kubo Shin-Ichiro,Nishioka Kenya,Sakai Ryusuke,Ueyama Morio,Mochizuki Hideki,Lee He-Jin,Sardi Sergio Pablo,Halliday Glenda M,Nagai Yoshitaka,Lee Phil Hyu,Hattori Nobutaka,Lee Seung-Jae Brain : a journal of neurology Mutations in lysosomal genes increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases, as is the case for Parkinson's disease. Here, we found that pathogenic and protective mutations in arylsulfatase A (ARSA), a gene responsible for metachromatic leukodystrophy, a lysosomal storage disorder, are linked to Parkinson's disease. Plasma ARSA protein levels were changed in Parkinson's disease patients. ARSA deficiency caused increases in α-synuclein aggregation and secretion, and increases in α-synuclein propagation in cells and nematodes. Despite being a lysosomal protein, ARSA directly interacts with α-synuclein in the cytosol. The interaction was more extensive with protective ARSA variant and less with pathogenic ARSA variant than wild-type. ARSA inhibited the in vitro fibrillation of α-synuclein in a dose-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of ARSA reversed the α-synuclein phenotypes in both cell and fly models of synucleinopathy, the effects correlating with the extent of the physical interaction between these molecules. Collectively, these results suggest that ARSA is a genetic modifier of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis, acting as a molecular chaperone for α-synuclein. 10.1093/brain/awz205
    Reply: A novel WARS mutation causes distal hereditary motor neuropathy in a Chinese family. Liao Yi-Chu,Lee Yi-Chung Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz219
    The functional neuroanatomy of emotion processing in frontotemporal dementias. Marshall Charles R,Hardy Christopher J D,Russell Lucy L,Bond Rebecca L,Sivasathiaseelan Harri,Greaves Caroline,Moore Katrina M,Agustus Jennifer L,van Leeuwen Janneke E P,Wastling Stephen J,Rohrer Jonathan D,Kilner James M,Warren Jason D Brain : a journal of neurology Impaired processing of emotional signals is a core feature of frontotemporal dementia syndromes, but the underlying neural mechanisms have proved challenging to characterize and measure. Progress in this field may depend on detecting functional changes in the working brain, and disentangling components of emotion processing that include sensory decoding, emotion categorization and emotional contagion. We addressed this using functional MRI of naturalistic, dynamic facial emotion processing with concurrent indices of autonomic arousal, in a cohort of patients representing all major frontotemporal dementia syndromes relative to healthy age-matched individuals. Seventeen patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia [four female; mean (standard deviation) age 64.8 (6.8) years], 12 with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia [four female; 66.9 (7.0) years], nine with non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia [five female; 67.4 (8.1) years] and 22 healthy controls [12 female; 68.6 (6.8) years] passively viewed videos of universal facial expressions during functional MRI acquisition, with simultaneous heart rate and pupillometric recordings; emotion identification accuracy was assessed in a post-scan behavioural task. Relative to healthy controls, patient groups showed significant impairments (analysis of variance models, all P < 0.05) of facial emotion identification (all syndromes) and cardiac (all syndromes) and pupillary (non-fluent variant only) reactivity. Group-level functional neuroanatomical changes were assessed using statistical parametric mapping, thresholded at P < 0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons over the whole brain or within pre-specified regions of interest. In response to viewing facial expressions, all participant groups showed comparable activation of primary visual cortex while patient groups showed differential hypo-activation of fusiform and posterior temporo-occipital junctional cortices. Bi-hemispheric, syndrome-specific activations predicting facial emotion identification performance were identified (behavioural variant, anterior insula and caudate; semantic variant, anterior temporal cortex; non-fluent variant, frontal operculum). The semantic and non-fluent variant groups additionally showed complex profiles of central parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic involvement that overlapped signatures of emotional visual and categorization processing and extended (in the non-fluent group) to brainstem effector pathways. These findings open a window on the functional cerebral mechanisms underpinning complex socio-emotional phenotypes of frontotemporal dementia, with implications for novel physiological biomarker development. 10.1093/brain/awz204
    A novel WARS mutation causes distal hereditary motor neuropathy in a Chinese family. Li Jia-Qi,Dong Hai-Lin,Chen Cong-Xin,Wu Zhi-Ying Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz218
    GABAergic cell transplants in the anterior cingulate cortex reduce neuropathic pain aversiveness. Juarez-Salinas Dina L,Braz Joao M,Etlin Alexander,Gee Steven,Sohal Vikaas,Basbaum Allan I Brain : a journal of neurology Dysfunction of inhibitory circuits in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex underlies the affective (aversive), but not the sensory-discriminative features (hypersensitivity) of the pain experience. To restore inhibitory controls, we transplanted inhibitory interneuron progenitor cells into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in a chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain model. The transplants integrated, exerted a GABA-A mediated inhibition of host pyramidal cells and blocked gabapentin preference (i.e. relieved ongoing pain) in a conditioned place preference paradigm. Surprisingly, pain aversiveness persisted when the transplants populated both the rostral and posterior anterior cingulate cortex. We conclude that selective and long lasting inhibition of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, in the mouse, has a profound pain relieving effect against nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the interplay between the rostral and posterior anterior cingulate cortices must be considered when examining circuits that influence ongoing pain and pain aversiveness. 10.1093/brain/awz203
    Genetic analysis of Mendelian mutations in a large UK population-based Parkinson's disease study. Tan Manuela M X,Malek Naveed,Lawton Michael A,Hubbard Leon,Pittman Alan M,Joseph Theresita,Hehir Jason,Swallow Diane M A,Grosset Katherine A,Marrinan Sarah L,Bajaj Nin,Barker Roger A,Burn David J,Bresner Catherine,Foltynie Thomas,Hardy John,Wood Nicholas,Ben-Shlomo Yoav,Grosset Donald G,Williams Nigel M,Morris Huw R Brain : a journal of neurology Our objective was to define the prevalence and clinical features of genetic Parkinson's disease in a large UK population-based cohort, the largest multicentre prospective clinico-genetic incident study in the world. We collected demographic data, Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. We analysed mutations in PRKN (parkin), PINK1, LRRK2 and SNCA in relation to age at symptom onset, family history and clinical features. Of the 2262 participants recruited to the Tracking Parkinson's study, 424 had young-onset Parkinson's disease (age at onset ≤ 50) and 1799 had late onset Parkinson's disease. A range of methods were used to genotype 2005 patients: 302 young-onset patients were fully genotyped with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and either Sanger and/or exome sequencing; and 1701 late-onset patients were genotyped with the LRRK2 'Kompetitive' allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay and/or exome sequencing (two patients had missing age at onset). We identified 29 (1.4%) patients carrying pathogenic mutations. Eighteen patients carried the G2019S or R1441C mutations in LRRK2, and one patient carried a heterozygous duplication in SNCA. In PRKN, we identified patients carrying deletions of exons 1, 4 and 5, and P113Xfs, R275W, G430D and R33X. In PINK1, two patients carried deletions in exon 1 and 5, and the W90Xfs point mutation. Eighteen per cent of patients with age at onset ≤30 and 7.4% of patients from large dominant families carried pathogenic Mendelian gene mutations. Of all young-onset patients, 10 (3.3%) carried biallelic mutations in PRKN or PINK1. Across the whole cohort, 18 patients (0.9%) carried pathogenic LRRK2 mutations and one (0.05%) carried an SNCA duplication. There is a significant burden of LRRK2 G2019S in patients with both apparently sporadic and familial disease. In young-onset patients, dominant and recessive mutations were equally common. There were no differences in clinical features between LRRK2 carriers and non-carriers. However, we did find that PRKN and PINK1 mutation carriers have distinctive clinical features compared to young-onset non-carriers, with more postural symptoms at diagnosis and less cognitive impairment, after adjusting for age and disease duration. This supports the idea that there is a distinct clinical profile of PRKN and PINK1-related Parkinson's disease. We estimate that there are approaching 1000 patients with a known genetic aetiology in the UK Parkinson's disease population. A small but significant number of patients carry causal variants in LRRK2, SNCA, PRKN and PINK1 that could potentially be targeted by new therapies, such as LRRK2 inhibitors. 10.1093/brain/awz191
    Highly differentiated cytotoxic T cells in inclusion body myositis. Greenberg Steven A,Pinkus Jack L,Kong Sek Won,Baecher-Allan Clare,Amato Anthony A,Dorfman David M Brain : a journal of neurology Inclusion body myositis is a late onset treatment-refractory autoimmune disease of skeletal muscle associated with a blood autoantibody (anti-cN1A), an HLA autoimmune haplotype, and muscle pathology characterized by cytotoxic CD8+ T cell destruction of myofibres. Here, we report on translational studies of inclusion body myositis patient muscle compared with a diverse set of other muscle disease samples. Using available microarray data on 411 muscle samples from patients with inclusion body myositis (n = 40), other muscle diseases (n = 265), and without neuromuscular disease (normal, n = 106), we identified a signature of T-cell cytotoxicity in inclusion body myositis muscle coupled with a signature of highly differentiated CD8 T-cell effector memory and terminally differentiated effector cells. Further, we examined killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) as a marker of this population of cells, demonstrated the correlation of KLRG1 gene expression with lymphocyte cytotoxicity across 28 870 human tissue samples, and identified the presence of KLRG1 on pathogenic inclusion body myositis muscle invading T cells and an increase in KLRG1 expressing T cells in inclusion body myositis blood. We examined inclusion body myositis muscle T-cell proliferation by Ki67 immunohistochemistry demonstrating that diseased muscle-invading T cells are minimally or non-proliferative, in accordance with known properties of highly differentiated or terminally differentiated T cells. We found low expression of KLRG1 on infection-protective human lymphoid tissue central memory T cells and autoimmune-protective human blood regulatory T cells. Targeting highly differentiated cytotoxic T cells could be a favourable approach to treatment of inclusion body myositis. 10.1093/brain/awz207
    Pathogenic WDFY3 variants cause neurodevelopmental disorders and opposing effects on brain size. Le Duc Diana,Giulivi Cecilia,Hiatt Susan M,Napoli Eleonora,Panoutsopoulos Alexios,Harlan De Crescenzo Angelo,Kotzaeridou Urania,Syrbe Steffen,Anagnostou Evdokia,Azage Meron,Bend Renee,Begtrup Amber,Brown Natasha J,Büttner Benjamin,Cho Megan T,Cooper Gregory M,Doering Jan H,Dubourg Christèle,Everman David B,Hildebrand Michael S,Santos Francis Jeshira Reynoso,Kellam Barbara,Keller-Ramey Jennifer,Lemke Johannes R,Liu Shuxi,Niyazov Dmitriy,Payne Katelyn,Person Richard,Quélin Chloé,Schnur Rhonda E,Smith Brooke T,Strober Jonathan,Walker Susan,Wallis Mathew,Walsh Laurence,Yang Sandra,Yuen Ryan K C,Ziegler Andreas,Sticht Heinrich,Pride Michael C,Orosco Lori,Martínez-Cerdeño Verónica,Silverman Jill L,Crawley Jacqueline N,Scherer Stephen W,Zarbalis Konstantinos S,Jamra Rami Brain : a journal of neurology The underpinnings of mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay remain elusive, often leading to late diagnosis and interventions. Here, we present data on exome and genome sequencing as well as array analysis of 13 individuals that point to pathogenic, heterozygous, mostly de novo variants in WDFY3 (significant de novo enrichment P = 0.003) as a monogenic cause of mild and non-specific neurodevelopmental delay. Nine variants were protein-truncating and four missense. Overlapping symptoms included neurodevelopmental delay, intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum disorders/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). One proband presented with an opposing phenotype of microcephaly and the only missense-variant located in the PH-domain of WDFY3. Findings of this case are supported by previously published data, demonstrating that pathogenic PH-domain variants can lead to microcephaly via canonical Wnt-pathway upregulation. In a separate study, we reported that the autophagy scaffolding protein WDFY3 is required for cerebral cortical size regulation in mice, by controlling proper division of neural progenitors. Here, we show that proliferating cortical neural progenitors of human embryonic brains highly express WDFY3, further supporting a role for this molecule in the regulation of prenatal neurogenesis. We present data on Wnt-pathway dysregulation in Wdfy3-haploinsufficient mice, which display macrocephaly and deficits in motor coordination and associative learning, recapitulating the human phenotype. Consequently, we propose that in humans WDFY3 loss-of-function variants lead to macrocephaly via downregulation of the Wnt pathway. In summary, we present WDFY3 as a novel gene linked to mild to moderate neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability and conclude that variants putatively causing haploinsufficiency lead to macrocephaly, while an opposing pathomechanism due to variants in the PH-domain of WDFY3 leads to microcephaly. 10.1093/brain/awz198
    Locus coeruleus imaging as a biomarker for noradrenergic dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Betts Matthew J,Kirilina Evgeniya,Otaduy Maria C G,Ivanov Dimo,Acosta-Cabronero Julio,Callaghan Martina F,Lambert Christian,Cardenas-Blanco Arturo,Pine Kerrin,Passamonti Luca,Loane Clare,Keuken Max C,Trujillo Paula,Lüsebrink Falk,Mattern Hendrik,Liu Kathy Y,Priovoulos Nikos,Fliessbach Klaus,Dahl Martin J,Maaß Anne,Madelung Christopher F,Meder David,Ehrenberg Alexander J,Speck Oliver,Weiskopf Nikolaus,Dolan Raymond,Inglis Ben,Tosun Duygu,Morawski Markus,Zucca Fabio A,Siebner Hartwig R,Mather Mara,Uludag Kamil,Heinsen Helmut,Poser Benedikt A,Howard Robert,Zecca Luigi,Rowe James B,Grinberg Lea T,Jacobs Heidi I L,Düzel Emrah,Hämmerer Dorothea Brain : a journal of neurology Pathological alterations to the locus coeruleus, the major source of noradrenaline in the brain, are histologically evident in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Novel MRI approaches now provide an opportunity to quantify structural features of the locus coeruleus in vivo during disease progression. In combination with neuropathological biomarkers, in vivo locus coeruleus imaging could help to understand the contribution of locus coeruleus neurodegeneration to clinical and pathological manifestations in Alzheimer's disease, atypical neurodegenerative dementias and Parkinson's disease. Moreover, as the functional sensitivity of the noradrenergic system is likely to change with disease progression, in vivo measures of locus coeruleus integrity could provide new pathophysiological insights into cognitive and behavioural symptoms. Locus coeruleus imaging also holds the promise to stratify patients into clinical trials according to noradrenergic dysfunction. In this article, we present a consensus on how non-invasive in vivo assessment of locus coeruleus integrity can be used for clinical research in neurodegenerative diseases. We outline the next steps for in vivo, post-mortem and clinical studies that can lay the groundwork to evaluate the potential of locus coeruleus imaging as a biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. 10.1093/brain/awz193
    Reply: New homozygous indel in MYORG linked to brain calcification, thyroidopathy and neuropathy. Nicolas Gaël,Grangeon Lou,Wallon David Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz227
    New homozygous indel in MYORG linked to brain calcification, thyroidopathy and neuropathy. Ferreira Laura D,de Oliveira João Ricardo M Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz225
    Nonsense mutations in alpha-II spectrin in three families with juvenile onset hereditary motor neuropathy. Beijer Danique,Deconinck Tine,De Bleecker Jan L,Dotti Maria Teresa,Malandrini Alessandro,Urtizberea J Andoni,Zulaica Miren,López de Munain Adolfo,Asselbergh Bob,De Jonghe Peter,Baets Jonathan Brain : a journal of neurology Distal hereditary motor neuropathies are a rare subgroup of inherited peripheral neuropathies hallmarked by a length-dependent axonal degeneration of lower motor neurons without significant involvement of sensory neurons. We identified patients with heterozygous nonsense mutations in the αII-spectrin gene, SPTAN1, in three separate dominant hereditary motor neuropathy families via next-generation sequencing. Variable penetrance was noted for these mutations in two of three families, and phenotype severity differs greatly between patients. The mutant mRNA containing nonsense mutations is broken down by nonsense-mediated decay and leads to reduced protein levels in patient cells. Previously, dominant-negative αII-spectrin gene mutations were described as causal in a spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes. 10.1093/brain/awz216
    Cohesin complex-associated holoprosencephaly. Kruszka Paul,Berger Seth I,Casa Valentina,Dekker Mike R,Gaesser Jenna,Weiss Karin,Martinez Ariel F,Murdock David R,Louie Raymond J,Prijoles Eloise J,Lichty Angie W,Brouwer Oebele F,Zonneveld-Huijssoon Evelien,Stephan Mark J,Hogue Jacob,Hu Ping,Tanima-Nagai Momoko,Everson Joshua L,Prasad Chitra,Cereda Anna,Iascone Maria,Schreiber Allison,Zurcher Vickie,Corsten-Janssen Nicole,Escobar Luis,Clegg Nancy J,Delgado Mauricio R,Hajirnis Omkar,Balasubramanian Meena,Kayserili Hülya,Deardorff Matthew,Poot Raymond A,Wendt Kerstin S,Lipinski Robert J,Muenke Maximilian Brain : a journal of neurology Marked by incomplete division of the embryonic forebrain, holoprosencephaly is one of the most common human developmental disorders. Despite decades of phenotype-driven research, 80-90% of aneuploidy-negative holoprosencephaly individuals with a probable genetic aetiology do not have a genetic diagnosis. Here we report holoprosencephaly associated with variants in the two X-linked cohesin complex genes, STAG2 and SMC1A, with loss-of-function variants in 10 individuals and a missense variant in one. Additionally, we report four individuals with variants in the cohesin complex genes that are not X-linked, SMC3 and RAD21. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we show that STAG2 and SMC1A are expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds during primary neurulation in the mouse, consistent with forebrain morphogenesis and holoprosencephaly pathogenesis. Finally, we found that shRNA knockdown of STAG2 and SMC1A causes aberrant expression of HPE-associated genes ZIC2, GLI2, SMAD3 and FGFR1 in human neural stem cells. These findings show the cohesin complex as an important regulator of median forebrain development and X-linked inheritance patterns in holoprosencephaly. 10.1093/brain/awz210
    LATE to the PART-y. Josephs Keith A,Mackenzie Ian,Frosch Matthew P,Bigio Eileen H,Neumann Manuela,Arai Tetsuaki,Dugger Brittany N,Ghetti Bernardino,Grossman Murray,Hasegawa Masato,Herrup Karl,Holton Janice,Jellinger Kurt,Lashley Tammaryn,McAleese Kirsty E,Parisi Joseph E,Revesz Tamas,Saito Yuko,Vonsattel Jean Paul,Whitwell Jennifer L,Wisniewski Thomas,Hu William Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz224
    Reply: LATE to the PART-y. Nelson Peter T,Dickson Dennis W,Trojanowski John Q,Jack Clifford R,Boyle Patricia A,Arfanakis Konstantinos,Rademakers Rosa,Alafuzoff Irina,Attems Johannes,Brayne Carol,Coyle-Gilchrist Ian T S,Fardo David W,Flanagan Margaret E,Halliday Glenda,Hunter Sally,Jicha Gregory A,Katsumata Yuriko,Kawas Claudia H,Keene C Dirk,Kovacs Gabor G,Kukull Walter A,Levey Allan I,Makkinejad Nazanin,Montine Thomas J,Murray Melissa E,Nag Sukriti,Seeley William W,Sperling Reisa A,White Charles L,Schneider Julie A Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz226
    Patterns of retrograde axonal degeneration in the visual system. de Vries-Knoppert Willemien A,Baaijen Johannes C,Petzold Axel Brain : a journal of neurology Conclusive evidence for existence of acquired retrograde axonal degeneration that is truly trans-synaptic (RTD) has not yet been provided for the human visual system. Convincing data rely on experimental data of lesions to the posterior visual pathways. This study aimed to overcome the limitations of previous human studies, namely pathology to the anterior visual pathways and neurodegenerative co-morbidity. In this prospective, longitudinal cohort retinal optical coherence tomography scans were acquired before and after elective partial temporal lobe resection in 25 patients for intractable epilepsy. Newly developed region of interest-specific, retinotopic areas substantially improved on conventional reported early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) grid-based optical coherence tomography data. Significant inner retinal layer atrophy separated patients with normal visual fields from those who developed a visual field defect. Acquired RTD affected the retinal nerve fibre layer, ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer and stopped at the level of the inner nuclear layer. There were significant correlations between the resected brain tissue volume and the ganglion cell layer region of interest (R = -0.78, P < 0.0001) and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer region of interest (R = -0.65, P = 0.0007). In one patient, damage to the anterior visual pathway resulted in occurrence of microcystic macular oedema as recognized from experimental data. In the remaining 24 patients with true RTD, atrophy rates in the first 3 months were strongly correlated with time from surgery for the ganglion cell layer region of interest (R = -0.74, P < 0.0001) and the ganglion cell inner plexiform layer region of interest (R = -0.51, P < 0.0001). The different time course of atrophy rates observed relate to brain tissue volume resection and suggest that three distinct patterns of retrograde axonal degeneration exist: (i) direct retrograde axonal degeneration; (ii) rapid and self-terminating RTD; and (iii) prolonged RTD representing a 'penumbra', which slowly succumbs to molecularly governed spatial cellular stoichiometric relationships. We speculate that the latter could be a promising target for neuroprotection. 10.1093/brain/awz221
    Circuit-based interventions in the dentate gyrus rescue epilepsy-associated cognitive dysfunction. Kahn Julia B,Port Russell G,Yue Cuiyong,Takano Hajime,Coulter Douglas A Brain : a journal of neurology Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with significant structural pathology in the hippocampus. In the dentate gyrus, the summative effect of these pathologies is massive hyperexcitability in the granule cells, generating both increased seizure susceptibility and cognitive deficits. To date, therapeutic approaches have failed to improve the cognitive symptoms in fully developed, chronic epilepsy. As the dentate's principal signalling population, the granule cells' aggregate excitability has the potential to provide a mechanistically-independent downstream target. We examined whether normalizing epilepsy-associated granule cell hyperexcitability-without correcting the underlying structural circuit disruptions-would constitute an effective therapeutic approach for cognitive dysfunction. In the systemic pilocarpine mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, the epileptic dentate gyrus excessively recruits granule cells in behavioural contexts, not just during seizure events, and these mice fail to perform on a dentate-mediated spatial discrimination task. Acutely reducing dorsal granule cell hyperactivity in chronically epileptic mice via either of two distinct inhibitory chemogenetic receptors rescued behavioural performance such that they responded comparably to wild type mice. Furthermore, recreating granule cell hyperexcitability in control mice via excitatory chemogenetic receptors, without altering normal circuit anatomy, recapitulated spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic mice. However, making the granule cells overly quiescent in both epileptic and control mice again disrupted behavioural performance. These bidirectional manipulations reveal that there is a permissive excitability window for granule cells that is necessary to support successful behavioural performance. Chemogenetic effects were specific to the targeted dorsal hippocampus, as hippocampal-independent and ventral hippocampal-dependent behaviours remained unaffected. Fos expression demonstrated that chemogenetics can modulate granule cell recruitment via behaviourally relevant inputs. Rather than driving cell activity deterministically or spontaneously, chemogenetic intervention merely modulates the behaviourally permissive activity window in which the circuit operates. We conclude that restoring appropriate principal cell tuning via circuit-based therapies, irrespective of the mechanisms generating the disease-related hyperactivity, is a promising translational approach. 10.1093/brain/awz209
    Coming off cannabis: a cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging study in patients with multiple sclerosis. Feinstein Anthony,Meza Cecilia,Stefan Cristiana,Staines Richard W Brain : a journal of neurology Cognitive dysfunction affects 40-80% of patients with multiple sclerosis. Smoking cannabis may add to these deficits. It is unclear whether coming off cannabis results in cognitive improvement. To address this question, 40 patients with multiple sclerosis who started using cannabis after the onset of multiple sclerosis and who used it for at least 4 days a week over many years were divided by odd-even number selection into two groups: cannabis continuation and cannabis withdrawal. Assessments took place at baseline and after 28 days and included serial versions of the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery for multiple sclerosis containing tests of verbal and visual memory, processing speed and executive function; structural and functional MRI, the latter entailing a compatible version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test; urine for cannabinoid metabolites to detect compliance with abstinence. Only those participants deemed globally impaired at baseline (failure on at least two cognitive domains) were enrolled. The results revealed that the two groups were well matched demographically and neurologically. One subject was removed from the withdrawal group because of failed abstinence. Urine analysis revealed the cannabinoid consumed was predominantly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). There were no baseline between group cognitive differences, but by Day 28 the withdrawal group performed significantly better on every cognitive index (P < 0.0001 for all). Significant within group differences were present for every test over time, but only in the abstinent group (P < 0.0001 for all tests). There were no between group baseline or Day 28 differences in structural MRI indices (global atrophy, total T1 and T2 lesion volume). At index assessment the two groups had a similar performance on the functional MRI-compatible Symbol Digit Modalities Test and there were no group differences in brain activation. However, by Day 28, the withdrawal group completed more trials correctly (P < 0.012) and had a faster reaction time (P < 0.002), associated with significantly increased activation in brain regions known to be associated with performance of the test (bilateral inferior frontal gyri, caudate and declive/cerebellum, P < 0.001 for all regions). These results reveal that patients with multiple sclerosis who are frequent, long-term cannabis users can show significant improvements in memory, processing speed and executive function after 28 days of drug abstinence. The absence of similar improvements in a matched multiple sclerosis group that remained on cannabis shows that beneficial cognitive change after stopping cannabis is not solely attributable to the effects of practice. 10.1093/brain/awz213
    Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and unaffected siblings. Caciagli Lorenzo,Wandschneider Britta,Xiao Fenglai,Vollmar Christian,Centeno Maria,Vos Sjoerd B,Trimmel Karin,Sidhu Meneka K,Thompson Pamela J,Winston Gavin P,Duncan John S,Koepp Matthias J Brain : a journal of neurology Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most common genetic generalized epilepsy syndrome, characterized by a complex polygenetic aetiology. Structural and functional MRI studies demonstrated mesial or lateral frontal cortical derangements and impaired fronto-cortico-subcortical connectivity in patients and their unaffected siblings. The presence of hippocampal abnormalities and associated memory deficits is controversial, and functional MRI studies in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have not tested hippocampal activation. In this observational study, we implemented multi-modal MRI and neuropsychological data to investigate hippocampal structure and function in 37 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 16 unaffected siblings and 20 healthy controls, comparable for age, gender, handedness and hemispheric dominance as assessed with language laterality indices. Automated hippocampal volumetry was complemented by validated qualitative and quantitative morphological criteria to detect hippocampal malrotation, assumed to represent a neurodevelopmental marker. Neuropsychological measures of verbal and visuo-spatial learning and an event-related verbal and visual memory functional MRI paradigm addressed mesiotemporal function. We detected a reduction of mean left hippocampal volume in patients and their siblings compared with controls (P < 0.01). Unilateral or bilateral hippocampal malrotation was identified in 51% of patients and 50% of siblings, against 15% of controls (P < 0.05). For bilateral hippocampi, quantitative markers of verticalization had significantly larger values in patients and siblings compared with controls (P < 0.05). In the patient subgroup, there was no relationship between structural measures and age at disease onset or degree of seizure control. No overt impairment of verbal and visual memory was identified with neuropsychological tests. Functional mapping highlighted atypical patterns of hippocampal activation, pointing to abnormal recruitment during verbal encoding in patients and their siblings [P < 0.05, familywise error (FWE)-corrected]. Subgroup analyses indicated distinct profiles of hypoactivation along the hippocampal long axis in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients with and without malrotation; patients with malrotation also exhibited reduced frontal recruitment for verbal memory, and more pronounced left posterior hippocampal involvement for visual memory. Linear models across the entire study cohort indicated significant associations between morphological markers of hippocampal positioning and hippocampal activation for verbal items (all P < 0.05, FWE-corrected). We demonstrate abnormalities of hippocampal volume, shape and positioning in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and their siblings, which are associated with reorganization of function and imply an underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism with expression during the prenatal stage. Co-segregation of abnormal hippocampal morphology in patients and their siblings is suggestive of a genetic imaging phenotype, independent of disease activity, and can be construed as a novel endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. 10.1093/brain/awz215
    Widespread FUS mislocalization is a molecular hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Tyzack Giulia E,Luisier Raphaelle,Taha Doaa M,Neeves Jacob,Modic Miha,Mitchell Jamie S,Meyer Ione,Greensmith Linda,Newcombe Jia,Ule Jernej,Luscombe Nicholas M,Patani Rickie Brain : a journal of neurology Mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clearly implicate ubiquitously expressed and predominantly nuclear RNA binding proteins, which form pathological cytoplasmic inclusions in this context. However, the possibility that wild-type RNA binding proteins mislocalize without necessarily becoming constituents of cytoplasmic inclusions themselves remains relatively unexplored. We hypothesized that nuclear-to-cytoplasmic mislocalization of the RNA binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS), in an unaggregated state, may occur more widely in ALS than previously recognized. To address this hypothesis, we analysed motor neurons from a human ALS induced-pluripotent stem cell model caused by the VCP mutation. Additionally, we examined mouse transgenic models and post-mortem tissue from human sporadic ALS cases. We report nuclear-to-cytoplasmic mislocalization of FUS in both VCP-mutation related ALS and, crucially, in sporadic ALS spinal cord tissue from multiple cases. Furthermore, we provide evidence that FUS protein binds to an aberrantly retained intron within the SFPQ transcript, which is exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Collectively, these data support a model for ALS pathogenesis whereby aberrant intron retention in SFPQ transcripts contributes to FUS mislocalization through their direct interaction and nuclear export. In summary, we report widespread mislocalization of the FUS protein in ALS and propose a putative underlying mechanism for this process. 10.1093/brain/awz217
    Sex differences in the genetic predictors of Alzheimer's pathology. Dumitrescu Logan,Barnes Lisa L,Thambisetty Madhav,Beecham Gary,Kunkle Brian,Bush William S,Gifford Katherine A,Chibnik Lori B,Mukherjee Shubhabrata,De Jager Philip L,Kukull Walter,Crane Paul K,Resnick Susan M,Keene C Dirk,Montine Thomas J,Schellenberg Gerard D,Deming Yuetiva,Chao Michael J,Huentelman Matt,Martin Eden R,Hamilton-Nelson Kara,Shaw Leslie M,Trojanowski John Q,Peskind Elaine R,Cruchaga Carlos,Pericak-Vance Margaret A,Goate Alison M,Cox Nancy J,Haines Jonathan L,Zetterberg Henrik,Blennow Kaj,Larson Eric B,Johnson Sterling C,Albert Marilyn, ,Bennett David A,Schneider Julie A,Jefferson Angela L,Hohman Timothy J Brain : a journal of neurology Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. We looked for sex-specific genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease endophenotypes from six brain bank data repositories. The pooled dataset included 2701 males and 3275 females, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at autopsy (70%). Sex-stratified GWAS were performed within each dataset and then meta-analysed. Loci that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stratified models were further assessed for sex interactions. Additional analyses were performed in independent datasets leveraging cognitive, neuroimaging and CSF endophenotypes, along with age-at-onset data. Outside of the APOE region, one locus on chromosome 7 (rs34331204) showed a sex-specific association with neurofibrillary tangles among males (P = 2.5 × 10-8) but not females (P = 0.85, sex-interaction P = 2.9 × 10-4). In follow-up analyses, rs34331204 was also associated with hippocampal volume, executive function, and age-at-onset only among males. These results implicate a novel locus that confers male-specific protection from tau pathology and highlight the value of assessing genetic associations in a sex-specific manner. 10.1093/brain/awz206
    Inclusion body myositis: accumulation of evidence for its autoimmune origin. Benveniste Olivier,Allenbach Yves Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz229
    The art of making a clinical diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Klockgether Thomas Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz255
    The dark side of the moon: looking beyond beneficial effects of cannabis use in multiple sclerosis. Penner Iris-Katharina,Hartung Hans-Peter Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz234
    Is cytoplasmic FUS a feature of all ALS? Vidal Marta,Atkin Julie D Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz256
    Editorial. Kullmann Dimitri M Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz253
    Chronic white matter lesion activity predicts clinical progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Elliott Colm,Belachew Shibeshih,Wolinsky Jerry S,Hauser Stephen L,Kappos Ludwig,Barkhof Frederik,Bernasconi Corrado,Fecker Julian,Model Fabian,Wei Wei,Arnold Douglas L Brain : a journal of neurology Chronic active and slowly expanding lesions with smouldering inflammation are neuropathological correlates of progressive multiple sclerosis pathology. T1 hypointense volume and signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI reflect brain tissue damage that may develop within newly formed acute focal inflammatory lesions or in chronic pre-existing lesions without signs of acute inflammation. Using a recently developed method to identify slowly expanding/evolving lesions in vivo from longitudinal conventional T2- and T1-weighted brain MRI scans, we measured the relative amount of chronic lesion activity as measured by change in T1 volume and intensity within slowly expanding/evolving lesions and non-slowly expanding/evolving lesion areas of baseline pre-existing T2 lesions, and assessed the effect of ocrelizumab on this outcome in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis participating in the phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind ORATORIO study (n = 732, NCT01194570). We also assessed the predictive value of T1-weighted measures of chronic lesion activity for clinical multiple sclerosis progression as reflected by a composite disability measure including the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25-Foot Walk and 9-Hole Peg Test. We observed in this clinical trial population that most of total brain non-enhancing T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation was derived from chronic lesion activity within pre-existing T2 lesions rather than new T2 lesion formation. There was a larger decrease in mean normalized T1 signal intensity and greater relative accumulation of T1 hypointense volume in slowly expanding/evolving lesions compared with non-slowly expanding/evolving lesions. Chronic white matter lesion activity measured by longitudinal T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation in slowly expanding/evolving lesions and in non-slowly expanding/evolving lesion areas of pre-existing lesions predicted subsequent composite disability progression with consistent trends on all components of the composite. In contrast, whole brain volume loss and acute lesion activity measured by longitudinal T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation in new focal T2 lesions did not predict subsequent composite disability progression in this trial at the population level. Ocrelizumab reduced longitudinal measures of chronic lesion activity such as T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation and mean normalized T1 signal intensity decrease both within regions of pre-existing T2 lesions identified as slowly expanding/evolving and in non-slowly expanding/evolving lesions. Using conventional brain MRI, T1-weighted intensity-based measures of chronic white matter lesion activity predict clinical progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and may qualify as a longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging correlate of smouldering demyelination and axonal loss in chronic active lesions due to CNS-resident inflammation and/or secondary neurodegeneration across the multiple sclerosis disease continuum. 10.1093/brain/awz212
    Encephalitis lethargica: a dying fall. Zandi Michael S Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz228
    Interictal epileptiform discharges shape large-scale intercortical communication. Dahal Prawesh,Ghani Naureen,Flinker Adeen,Dugan Patricia,Friedman Daniel,Doyle Werner,Devinsky Orrin,Khodagholy Dion,Gelinas Jennifer N Brain : a journal of neurology Dynamic interactions between remote but functionally specialized brain regions enable complex information processing. This intercortical communication is disrupted in the neural networks of patients with focal epilepsy, and epileptic activity can exert widespread effects within the brain. Using large-scale human intracranial electroencephalography recordings, we show that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are significantly coupled with spindles in discrete, individualized brain regions outside of the epileptic network. We found that a substantial proportion of these localized spindles travel across the cortical surface. Brain regions that participate in this IED-driven oscillatory coupling express spindles that have a broader spatial extent and higher tendency to propagate than spindles occurring in uncoupled regions. These altered spatiotemporal oscillatory properties identify areas that are shaped by epileptic activity independent of IED or seizure detection. Our findings suggest that IED-spindle coupling may be an important mechanism of interictal global network dysfunction that could be targeted to prevent disruption of normal neural activity. 10.1093/brain/awz269
    Dynamic modular-level alterations of structural-functional coupling in clinically isolated syndrome. Koubiyr Ismail,Besson Pierre,Deloire Mathilde,Charre-Morin Julie,Saubusse Aurore,Tourdias Thomas,Brochet Bruno,Ruet Aurélie Brain : a journal of neurology Structural and functional connectivity abnormalities have been reported previously in multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about how each modality evolution relates to the other. Recent studies in other neurological disorders have suggested that structural-functional coupling may be more sensitive in detecting brain alterations than any single modality. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the longitudinal evolution of structural-functional coupling, both at the global and modular levels, in the first year following clinically isolated syndrome. We hypothesized that during the course of multiple sclerosis, patients exhibit a decoupling between functional and structural connectivity due to the disruptive nature of the disease. Forty-one consecutive patients with clinically isolated syndrome were prospectively enrolled in this study, along with 19 age-, sex- and educational level-matched healthy control subjects. These participants were followed for 1 year and underwent resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging at each time point, along with an extensive neuropsychological assessment. Graph theory analysis revealed structural reorganization at baseline that appeared as an increase in the clustering coefficient in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05), as well as modular-specific alterations. After 1 year of follow-up, both structural and functional reorganization was depicted with abnormal modular-specific connectivity and an increase of the functional betweenness centrality in patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). More importantly, structural-functional decoupling was observed in the salience, visual and somatomotor networks. These alterations were present along with preserved cognitive performance at this stage. These results depict structural damage preceding functional reorganization at a global and modular level during the first year following clinically isolated syndrome along with normal cognitive performance, suggesting a compensation mechanism at this stage of the disease. Principally, structural-functional decoupling observed for the first time in multiple sclerosis suggests that functional reorganization occurs along indirect anatomical pathways. 10.1093/brain/awz270
    Corrigendum. Brain : a journal of neurology 10.1093/brain/awz271
    Induction of immunological tolerance to myelinogenic glial-restricted progenitor allografts. Li Shen,Oh Byoung Chol,Chu Chengyan,Arnold Antje,Jablonska Anna,Furtmüller Georg J,Qin Hua-Min,Boltze Johannes,Magnus Tim,Ludewig Peter,Janowski Mirosław,Brandacher Gerald,Walczak Piotr Brain : a journal of neurology The immunological barrier currently precludes the clinical utilization of allogeneic stem cells. Although glial-restricted progenitors have become attractive candidates to treat a wide variety of neurological diseases, their survival in immunocompetent recipients is limited. In this study, we adopted a short-term, systemically applicable co-stimulation blockade-based strategy using CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD154 antibodies to modulate T-cell activation in the context of allogeneic glial-restricted progenitor transplantation. We found that co-stimulation blockade successfully prevented rejection of allogeneic glial-restricted progenitors from immunocompetent mouse brains. The long-term engrafted glial-restricted progenitors myelinated dysmyelinated adult mouse brains within one month. Furthermore, we identified a set of plasma miRNAs whose levels specifically correlated to the dynamic changes of immunoreactivity and as such could serve as biomarkers for graft rejection or tolerance. We put forward a successful strategy to induce alloantigen-specific hyporesponsiveness towards stem cells in the CNS, which will foster effective therapeutic application of allogeneic stem cells. 10.1093/brain/awz275
    TTTCA repeat insertions in an intron of YEATS2 in benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy type 4. Yeetong Patra,Pongpanich Monnat,Srichomthong Chalurmpon,Assawapitaksakul Adjima,Shotelersuk Varote,Tantirukdham Nithiphut,Chunharas Chaipat,Suphapeetiporn Kanya,Shotelersuk Vorasuk Brain : a journal of neurology Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and identification of its causes is important for a better understanding of its pathogenesis. We previously studied a Thai family with a type of epilepsy, benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy type 4 (BAFME4), and localized its gene to chromosome 3q26.32-q28. Here, we used single-molecule real-time sequencing and found expansions of TTTTA and insertions of TTTCA repeats in intron 1 of YEATS2 in one affected member of the family. Of all the available members in the family-comprising 13 affected and eight unaffected-repeat-primed PCR and long-range PCR revealed the co-segregation of the TTTCA repeat insertions with the TTTTA repeat expansions and the disease status. For 1116 Thai control subjects, none were found to harbour the TTTCA repeats while four had the TTTTA repeat expansions. Therefore, our findings suggest that BAFME4 is caused by the insertions of the intronic TTTCA repeats in YEATS2. Interestingly, all four types of BAFMEs for which underlying genes have been found (BAFMEs 1, 4, 6 and 7) are caused by the same molecular pathology, suggesting that the insertions of non-coding TTTCA repeats are involved in their pathogenesis. 10.1093/brain/awz267
    Abstract goal representation in visual search by neurons in the human pre-supplementary motor area. Wang Shuo,Mamelak Adam N,Adolphs Ralph,Rutishauser Ueli Brain : a journal of neurology The medial frontal cortex is important for goal-directed behaviours such as visual search. The pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) plays a critical role in linking higher-level goals to actions, but little is known about the responses of individual cells in this area in humans. Pre-SMA dysfunction is thought to be a critical factor in the cognitive deficits that are observed in diseases such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, making it important to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the pre-SMA's role in cognition. We simultaneously recorded single neurons in the human pre-SMA and eye movements while subjects performed goal-directed visual search tasks. We characterized two groups of neurons in the pre-SMA. First, 40% of neurons changed their firing rate whenever a fixation landed on the search target. These neurons responded to targets in an abstract manner across several conditions and tasks. Responses were invariant to motor output (i.e. button press or not), and to different ways of defining the search target (by instruction or pop-out). Second, ∼50% of neurons changed their response as a function of fixation order. Together, our results show that human pre-SMA neurons carry abstract signals during visual search that indicate whether a goal was reached in an action- and cue-independent manner. This suggests that the pre-SMA contributes to goal-directed behaviour by flexibly signalling goal detection and time elapsed since start of the search, and this process occurs regardless of task. These observations provide insights into how pre-SMA dysfunction might impact cognitive function. 10.1093/brain/awz279
    Non-motor outcomes depend on location of neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease. Petry-Schmelzer Jan Niklas,Krause Max,Dembek Till A,Horn Andreas,Evans Julian,Ashkan Keyoumars,Rizos Alexandra,Silverdale Monty,Schumacher Wibke,Sack Carolin,Loehrer Philipp A,Fink Gereon R,Fonoff Erich T,Martinez-Martin Pablo,Antonini Angelo,Barbe Michael T,Visser-Vandewalle Veerle,Ray-Chaudhuri K,Timmermann Lars,Dafsari Haidar S, Brain : a journal of neurology Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and established therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease improving quality of life, motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms. However, there is a considerable degree of interindividual variability for these outcomes, likely due to variability in electrode placement and stimulation settings. Here, we present probabilistic mapping data from a prospective, open-label, multicentre, international study to investigate the influence of the location of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. A total of 91 Parkinson's disease patients undergoing bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus were included, and we investigated NMSScale, NMSQuestionnaire, Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease-motor examination, -activities of daily living, and -motor complications, and Parkinson's disease Questionnaire-8 preoperatively and at 6-month follow-up after surgery. Leads were localized in standard space using the Lead-DBS toolbox and individual volumes of tissue activated were calculated based on clinical stimulation settings. Probabilistic stimulation maps and non-parametric permutation statistics were applied to identify voxels with significant above or below average improvement for each scale and analysed using the DISTAL atlas. All outcomes improved significantly at follow-up. Significant spatial distribution patterns of neurostimulation were observed for NMSScale total score and its mood/apathy and attention/memory domains. For both domains, voxels associated with below average improvement were mainly located dorsal to the subthalamic nucleus. In contrast, above average improvement for mood/apathy was observed in the ventral border region of the subthalamic nucleus and in its sensorimotor subregion and for attention/memory in the associative subregion. A trend was observed for NMSScale sleep domain showing voxels with above average improvement located ventral to the subthalamic nucleus. Our study provides evidence that the interindividual variability of mood/apathy, attention/memory, and sleep outcomes after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation depends on the location of neurostimulation. This study highlights the importance of holistic assessments of motor and non-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease to tailor surgical targeting and stimulation parameter settings to patients' personal profiles. 10.1093/brain/awz285
    Magnetoencephalography imaging of high frequency oscillations strengthens presurgical localization and outcome prediction. Velmurugan Jayabal,Nagarajan Srikantan S,Mariyappa Narayanan,Mundlamuri Ravindranadh C,Raghavendra Kenchaiah,Bharath Rose Dawn,Saini Jitender,Arivazhagan Arimappamagan,Rajeswaran Jamuna,Mahadevan Anita,Malla Bhaskara Rao,Satishchandra Parthasarathy,Sinha Sanjib Brain : a journal of neurology In patients with medically refractory epilepsy, resective surgery is the mainstay of therapy to achieve seizure freedom. However, ∼20-50% of cases have intractable seizures post-surgery due to the imprecise determination of epileptogenic zone. Recent intracranial studies suggest that high frequency oscillations between 80 and 200 Hz could serve as one of the consistent epileptogenicity biomarkers for localization of the epileptogenic zone. However, these high frequency oscillations are not adopted in the clinical setting because of difficult non-invasive detection. Here, we investigated non-invasive detection and localization of high frequency oscillations and its clinical utility in accurate pre-surgical assessment and post-surgical outcome prediction. We prospectively recruited 52 patients with medically refractory epilepsy who underwent standard pre-surgical workup including magnetoencephalography (MEG) followed by resective surgery after determination of the epileptogenic zone. The post-surgical outcome was assessed after 22.14 ± 10.05 months. Interictal epileptic spikes were expertly identified, and interictal epileptic oscillations across the neural activity frequency spectrum from 8 to 200 Hz were localized using adaptive spatial filtering methods. Localization results were compared with epileptogenic zone and resected cortex for congruence assessment and validated against the clinical outcome. The concordance rate of high frequency oscillations sources (80-200 Hz) with the presumed epileptogenic zone and the resected cortex were 75.0% and 78.8%, respectively, which is superior to that of other frequency bands and standard dipole fitting methods. High frequency oscillation sources corresponding with the resected cortex, had the best sensitivity of 78.0%, positive predictive value of 100% and an accuracy of 78.84% to predict the patient's surgical outcome, among all other frequency bands. If high frequency oscillation sources were spatially congruent with resected cortex, patients had an odds ratio of 5.67 and 82.4% probability of achieving a favourable surgical outcome. If high frequency oscillations sources were discordant with the epileptogenic zone or resection area, patient has an odds ratio of 0.18 and only 14.3% probability of achieving good outcome, and mostly tended to have an unfavourable outcome (χ2 = 5.22; P = 0.02; φ = -0.317). In receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, only sources of high-frequency oscillations demonstrated the best sensitivity and specificity profile in determining the patient's surgical outcome with area under the curve of 0.76, whereas other frequency bands indicate a poor predictive performance. Our study is the first non-invasive study to detect high frequency oscillations, address the efficacy of high frequency oscillations over the different neural oscillatory frequencies, localize them and clinically validate them with the post-surgical outcome in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The evidence presented in the current study supports the fact that HFOs might significantly improve the presurgical assessment, and post-surgical outcome prediction, where it could widely be used in a clinical setting as a non-invasive biomarker. 10.1093/brain/awz284
    Excitatory GABAergic signalling is associated with benzodiazepine resistance in status epilepticus. Burman Richard J,Selfe Joshua S,Lee John Hamin,van den Berg Maurits,Calin Alexandru,Codadu Neela K,Wright Rebecca,Newey Sarah E,Parrish R Ryley,Katz Arieh A,Wilmshurst Jo M,Akerman Colin J,Trevelyan Andrew J,Raimondo Joseph V Brain : a journal of neurology Status epilepticus is defined as a state of unrelenting seizure activity. Generalized convulsive status epilepticus is associated with a rapidly rising mortality rate, and thus constitutes a medical emergency. Benzodiazepines, which act as positive modulators of chloride (Cl-) permeable GABAA receptors, are indicated as first-line treatment, but this is ineffective in many cases. We found that 48% of children presenting with status epilepticus were unresponsive to benzodiazepine treatment, and critically, that the duration of status epilepticus at the time of treatment is an important predictor of non-responsiveness. We therefore investigated the cellular mechanisms that underlie acquired benzodiazepine resistance, using rodent organotypic and acute brain slices. Removing Mg2+ ions leads to an evolving pattern of epileptiform activity, and eventually to a persistent state of repetitive discharges that strongly resembles clinical EEG recordings of status epilepticus. We found that diazepam loses its antiseizure efficacy and conversely exacerbates epileptiform activity during this stage of status epilepticus-like activity. Interestingly, a low concentration of the barbiturate phenobarbital had a similar exacerbating effect on status epilepticus-like activity, while a high concentration of phenobarbital was effective at reducing or preventing epileptiform discharges. We then show that the persistent status epilepticus-like activity is associated with a reduction in GABAA receptor conductance and Cl- extrusion capability. We explored the effect on intraneuronal Cl- using both gramicidin, perforated-patch clamp recordings and Cl- imaging. This showed that during status epilepticus-like activity, reduced Cl- extrusion capacity was further exacerbated by activity-dependent Cl- loading, resulting in a persistently high intraneuronal Cl-. Consistent with these results, we found that optogenetic stimulation of GABAergic interneurons in the status epilepticus-like state, actually enhanced epileptiform activity in a GABAAR dependent manner. Together our findings describe a novel potential mechanism underlying benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus, with relevance to how this life-threatening condition should be managed in the clinic. 10.1093/brain/awz283
    Antemortem volume loss mirrors TDP-43 staging in older adults with non-frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Bejanin Alexandre,Murray Melissa E,Martin Peter,Botha Hugo,Tosakulwong Nirubol,Schwarz Christopher G,Senjem Matthew L,Chételat Gael,Kantarci Kejal,Jack Clifford R,Boeve Bradley F,Knopman David S,Petersen Ronald C,Giannini Caterina,Parisi Joseph E,Dickson Dennis W,Whitwell Jennifer L,Josephs Keith A Brain : a journal of neurology Over the past decade, the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been recognized as a major protein in normal and pathological ageing, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. In conditions distinct from the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, TDP-43 appears to progress in a stereotypical pattern. In the present study, we aimed at providing a better understanding of the effects of TDP-43 and other age-related neuropathologies on cross-sectional grey matter volume in a cohort of non-FTLD subjects. We included 407 individuals with an antemortem MRI and post-mortem brain tissue from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, or the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. All individuals were assigned pathological stages for TDP-43, tau, amyloid-β, Lewy bodies, argyrophilic grain disease and vascular pathologies. Robust regressions were performed in regions of interest and voxel-wise to explore the relationships between TDP-43 stages and grey matter volume while controlling for other pathologies. Grey matter volumes adjusted for pathological and demographic variables were also computed for each TDP-43-positive case to further characterize the sequential involvement of brain structures associated with TDP-43, irrespective of the TDP-43 staging scheme. Robust regressions showed that the extent of TDP-43 pathology was associated with the extent of grey matter atrophy. Specifically, we found that the volume in medial temporal regions (i.e. amygdala, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus) decreased progressively with advancing TDP-43 stages. Importantly, these effects were of similar magnitude to those related to tau stages. Additional analyses using adjusted grey matter volume demonstrated a sequential pattern of volume loss associated with TDP-43, starting within the medial temporal lobe, followed by early involvement of the temporal pole, and eventually encompassing additional temporal and frontal regions. Altogether, this study demonstrates the major and independent contribution of TDP-43 pathology on neurodegeneration and provides further insight into the regional distribution of TDP-43 in non-FTLD subjects. Along with previous studies, these findings emphasized the importance of targeting TDP-43 in future clinical trials to prevent its detrimental effect on grey matter volume and, eventually, cognition. 10.1093/brain/awz277
    Human CCR5high effector memory cells perform CNS parenchymal immune surveillance via GZMK-mediated transendothelial diapedesis. Herich Sebastian,Schneider-Hohendorf Tilman,Rohlmann Astrid,Khaleghi Ghadiri Maryam,Schulte-Mecklenbeck Andreas,Zondler Lisa,Janoschka Claudia,Ostkamp Patrick,Richter Jannis,Breuer Johanna,Dimitrov Stoyan,Rammensee Hans-Georg,Grauer Oliver M,Klotz Luisa,Gross Catharina C,Stummer Walter,Missler Markus,Zarbock Alexander,Vestweber Dietmar,Wiendl Heinz,Schwab Nicholas Brain : a journal of neurology Although the CNS is immune privileged, continuous search for pathogens and tumours by immune cells within the CNS is indispensable. Thus, distinct immune-cell populations also cross the blood-brain barrier independently of inflammation/under homeostatic conditions. It was previously shown that effector memory T cells populate healthy CNS parenchyma in humans and, independently, that CCR5-expressing lymphocytes as well as CCR5 ligands are enriched in the CNS of patients with multiple sclerosis. Apart from the recently described CD8+ CNS tissue-resident memory T cells, we identified a population of CD4+CCR5high effector memory cells as brain parenchyma-surveilling cells. These cells used their high levels of VLA-4 to arrest on scattered VCAM1, their open-conformation LFA-1 to crawl preferentially against the flow in search for sites permissive for extravasation, and their stored granzyme K (GZMK) to induce local ICAM1 aggregation and perform trans-, rather than paracellular diapedesis through unstimulated primary brain microvascular endothelial cells. This study included peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 175 healthy donors, 29 patients infected with HIV, with neurological symptoms in terms of cognitive impairment, 73 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in remission, either 1-4 weeks before (n = 29), or 18-60 months after the initiation of natalizumab therapy (n = 44), as well as white matter brain tissue of three patients suffering from epilepsy. We here provide ex vivo evidence that CCR5highGZMK+CD4+ effector memory T cells are involved in CNS immune surveillance during homeostasis, but could also play a role in CNS pathology. Among CD4+ T cells, this subset was found to dominate the CNS of patients without neurological inflammation ex vivo. The reduction in peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients with neurological symptoms correlated to their CD4 count as a measure of disease progression. Their peripheral enrichment in multiple sclerosis patients and specific peripheral entrapment through the CNS infiltration inhibiting drug natalizumab additionally suggests a contribution to CNS autoimmune pathology. Our transcriptome analysis revealed a migratory phenotype sharing many features with tissue-resident memory and Th17.1 cells, most notably the transcription factor eomesodermin. Knowledge on this cell subset should enable future studies to find ways to strengthen the host defence against CNS-resident pathogens and brain tumours or to prevent CNS autoimmunity. 10.1093/brain/awz301
    A novel lethal recognizable polymicrogyric syndrome caused by ATP1A2 homozygous truncating variants. Chatron Nicolas,Cabet Sara,Alix Eudeline,Buenerd Annie,Cox Phillip,Guibaud Laurent,Labalme Audrey,Marks Peter,Osio Deborah,Putoux Audrey,Sanlaville Damien,Lesca Gaetan,Vasiljevic Alexandre Brain : a journal of neurology Polymicrogyria is a heterogeneous malformation of cortical development microscopically defined by an excessive folding of the cortical mantle resulting in small gyri with a fused surface. Polymicrogyria is responsible for a wide range of neurological symptoms (e.g. epilepsy, intellectual disability, motor dysfunction). Most cases have a supposed environmental clastic vascular or infectious origin but progress in genomics has revealed new monogenic entities. We report four cases from two independent families sharing a common recognizable lethal syndromic polymicrogyria of autosomal recessive inheritance. Beyond diffuse polymicrogyria detected prenatally, pathological examination revealed a common pattern associating meningeal arterial calcifications, necrotic and calcified areas in basal ganglia, dentato-olivary dysplasia and severe hypoplasia/agenesis of the pyramidal tracts. In all affected cases, exome sequencing showed a pathogenic homozygous nonsense ATP1A2 variant. This resulted in absence of immunodetectable ATP1A2 protein in two brains analysed. ATP1A2 encodes the alpha-2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase, which is highly expressed in brain tissues and has previously been related to familial hemiplegic migraine (MIM#602481) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (MIM#104290). Through the description of this genetic entity, we emphasize the possibility of dual mode of transmission for disease-causing genes and provide the key neuropathological features that should prompt geneticists to test for mutations in the ATP1A2 gene. 10.1093/brain/awz272