Molecular Players in Hematologic Tumor Cell Trafficking.
Redondo-Muñoz Javier,García-Pardo Angeles,Teixidó Joaquin
Frontiers in immunology
The trafficking of neoplastic cells represents a key process that contributes to progression of hematologic malignancies. Diapedesis of neoplastic cells across endothelium and perivascular cells is facilitated by adhesion molecules and chemokines, which act in concert to tightly regulate directional motility. Intravital microscopy provides spatio-temporal views of neoplastic cell trafficking, and is crucial for testing and developing therapies against hematologic cancers. Multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are hematologic malignancies characterized by continuous neoplastic cell trafficking during disease progression. A common feature of these neoplasias is the homing and infiltration of blood cancer cells into the bone marrow (BM), which favors growth and survival of the malignant cells. MM cells traffic between different BM niches and egress from BM at late disease stages. Besides the BM, CLL cells commonly home to lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen. Likewise, ALL cells also infiltrate extramedullary organs, such as the central nervous system, spleen, liver, and testicles. The α4β1 integrin and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 are key molecules for MM, ALL, and CLL cell trafficking into and out of the BM. In addition, the chemokine receptor CCR7 controls CLL cell homing to LNs, and CXCR4, CCR7, and CXCR3 contribute to ALL cell migration across endothelia and the blood brain barrier. Some of these receptors are used as diagnostic markers for relapse and survival in ALL patients, and their level of expression allows clinicians to choose the appropriate treatments. In CLL, elevated α4β1 expression is an established adverse prognostic marker, reinforcing its role in the disease expansion. Combining current chemotherapies with inhibitors of malignant cell trafficking could represent a useful therapy against these neoplasias. Moreover, immunotherapy using humanized antibodies, CAR-T cells, or immune check-point inhibitors together with agents targeting the migration of tumor cells could also restrict their survival. In this review, we provide a view of the molecular players that regulate the trafficking of neoplastic cells during development and progression of MM, CLL, and ALL, together with current therapies that target the malignant cells.
[Clinical analysis of multiple myeloma patients with bone-related extramedullary disease: a longitudinal study on 834 consecutive patients in a single center of China].
Deng Shuhui,Xu Yan,An Gang,Sui Weiwei,Li Zengjun,Zou Dehui,Zhao Yaozhong,Qi Junyuan,Qiu Lugui
Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
OBJECTIVE:To analyse the incidence, clinical features, prognosis of bone-related extramedullary disease （bEMD） and its relationship with strict EMD (sEMD) in MM patients. METHODS:The records of 834 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MM in our hospital between 1993 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS:①Among 834 patients at diagnosis, 32 cases (3.8%) showed bEMD, and 40 cases (4.8%) showed sEMD. Patients with bEMD at presentation showed significant lower level of lactate dehydrogenase (180.9 U/L vs 299.2 U/L, P=0.034) and higher overall response rate (ORR) (95.7% vs 66.7%, P=0.009) compared with sEMD patients. While the above two parameters were comparable between patients with bEMD and without EMD. ②As to the prognosis of patients without autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT), the overall survival (OS) of patients with sEMD, bEMD and without EMD was 14.0, 37.5, and 38.0 months, respectively. The time to progression (TTP) of the three groups was 11.5, 27.0, and 22.0 months, respectively. Compared to the patients with sEMD, the outcomes (both OS and TTP) of the other two groups was significantly better (P<0.05). Patients with bEMD at presentation was comparable to the patients without EMD, but the two groups were better than the patients with sEMD. ③The incidence of bEMD during follow-up was 0.5%. The OS of patients with sEMD, bEMD and without EMD during follow-up was 26.0, 17.0, and 40.0 months, respectively. The TTP of the three groups was 13.0, 11.0, and 25.0 months, respectively. The outcomes (both OS and TTP) of patients with bEMD at relapse/progression showed no significant difference as compared with the other two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION:The clinical features of MM patients with bEMD are different from the patients with sEMD. Outcomes of this population is significantly better than the latter, and is comparable to the patients without EMD. It suggests that bEMD alone has no negative prognostic significance in MM patients.
The possible role of burden of therapy on the risk of myeloma extramedullary spread.
Mangiacavalli Silvia,Pompa A,Ferretti V,Klersy C,Cocito F,Varettoni M,Cartia C S,Cazzola M,Corso A
Annals of hematology
Extramedullary relapse (EMR) represents a poor prognostic marker in the course of multiple myeloma (MM). We reviewed data from 329 patients, diagnosed between 2000 and 2010, without extramedullary disease at onset to explore possible risk factors for EMR. The median overall survival of our study cohort was 6.4 years. The risk of EMR was 28 % with a median time from diagnosis to first EMR of 2.2 years (0.2-9.1 years). Patients with soft tissue masses located in extra-osseous organs (EMR-S) showed the worst outcome, compared to those with tumor masses arising from adjacent bone (EMR-B) (median OS 1.6 vs 2.4 years, p = 0.006). In addition, patients with EMR-S showed a significant trend for further development of extramedullary masses in a very short time (3.7 vs 5.7 months for EMR-B, p = 0.043). Multivariate analysis failed to identify any clinically presenting features predictive for EMR. The occurrence of EMR was higher in patients with more complex treatment history, defined on the basis of longer treatment duration (≥6 vs <6 months) and on elevated number of treatment lines administered (>2 vs ≤2 lines) (HR = 4.5, p < 0.001 and HR = 9.0, p < 0.001, respectively, when one or both factors are present).In conclusion, increasing burden of treatment might be a possible risk factor for EMR. MM patients with multiple relapses should be comprehensively investigated including, when possible, a whole-body-targeted radiologic technique to accurately detect EMR. Treatment choice should take into account the very poor outcome for patients with soft tissue involvement.
Expert Panel Consensus Statement for Proper Evaluation of First Relapse in Multiple Myeloma.
Offidani M,Boccadoro M,Di Raimondo F,Petrucci M T,Tosi P,Cavo M
Current hematologic malignancy reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:A working group of six expert physicians convened to assess the spectrum of multiple myeloma relapse presentations, discussed the features that can define the disease as aggressive and not aggressive, and established whether this information could help in selecting treatment together with the characteristics of disease and of patients and type of prior therapy. RECENT FINDINGS:The working group agreed that relapse should be distinguished between biochemical and clinical according to IMWG. Moreover, the expert panel defined "aggressive disease" as a clinical condition that requires therapy able to induce a rapid and as deep as possible response to release symptoms and to avoid impending danger of new events. According to this definition, relapse was considered aggressive if it presents with at least one of the following features: doubling of M protein rate over 2 months, renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, extramedullary disease, elevated LDH, high plasma cell proliferative index, presence of plasma cells in peripheral blood, or skeletal-related complications. Moreover, the panel agreed that this classification can be useful to choose therapy in first relapse together with other patient, disease, and prior therapy characteristics. So, this item was included in a new therapeutic algorithm. The treatment choice in MM at relapse is wider than in the past with the availability of many new therapeutic regimens leading to increased diversity of approaches and relevant risk of inappropriate treatment decisions. A practical classification of relapses into aggressive or non-aggressive, included in a decisional algorithm on MM management at first relapse, could help to make the appropriate treatment decisions.
Overexpression of c-myc is associated with adverse clinical features and worse overall survival in multiple myeloma.
Szabo Agoston Gyula,Gang Anne Ortved,Pedersen Mette Ølgod,Poulsen Tim Svenstrup,Klausen Tobias Wirenfeldt,Nørgaard Peter
Leukemia & lymphoma
The role of c-myc in multiple myeloma (MM) is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study of 117 patients with MM diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 at Herlev Hospital. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed on tissue microarrays (TMAs) made from diagnostic bone marrow aspirates. Clinical data were obtained from the Danish Multiple Myeloma Database (DMMD). Overexpression of c-myc was found in 40% of patients. MYC translocation was found in 10% of patients. Overexpression of c-myc was not associated with MYC translocation. Overexpression of c-myc was associated with hypercalcemia (p = 0.02) and extramedullary myeloma (p < 0.01). Overexpression of c-myc was associated with shorter overall survival (OS) by multivariable analysis of the entire patient cohort [HR 1.92 (1.06-3.45), p = 0.03] and univariable analysis of high-dose-therapy (HDT)-ineligible patients [HR 2.01 (1.05-3.86), p = 0.04]. Further studies of c-myc overexpression in larger cohorts of patients with MM are warranted.
A rare case of multiple myeloma with intracranial extramedullary relapse: One or more myeloma clones?
Markovic Uros,Calafiore Valeria,Martino Enrica,Giubbolini Rachele,Parisi Marina Silvia,Romano Alessandra,Del Fabro Vittorio,Di Raimondo Francesco,Conticello Concetta
Clinical case reports
In a minority of relapsed myeloma, patient's disease may spread into extramedullary sites, associated with high degrees of heterogeneity. The breadth of myeloma therapeutic armamentarium allows clinicians to manage its heterogeneous presentation, including intracranial relapses, with fair success resulting in a significant prolongation of survival.
Multiple myeloma presenting as an intramedullary spinal cord tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
Di Long,Huang Kevin,Kesayan Tigran,Kroll Derek,Baz Rachid C,Macaulay Robert J,Tran Nam D
Journal of medical case reports
BACKGROUND:Extramedullary disease in multiple myeloma often portends a worse diagnosis. In approximately 1% of cases, multiple myeloma may metastasize to the central nervous system as either leptomeningeal involvement or an intracranial, intraparenchymal lesion. Spinal cord metastases, however, are exceedingly rare. We present a case of spinal cord multiple myeloma as well as a literature review of reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION:A 66-year-old African American man with multiple myeloma presented with acute midthoracic pain and lower extremity paresis and paresthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed two contrast-enhancing intramedullary enhancing lesions in the T1-T2 and T6-T7 cord. Resection with biopsy yielded a diagnosis of metastatic multiple myeloma. CONCLUSION:To date, only six cases of extramedullary disease to the spinal cord in patients with multiple myeloma have been reported, including our patient's case. In all cases, neurologic deficit was observed at presentation, and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an intramedullary, homogeneously enhancing lesion. Current evidence suggests worse prognosis in patients with extramedullary disease to the central nervous system, and treatment paradigms remain debatable.
Multiple myeloma with extramedullary disease: impact of autologous stem cell transplantation on outcome.
Kumar L,Gogi R,Patel A K,Mookerjee A,Sahoo R K,Malik P S,Sharma A,Thulkar S,Kumar R,Biswas A,Sharma O D,Gupta R
Bone marrow transplantation
Pericardial relapse of multiple myeloma.
Jamison Lee S,Mo Clifton Craig,Kwok Mary
BMJ case reports
In patients who experience relapse of multiple myeloma, upwards of 30% can have extramedullary disease. The presence of extramedullary multiple myeloma is typically associated with adverse cytogenetics and a poor prognosis. Organs most commonly involved include the liver, skin, central nervous system, pleural effusions, kidney, lymph nodes, and pancreas. We present the case of a 53-year-old man with IgA kappa multiple myeloma with the adverse cytogenetic findings of t(4;14) and 1q21 gain who had achieved a stringent complete (sCR) response after initial therapy with carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Stringent complete response is defined as the normalization of the free light chain ratio in the serum and an absence of clonal cells in the bone marrow in additiion to criteria needed to achieve complete response. Prior to undergoing a planned autologous stem cell transplant, this patient experienced cardiac tamponade secondary to extramedullary relapse of his multiple myeloma which was limited to the pericardium. In response, his treatment regimen was transitioned to pomalidomide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for three cycles after which he again achieved sCR and ultimately underwent autologous stem cell transplant. Post-transplant consolidation therapy was administered in the form of pomalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone, followed by pomalidomide and bortezomib maintenance, which he has continued to receive for 3 years without evidence of disease progression.
Extramedullary manifestation in multiple myeloma bears high incidence of poor cytogenetic aberration and novel agents resistance.
Qu Xiaoyan,Chen Lijuan,Qiu Hairong,Lu Hua,Wu Hanxin,Qiu Hongxia,Liu Peng,Guo Rui,Li Jianyong
BioMed research international
Extramedullary disease (EMD) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is an uncommon event and more attention was directed toward the feature of these patients. Cytogenetic aberration is an important characteristic of MM and is associated with patients' outcome. In this study, we aimed to compare the cytogenetic abnormality of patients with and without extramedullary manifestation, and to analyze the clinical outcomes of novel agents in EMD patients. We retrospectively investigated data from 41 MM patients. Our analyses showed del(17p13) in 31% of EMD versus 13% of medullary disease (P = 0.03) and amp(1q21) in 55% versus 32% (P = 0.019). No differences were shown in del(13q14) and t(4;14). 24/27 patients with EMD at diagnosis responded to the novel agents-containing regimens. However, when relapsed, 70% of patients did not benefit from the sequential use of novel agents as salvage therapy. In 14 patients who developed EMD at relapse phase, only 2 patients responded to novel agents therapy. Median overall survival of patients with extramedullary manifestations was 30 months, in comparison to 104 months for patients without EMD (P = 0.002). Patients with extramedullary manifestation bore high incidence of poor cytogenetic aberration and novel agents resistance.
Extramedullary relapse of multiple myeloma defined as the highest risk group based on deregulated gene expression data.
Sevcikova Sabina,Paszekova Helena,Besse Lenka,Sedlarikova Lenka,Kubaczkova Veronika,Almasi Martina,Pour Ludek,Hajek Roman
Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
BACKGROUND:Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by malignant proliferation of plasma cells (PC) which accumulate in the bone marrow (BM). The advent of new drugs has changed the course of the disease from incurable to treatable, but most patients eventually relapse. One group of MM patients (10-15%) is considered high-risk because they relapse within 24 months. Recently, extramedullary relapse of MM (EM) has been observed more frequently. Due to its aggressivity and shorter survival, EM is also considered high-risk. AIMS:The goal of this study was to determine if the so-called high-risk genes published by the University of Arkansas group (UAMS) are even more deregulated in EM patients than in high-risk MM patients and if these patients may be considered high-risk. METHODS:Nine samples of bone marrow plasma cells from MM patients as well as 9 tumors and 9 bone marrow plasma cells from EM patients were used. Quantitative real-time PCR was used for evaluation of expression of 15 genes connected to the high-risk signature of MM patients. RESULTS:Comparison of high-risk plasma cells vs extramedullary plasma cells revealed 4 significantly deregulated genes (CKS1B, CTBS, NADK, YWHAZ); moreover, comparison of extramedullary plasma cells vs extramedullary tumors revealed significant differences in 9 out of 15 genes. Of these, 6 showed significant changes as described by the UAMS group (ASPM, SLC19A1, NADK, TBRG4, TMPO and LARS2). CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that increasing genetic abnormalities as described by the gene expression data are associated with increased risk for EM relapse.
A Case of Aggressive Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Involvement of the Female Reproductive System, Thyroid and Breasts.
Khan Abdul Moiz,Azar Ibrahim,Najjar Saleh,Bevington Travis,Mehdi Syed
Case reports in hematology
Extramedullary disease at the time of diagnosis of multiple myeloma is a rare finding that portends poor prognosis and necessitates aggressive treatment strategies. We present a case of multiple myeloma with extramedullary plasmacytomas of the female reproductive system, thyroid and breasts. The patient was treated with lenalidomide, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone. Follow-up PET-CT scans confirmed clinical complete response, and the patient underwent autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient will be continued on lenalidomide and bortezomib maintenance therapy. To the best of our knowledge, simultaneous involvement of these sites has never been reported. The case highlights that there are no established guidelines on the treatment of multiple myeloma with extramedullary disease leading to great variability based on clinician preference. We will also discuss the treatment options and prognosis of multiple myeloma with extramedullary disease.
Extramedullary Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma in the Oral Cavity.
de Assis Pereira Hansen Cristiano,Filho Jayr Schmidt,de Mattos Nascimento Marina,Alves Fábio Abreu,Neotti Tatiane,D Almeida Costa Felipe
Archives of Iranian medicine
BACKGROUND:Extramedullary plasmacytomas occurs in about 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) recurrences. Extramedullary disease seems to respond poorly to thalidomide and has adverse prognostic implication. When disease recurs in the oral cavity with soft tissue infiltration, some authors defend upfront surgical excision prior to radiotherapy with the aim of achieving better local control. We describe herein such an atypical case of recurrence from MM, with complete local response after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. Unfortunately, disease progressed later on, and the patient died after 9 months post-recurrence. This emphasizes the prognostic impact of extramedullary disease manifestation in MM.
Multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: experience of a Brazilian center.
Dias Ana Luiza Miranda Silva,Higashi Fabiana,Peres Ana Lúcia M,Cury Pricilla,Crusoé Edvan de Queiroz,Hungria Vânia Tietsche de Moraes
Revista brasileira de hematologia e hemoterapia
INTRODUCTION:The estimated involvement of the central nervous system in patients with multiple myeloma is rare at about 1%. The infiltration can be identified at the time multiple myeloma is diagnosed or during its progression. However, it is more common in refractory disease or during relapse. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study reviewed data from medical records of patients followed up at the Gammopathy Outpatient Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo from January 2008 to December 2016. RESULTS:Twenty patients were included, with a median follow-up of 33.5 months after central nervous system infiltration. The prevalence was 7%. The median age at diagnosis of multiple myeloma was 56.1 years, with 70% of participants being female. Sixteen patients had central nervous system infiltration at diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Seventeen patients had exclusive osteodural lesions and three had infiltrations of the leptomeninge, of which one had exclusive involvement and two had associated osteodural lesions. The median overall survival was 40.3 months after central nervous system involvement. The median overall survival in the group with central nervous system infiltration at relapse was 7.4 months. The patients with leptomeningeal involvement had a median overall survival of 5.8 months. CONCLUSION:Central nervous system infiltration is a rare condition, but it should be considered as a possibility in patients with multiple myeloma and neurological symptoms. The best treatment regimen for this condition remains unknown and, in most cases, the prognosis is unfavorable.
Cutaneous localization in multiple myeloma in the context of bortezomib-based treatment: how do myeloma cells escape from the bone marrow to the skin?
Marchica Valentina,Accardi Fabrizio,Storti Paola,Mancini Cristina,Martella Eugenia,Dalla Palma Benedetta,Bolzoni Marina,Todoerti Katia,Marcatti Magda,Schifano Chiara,Bonomini Sabrina,Sammarelli Gabriella,Neri Antonino,Ponzoni Maurilio,Aversa Franco,Giuliani Nicola
International journal of hematology
The skin is a possible site of extramedullary localization in multiple myeloma (MM) patients; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. We describe the case of a refractory MM patient who developed a cutaneous localization under bortezomib treatment and we further expanded observations in other eight MM patients. We focused on the expression of genes involved in plasma cell skin homing, including CCR10, which was highly expressed. Moreover, we observed a lack of CXCR4 surface expression and the down-regulation of ICAM1/CD54 throughout the progression of the disease, suggesting a possible mechanism driving the escape of MM cells from the bone marrow into the skin.
CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy induces high response rates in extramedullary relapsed Multiple Myeloma.
Lapa Constantin,Herrmann Ken,Schirbel Andreas,Hänscheid Heribert,Lückerath Katharina,Schottelius Margret,Kircher Malte,Werner Rudolf A,Schreder Martin,Samnick Samuel,Kropf Saskia,Knop Stefan,Buck Andreas K,Einsele Hermann,Wester Hans-Juergen,Kortüm K Martin
C-X-C-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a key factor for tumor growth and metastasis in several types of human cancer. We have recently reported promising first-in-man experience with CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy (ERT) in multiple myeloma (MM). Eight heavily pretreated MM patients underwent a total of 10 ERT cycles (7 patients with 1 cycle and a single patient with 3 cycles). ERT was administered in combination with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell support. End points were occurrence and timing of adverse events, progression-free and overall survival. ERT was overall well tolerated without any unexpected acute adverse events or changes in vital signs. With absorbed tumor doses >30-70 Gy in intra- or extramedullary lesions, significant anti-myeloma activity was observed with 1 patient achieving complete remission and 5/8 partial remission. Directly after ERT major infectious complications were seen in one patient who died from sepsis 22 days after ERT, another patient with high tumor burden experienced lethal tumor lysis syndrome. Median progression-free survival was 54 days (range, 13-175), median overall survival was 223 days (range, 13-313). During follow-up (6 patients available), one patient died from infectious complications, 2/8 from disease progression, the remaining 3/8 patients are still alive. CXCR4-directed ERT was well-tolerated and exerted anti-myeloma activity even at very advanced stage MM with presence of extramedullary disease. Further assessment of this novel treatment option is highly warranted.
Belantamab mafodotin in the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
Sheikh Semira,Lebel Eyal,Trudel Suzanne
Future oncology (London, England)
Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease, with a large proportion of patients in the relapsed/refractory setting often unable to achieve durable responses. Novel, well-tolerated and highly effective therapies in this patient population represent an unmet need. Preclinical studies have shown that B-cell maturation antigen is nearly exclusively expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells, thereby identifying it as a highly selective target for immunotherapeutic approaches. Belantamab mafodotin (GSK2857916, belamaf) is a first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate directed at B-cell maturation antigen and has shown promising activity in clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of belantamab mafodotin as a compound and present the available clinical efficacy and safety data in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
Molecular pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.
Furukawa Yusuke,Kikuchi Jiro
International journal of clinical oncology
Multiple myeloma (MM), one of the most intractable malignancies, is characterized by the infiltration and growth of plasma cells, the most differentiated cells in the B-cell lineage, in the bone marrow. Despite the introduction of novel therapeutic agents, including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, the prognosis of patients with MM is still worse than that of most hematological malignancies. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease is essential to achieve any improvement of treatment outcome of MM patients. All MM cases pass through the phase of asymptomatic expansion of clonal plasma cells, referred to as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). It has long been believed that MM evolves linearly from MGUS to terminal phases, such as extramedullary tumors and plasma cell leukemia via the accumulation of novel mutations. However, recent studies using next-generation sequencing have disclosed the complex genomic architecture of the disease. At each step of progression, the acquisition of novel mutations is accompanied by subclonal evolution from reservoir clones with branching patterns. Each subclone may carry novel mutations and distinct phenotypes, including drug sensitivity. In addition, minor clones already exist at the MGUS stage, which could expand later in the clinical course, resulting in relapse and/or leukemic conversion. The ultimate goal of treatment is to eradicate all clones, including subclonal populations with distinct biological characteristics. This goal could be achieved by further improving treatment strategies that reflect the genomic landscape of the disease.
Multiple myeloma causing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates and soft-tissue plasmacytoma.
Lok Ryan,Golovyan Dmitriy,Smith Joseph
Respiratory medicine case reports
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a relatively rare disease and MM presenting outside the bone marrow, known as extramedullary myeloma (EMM), is rarer still. While the liver and CNS are most commonly affected in EMM, the lung parenchyma is an especially unusual site of involvement. We present the case of a 64-year-old male with known history of MM admitted with acute respiratory failure and a chest wall mass. Chest CT revealed patchy interstitial and alveolar opacities with no pulmonary masses or nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, with flow cytometry demonstrating monoclonal plasma cells expressing CD38, CD138 and CD56 with lambda light chain restriction. Fine Needle Aspiration of chest wall mass revealed CD138-positive cells as well. Review of the literature revealed only one other documented case of a patient presenting with both interstitial lung parenchymal involvement with MM as well as soft tissue plasmacytoma, with this occurring in a patient who had previously underwent stem cell transplant. To our knowledge, we report the first recorded case of this presentation in a patient without a history of stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, it demonstrates the utility of using BAL, rather than lung biopsy, to establish the diagnosis through less invasive means.
Clinical and biological characteristics of myeloma patients influence response to elotuzumab combination therapy.
Danhof Sophia,Strifler Susanne,Hose Dorothea,Kortüm Martin,Bittrich Max,Hefner Jochen,Einsele Hermann,Knop Stefan,Schreder Martin
Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
Based on ELOQUENT-2, combination therapy with the monoclonal antibody elotuzumab was approved for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma in the US and Europe. However, outside clinical trials, the optimal integration of elotuzumab into the sequence of treatment lines remains to be determined. Therefore, we analyzed safety and efficacy of elotuzumab/immunomodulatory drug combinations in a real-life cohort of 33 patients from our institution. The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse event was lymphopenia which did not increase the incidence of viral reactivations. After a median of four prior treatment lines, an overall response rate of 60% and a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 8 months were observed. The presence of cytogenetic high-risk status had no impact on PFS while low disease burden and high numbers of natural killer (NK)-cells at treatment initiation were associated with longer PFS. We observed an extramedullary relapse in three patients, associated with reduced expression of the elotuzumab target antigen SLAMF7 on extramedullary myeloma cells in one patient. Thus, biomarkers like disease burden, NK-cell count and SLAMF7 expression on myeloma cells may help to define myeloma patients with high likelihood to respond to elotuzumab treatment. Prospective trials investigating these biomarkers in larger patient cohorts are highly warranted.
High nuclear expression of Twist1 in the skeletal extramedullary disease of myeloma patients predicts inferior survival.
Yang Jian-Zhu,Lian Wei-Guang,Sun Li-Xia,Qi Dian-Wen,Ding Yang,Zhang Xiang-Hong
Pathology, research and practice
The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors, including Twist1 and ZEB1, in skeletal extramedullary disease (EMD) of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and to clarify the effects on clinical outcomes. The expression of Twist1 and ZEB1 in the bone marrow (BM) and the masses of skeletal EMD from 70 MM cases with skeletal EMD and 30 MM patients without skeletal EMD were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the percentage of high nuclear staining for Twist1 was 24.3% (17/70) in skeletal EMD, which was significantly higher than in the BM of these patients as well as those without skeletal EMD (P=0.030 and P=0.011). The microvessel density (MVD, P=0.004) was significantly higher in patients with high nuclear expression of Twist1 (Twist1-high) than in those with low expression. Patients with Twist1-high experienced a lower rate of progression-free survival (PFS, 11.8% vs. 35.0%, P=0.000) and overall survival (OS, 52.5% vs. 83.7%, P=0.001) compared to those with low expression. Multivariate analysis showed that Twist1-high was independently associated with inferior PFS (HR=2.161; 95%CI: 1.116-4.183; P=0.022) and OS (HR=3.111; 95%CI: 1.114-8.685; P=0.030). We concluded that Twist1-high is associated with a poor prognosis and may be correlated with angiogenesis in the skeletal EMD of MM patients.
Distinct promoter methylation profile reveals spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in 2 myeloma patients with multifocal extramedullary relapses.
Yao Qiumei,Morgan Gareth J,Chim Chor Sang
Spatial and subclonal genetic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma (MM) have been demonstrated by sequencing of plasma cells from multi-focal regions, but studies of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity are scanty. Herein, promoter methylation status of genes implicated in disease progression (CDKN2A and SHP1) and marrow escape (CDH1, CD56, and CXCR4) was studied in two patients with multi-focal extramedullary relapses. Patient 1 developed simultaneous chest wall and duodenal plasmacytoma at relapse. While SHP1 and CDKN2A were hypermethylated in both plasmacytomas, CDH1 hypermethylation was detected only in the chest wall. In patient 2, SHP1 methylation was found in the extradural plasmacytoma but not bone marrow (BM) at diagnosis, and the circulating PCs but not the BM at relapse. As the clonality, based on sequence of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the immunoglobulin gene, was conserved in plasma cells at diagnosis and relapse, differential methylation of CDH1 in patient 1 and SHP1 in patient 2 was an illustration of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity. Furthermore, subclonal epigenetic heterogeneity was identified by the presence of subclonal SHP1 promoter methylation within the chest wall plasmacytoma of patient 1. In summary, our data showed distinct promoter methylation profile of plasma cells from multiple regions. This is the first report of spatial epigenetic heterogeneity in MM.
Clinical effects of CD45 on the prognosis of extramedullary myeloma relapse.
Oka Satoko,Ono Kazuo,Nohgawa Masaharu
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES:The incidence of extramedullary relapse (EMR) arising during the clinical course of multiple myeloma (MM) has increased in recent years. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of immunophenotyping on the prognosis of MM patients with EMR. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review on data collected from MM patients with EMR between January 2007 and December 2018 at the Japanese Red Cross Society Wakayama Medical Center. Patient characteristics at the diagnosis of EMR, the prognostic significance of immunophenotyping and other factors were evaluated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:Extramedullary relapse was detected in 55 of 231 patients (23.8%). At the diagnosis of EMR, CD45, the leucocyte common antigen, was detected in 54.5% of cases. CD45 negativity in bone marrow correlated with thrombocytopenia and higher serum LDH levels. Moreover, high-risk cytogenetics was more frequently observed in CD45- than in CD45+ patients. A univariate analysis showed that overall survival (OS) was significantly shorter in CD45- than in CD45+ patients. Thrombocytopenia, higher serum LDH levels and high-risk cytogenesis were also associated with shorter OS. A multivariate analysis confirmed that CD45 negativity, higher serum LDH levels and high-risk cytogenesis were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed the potential of CD45- as a prognostic factor in patients with EMR and that it correlated with shorter survival. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION:The present results showed that the expression of CD45 in the neoplastic plasma cells of MM patients with EMR was associated with patient prognosis independent of other prognostic factors. The establishment of a treatment strategy for EMR patients with CD45- MM cells is needed to improve poor outcomes.
Pomalidomide-dexamethasone for treatment of soft-tissue plasmacytomas in patients with relapsed / refractory multiple myeloma.
Jiménez-Segura Raquel,Granell Miquel,Gironella Mercè,Abella Eugenia,García-Guiñón Antoni,Oriol Albert,Cabezudo Elena,Clapés Victoria,Soler Joan Alfons,Escoda Lourdes,López-Pardo Jordi,Fernández de Larrea Carlos,Cibeira Maria Teresa,Tovar Natalia,Isola Ignacio,Bladé Joan,Rosiñol Laura,
European journal of haematology
OBJECTIVE:The presence of plasmacytomas (Ps) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with a poor outcome, both in patients treated conventionally and in patients treated with novel agents. Two types of plasmacytomas have being recognized: paraskeletal plasmacytomas (PPs) and extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs), being the incidence of EMPs lower but with worse prognosis. Our aim has been to analyze the efficacy of the pomalidomide-dexamethasone combination in this patient profile. METHOD:In the present study, the efficacy of pomalidomide and dexamethasone in 21 patients from nine hospitals of Catalonia (Spain), with relapsed or refractory MM and Ps, was analyzed. For this purpose, we describe the evolution of paraprotein in serum and urine and the size of plasmacytomas during treatment with pomalidomide-dexamethasone. RESULTS:While 34% of the patients achieved a paraprotein response, only two patients with PPs (9%) responded (RC and PR). There were no responses among patients with EMPs. The median progression-free survival from the start of treatment with pomalidomide/dexamethasone was only 1.7 months and the median overall survival of 4.5 months. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, pomalidomide and dexamethasone has limited efficacy in patients with advanced MM and soft-tissue plasmacytomas.
Single-agent daratumumab in very advanced relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma patients: a real-life single-center retrospective study.
Jullien Maxime,Trudel Sabrina,Tessoulin Benoit,Mahé Béatrice,Dubruille Viviane,Blin Nicolas,Gastinne Thomas,Bonnet Antoine,Lok Anne,Lebourgeois Amandine,Peterlin Pierre,Garnier Alice,Chevalier Patrice,Guillaume Thierry,Thomaré Patrick,Le Gouill Steven,Moreau Philippe,Touzeau Cyrille
Annals of hematology
The anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab is approved as a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who have received at least three prior lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and an immunomodulatory agent (IMID), or who are double refractory to a PI and an IMID. To date, no real-life data on the efficacy and tolerance of daratumumab in this setting are available. We report here the results of a single-center series of 41 RRMM patients treated with single-agent daratumumab outside clinical trials. Patients received a median number of 4 prior therapies. All patients were previously exposed to PI and IMID and all patients were refractory to the last line of therapy. Most patients presented with high-risk characteristics, including 24% adverse cytogenetics (del17p/t(4,14)), 31% extramedullary disease and 12% circulating plasmacytosis at time of daratumumab therapy. The overall response rate was 24%, including 5% very good partial response or better. After a median follow-up of 6.5 months, all patients experienced disease relapse. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months. At the time of disease progression, 44% of patients did not receive subsequent therapy. The median overall survival was 6.5 months. No new safety signal was identified. These real-life results revealed modest efficacy of single-agent daratumumab in advanced patients with RRMM in comparison with data from clinical trials.
Progression with clinical features is associated with worse subsequent survival in multiple myeloma.
Chakraborty Rajshekhar,Liu Hien D,Rybicki Lisa,Tomer Jacqulyn,Khouri Jack,Dean Robert M,Faiman Beth M,Kalaycio Matt,Samaras Christy J,Majhail Navneet S,Valent Jason
American journal of hematology
Response rate and survival in multiple myeloma (MM) has improved in the era of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. However, most patients eventually relapse with biochemical progression (BP) alone or with clinical features of end-organ damage (CP: clinical progression), without or without extramedullary (EM) disease. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 252 patients with MM experiencing first relapse (time, T ) to evaluate survival following CP with and without EM as a function of BP. Patients were divided into three groups: BP (n = 134; 53%), CP/EM- (n = 87; 35%) and CP/EM+ (n = 31; 12%). The median time from diagnosis to T was significantly shorter in CP/EM+ compared to CP/EM- and BP groups (13 vs 25 vs 25 months; P < 0.001). The incidence of abnormal metaphase cytogenetics at diagnosis was significantly higher in CP/EM+ compared to CP/EM- and BP groups (46% vs 18% vs 11% respectively; P < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 26 months from T , median overall survival was 50, 19 and 10 months for BP, CP/EM- and CP/EM+ groups, respectively (P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, pattern of progression was a significant prognostic factor for OS (HR for CP/EM- vs BP: 3.6; CP/EM+ vs BP: 8.7 and CP/EM+ vs CP/EM-: 2.42; P < 0.001 for all comparisons), along with age at T . In conclusion, progression pattern is an important prognostic factor in the current era, with subsequent survival being dismal in patients with end-organ damage or EM disease at relapse. Clinical trials in relapsed MM should consider reporting patterns of progression at baseline to ensure balance between study arms.
Multiple Liver Nodules Mimicking Metastatic Disease as Initial Presentation of Multiple Myeloma.
Tiu Andrew C,Potdar Rashmika,Arguello-Gerra Vivian,Morginstin Mark
Case reports in hematology
Multiple myeloma is a malignant clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Initial presentation of multiple myeloma as extramedullary spread in soft tissues particularly in the liver is uncommon. We report a case of a 74-year-old African American female who presented with epigastric pain, hematemesis, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Initial impression was peptic ulcer disease; however, ultrasound and CT scan of the abdomen showed multiple liver nodules and perihepatic lymphadenopathy suggestive of metastatic disease. Biopsy of the liver nodules showed CD138 and kappa light chain-restricted positive cells consistent with extramedullary spread of multiple myeloma to the liver. The patient achieved partial response after 6 months of treatment with Velcade, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (VCD). Due to severe neutropenia from cyclophosphamide, regimen was switched to Velcade, Revlimid, and dexamethasone (VRD) which resulted to very good partial response in 1 year which eventually persisted after 4 years. No controlled prospective studies have defined the standard treatment for multiple myeloma with extramedullary spread particularly to the liver. Treatment of multiple myeloma with extramedullary disease follows guidelines for multiple myeloma.
Diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma: a case report and systematic review of the literature.
Liu Yin,Jin Zhibin,Zhang Haiyan,Zhang Yingwei,Shi Minke,Meng Fanqing,Sun Qi,Cai Hourong
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma (MM). Diffuse parenchymal amyloidosis as pulmonary manifestation of MM is even rarer. We report a rare case of diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis associated with MM diagnosed by video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy (VATLB). CASE PRESENTATION:A 58-year-old woman complained of cough and shortness of breath. HRCT disclosed diffuse ground-glass opacifications with interlobular septal thickening in bilateral lungs. A lung-biopsy sample obtained by VATLB revealed Congo Red-positive amorphous eosinophilic deposits in the alveolar septa. Surgical biopsy of abdominal wall skin and subcutaneous fat was also performed, which showed the apple-green birefringence with polarized light on Congo red stain was demonstrated in dermis. The serum immunoelectrophoresis showed monoclonal lambda light chains. A bone marrow biopsy specimen comprised 11.5% plasma cells. She was therefore diagnosed with diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis accompanied by MM. The patient was referred to the hematology department for further chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS:It is important to recognize diffuse parenchymal pulmonary amyloidosis to avoid misdiagnosis.
Chromothripsis 18 in multiple myeloma patient with rapid extramedullary relapse.
Smetana Jan,Oppelt Jan,Štork Martin,Pour Luděk,Kuglík Petr
Background:Catastrophic chromosomal event known as chromothripsis was proven to be a significant hallmark of poor prognosis in several cancer diseases. While this phenomenon is very rare in among multiple myeloma (MM) patients, its presence in karyotype is associated with very poor prognosis. Case presentation:In our case, we report a 62 year female patient with rapid progression of multiple myeloma (MM) into extramedullary disease and short overall survival (OS = 23 months). I-FISH investigation revealed presence of gain 1q21 and hyperdiploidy (+ 5,+ 9,+ 15) in 82% and 86%, respectively, while rearrangements, del(17)(p13) and del(13)(q14) were evaluated as negative.Whole-genome profiling using array-CGH showed complex genomic changes including hyperdiploidy (+ 3,+ 5,+ 9,+ 11, + 15,+ 19), monosomy X, structural gains (1q21-1q23.1, 1q32-1q44, 16p13.13-16p11.2) and losses (1q23.1-1q32.1; 8p23.3-8p11.21) of genetic material and chromothripsis in chromosome 18 with 6 breakpoint areas. Next-generation sequencing showed a total of 338 variants with 1.8% (6/338) of pathological mutations in (c.181C > A; p.Gln61Lys) or variants of unknown significance in and Conclusions:Our findings suggest that presence of chromothripsis should be considered as another important genetic hallmark of poor prognosis in MM patients and utilization of genome-wide screening techniques such as array-CGH and NGS improves the clinical diagnostics of the disease.
Bone marrow microenvironment-derived signals induce Mcl-1 dependence in multiple myeloma.
Gupta Vikas A,Matulis Shannon M,Conage-Pough Jason E,Nooka Ajay K,Kaufman Jonathan L,Lonial Sagar,Boise Lawrence H
Multiple myeloma is highly dependent on the bone marrow microenvironment until progressing to very advanced extramedullary stages of the disease such as plasma cell leukemia. Stromal cells in the bone marrow secrete a variety of cytokines that promote plasma cell survival by regulating antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family including Mcl-1, Bcl-x, and Bcl-2. Although the antiapoptotic protein on which a cell depends is typically consistent among normal cells of a particular phenotype, Bcl-2 family dependence is highly heterogeneous in multiple myeloma. Although normal plasma cells and most multiple myeloma cells require Mcl-1 for survival, a subset of myeloma is codependent on Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-x We investigated the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in determining Bcl-2 family dependence in multiple myeloma. We used the Bcl-2/Bcl-x inhibitor ABT-737 to study the factors regulating whether myeloma is Mcl-1 dependent, and thus resistant to ABT-737-induced apoptosis, or Bcl-2/Bcl-x codependent, and thus sensitive to ABT-737. We demonstrate that bone marrow stroma is capable of inducing Mcl-1 dependence through the production of the plasma cell survival cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 upregulates Mcl-1 transcription in a STAT3-dependent manner, although this occurred in a minority of the cells tested. In all cells, IL-6 treatment results in posttranslational modification of the proapoptotic protein Bim. Phosphorylation of Bim shifts its binding from Bcl-2 and Bcl-x to Mcl-1, an effect reversed by MEK inhibition. Blocking IL-6 or downstream signaling restored Bcl-2/Bcl-x dependence and may therefore represent a clinically useful strategy to enhance the activity of Bcl-2 inhibitors.
Alterations in the Transcriptional Programs of Myeloma Cells and the Microenvironment during Extramedullary Progression Affect Proliferation and Immune Evasion.
Ryu Daeun,Kim Seok Jin,Hong Yourae,Jo Areum,Kim Nayoung,Kim Hee-Jin,Lee Hae-Ock,Kim Kihyun,Park Woong-Yang
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE:In multiple myeloma, extramedullary progression is associated with treatment resistance and a high mortality rate. To understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the devastating progression of myeloma, we applied single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to myeloma in the bone marrow and myelomatous pleural effusions or ascites. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Bone marrow or extramedullary myeloma samples were collected from 15 patients and subjected to single-cell RNA-seq. The single-cell transcriptome data of malignant plasma cells and the surrounding immune microenvironment were analyzed. RESULTS:Comparisons of single-cell transcriptomes revealed the systematic activation of proliferation, antigen presentation, proteasomes, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in extramedullary myeloma cells. The myeloma cells expressed multiple combinations of growth factors and receptors, suggesting autonomous and pleiotropic growth potential at the single-cell level. Comparisons of the tumor microenvironment revealed the presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells in both the bone marrow and extramedullary ascites, demonstrating a gene-expression phenotype indicative of functional compromise. In parallel, isolated myeloma cells persistently expressed class I MHC molecules and upregulated inhibitory molecules for cytotoxic T and NK cells. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that myeloma cells are equipped with specialized immune evasion mechanisms in cytotoxic microenvironments. Taken together, single-cell transcriptome analysis revealed transcriptional programs associated with aggressive myeloma progression that support autonomous cell proliferation and immune evasion.
Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals chemokine self-feeding of myeloma cells promotes extramedullary metastasis.
Geng Shuang,Wang Jing,Zhang Xiannian,Zhang Jia-Jia,Wu Fan,Pang Yuhong,Zhong Yuping,Wang Jianbin,Wang Wenming,Lyu Xiaoqing,Huang Yanyi,Jing Hongmei
In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying the initial extramedullary translocation of myeloma cells from bone marrow into peripheral blood. We found that clonal circulating plasma cells (cPCs) are more frequently detected by flow cytometry in extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) patients and worsen their prognosis. It is technically much easier to collect single cPCs using FACS than it is to perform EMP biopsy. Therefore, combining EMP imaging with cPC detection may be a promising strategy for prognostic stratification. Here, using single-cell transcriptome analysis, we found that the chemokine CXCL12, a key molecule involved in CXCR4-dependent cell retention in the bone marrow, is abnormally upregulated in cPCs and might initially enable cPCs to evade bone marrow retention and translocate into the bloodstream.
Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma: Focus on Longitudinal Assessment of Donor Chimerism, Extramedullary Disease, and High-Risk Cytogenetic Features.
Rasche Leo,Röllig Christoph,Stuhler Gernot,Danhof Sophia,Mielke Stephan,Grigoleit Goetz Ulrich,Dissen Lea,Schemmel Lea,Middeke Jan Moritz,Rücker Viktoria,Schreder Martin,Schetelig Johannes,Bornhäuser Martin,Einsele Hermann,Thiede Christian,Knop Stefan
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Although generally not applied as first-line treatment of multiple myeloma, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can still be chosen as ultimate escalation approach in high-risk patients, preferentially within the framework of clinical trials. In this study, we investigated whether decreasing donor chimerism (DC) is predictive for relapse. In addition, we comprehensively determined the impact of several other disease- and treatment-related factors on outcome. One hundred fifty-five multiple myeloma patients whose DC status was followed serially by the short tandem repeat-based techniques at a single lab were included in this retrospective study. Outcome variables were studied in univariate and multivariable analyses. Available were 2.324 DC samples (median, 12 per patient). Loss of full DC was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.6) but did not impact overall survival. Two-thirds of patients with International Myeloma Working Group-defined relapses still displayed a full DC in peripheral blood or bone marrow. Extramedullary manifestations were observed in 33% of patients, accounting for the discrepancy between DC analysis and the actual disease status. In multivariable analysis, the 2 most relevant variables for an unfavorable PFS were progressive disease before allo-SCT (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5 to 5.9) and allo-SCT at least the second relapse (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.9), whereas for overall survival progressive disease or partial response before allo-SCT had the strongest negative effects (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9, and HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8, respectively). Adverse cytogenetics such as del17p, t(4,14) or amp(1q21) were not associated with shorter survival after allo-SCT. Extensive DC sampling beyond robust engraftment does not appear to provide additional information helpful for disease management in most patients and is challenged by a significant incidence of extramedullary disease. In our series, allo-SCT overcame unfavorable cytogenetics.
Extramedullary multiple myeloma.
Bhutani Manisha,Foureau David M,Atrash Shebli,Voorhees Peter M,Usmani Saad Z
Extramedullary multiple myeloma (EMM) is an aggressive subentity of multiple myeloma, characterized by the ability of a subclone to thrive and grow independent of the bone marrow microenvironment, resulting in a high-risk state associated with increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance. Despite improvement in survival for most patients with multiple myeloma over recent decades, outcomes are generally poor when EMM develops. Understanding the molecular underpinnings leading to homing of plasma cells in ecosystems outside the bone marrow will be crucial for therapeutically manipulating the microenvironment and targeting key signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss the evolutionary biology of EMM, underscore the importance of a uniform definition, discuss prognostic significance, and provide current and emerging treatment strategies for managing this rare subentity of multiple myeloma.
Extramedullary disease in multiple myeloma - controversies and future directions.
Sevcikova Sabina,Minarik Jiri,Stork Martin,Jelinek Tomas,Pour Ludek,Hajek Roman
Extramedullary disease of multiple myeloma (EM) remains a treatment challenge even in the era of new drugs. While many reports analyzing various aspects of EM have been published, mechanism of EM development has not been clarified yet. This review summarizes current knowledge about this clinical entity, including its history, diagnostics, imaging methods, incidence, prognosis, current treatment options, risk factors and known molecular mechanisms that might be involved in pathogenesis of EM.
Hematogenous extramedullary relapse in multiple myeloma - a multicenter retrospective study in 127 patients.
Avivi Irit,Cohen Yael C,Suska Anna,Shragai Tamir,Mikala Gabor,Garderet Laurent,Seny Gueye M,Glickman Sophia,Jayabalan David S,Niesvizky Ruben,Gozzetti Alessandro,Wiśniewska-Piąty Katarzyna,Waszczuk-Gajda Anna,Usnarska-Zubkiewicz Lidia,Hus Iwona,Guzicka Renata,Radocha Jakub,Milunovic Vibor,Davila Julio,Gentile Massimo,Castillo Jorge J,Jurczyszyn Artur
American journal of hematology
The current study assesses the characteristics and outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, treated with novel agents for hematogenous extramedullary (HEMM) relapse. Consecutive patients diagnosed with HEMM between 2010-2018 were included. Patients' characteristics at diagnosis and at HEMM presentation, response to treatment, survival and factors predicting survival were recorded and analyzed. A group of 127 patients, all diagnosed with HEMM by imaging (87.3%) and/or biopsy (79%), were included. Of those, 44% were initially diagnosed with ISS3, 57% presented with plasmacytomas, and 30% had high-risk cytogenetics. Median time to HEMM was 32 months. In multivariate analysis, ISS3 and bone plasmacytoma predicted shorter time to HEMM (P = .005 and P = .008, respectively). Upfront autograft was associated with longer time to HEMM (P = .002). At HEMM, 32% of patients had no BM plasmacytosis, 20% had non-secretory disease and 43% had light-chain disease. Multiple HEMM sites were reported in 52% of patients, mostly involving soft tissue, skin (29%), and pleura/lung (25%). First treatment for HEMM included proteasome inhibitors (50%), immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) (39%), monoclonal antibodies (10%), and chemotherapy (53%). Overall response rate (ORR) was 57%. IMiDs were associated with higher ORR (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.02-4.7, P = .04). Median survival from HEMM was 6 months (CI 95% 4.8-7.2). Failure to achieve ≥VGPR was the only significant factor for worse OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 9.87, CI 95% 2.35 - 39, P = .001). In conclusion, HEMM occurs within 3 years of initial myeloma diagnosis and is associated with dismal outcome. The IMiDs might provide a higher response rate, and achievement of ≥VGPR predicts longer survival.
A GRP78-Directed Monoclonal Antibody Recaptures Response in Refractory Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Involvement.
Rasche Leo,Menoret Emmanuelle,Dubljevic Valentina,Menu Eline,Vanderkerken Karin,Lapa Constantin,Steinbrunn Torsten,Chatterjee Manik,Knop Stefan,Düll Johannes,Greenwood Deanne L,Hensel Frank,Rosenwald Andreas,Einsele Hermann,Brändlein Stephanie
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE:Glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma, and both its surface expression and its biologic significance as key sensor of the unfolded protein response make GRP78 an ideal candidate for immunotherapeutic intervention. The monoclonal antibody PAT-SM6 targets surface GRP78 and leads to disease stabilization when used as single agent in a clinical trial. In this article, we evaluated expression of GRP78 in relapsed-refractory disease and explored PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:GRP78 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed during disease progression and development of drug resistance throughout different stages of multiple myeloma. Activity of PAT-SM6 was evaluated in combination with anti-multiple myeloma agents lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone in vitro Finally, we report on a multiple myeloma patient with relapsed-refractory disease treated with PAT-SM6 in combination with bortezomib and lenalidomide. RESULTS:Although sGRP78 expression was present at all stages, it increased with disease progression and was even strongly elevated in patients with drug-resistant and extramedullary disease. Pretreatment with dexamethasone as well as dual combination of PAT-SM6/lenalidomide further increased sGRP78 expression and consecutively showed synergistic anti-multiple myeloma effects with PAT-SM6 in proliferation assays. As proof of concept, a 62-year-old male with triple resistant multiple myeloma treated with PAT-SM6, bortezomib, and lenalidomide experienced partial remission of both intra- and extramedullary lesions. CONCLUSIONS:PAT-SM6 therapy in combination regimens showed efficacy in relapsed-refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4341-9. ©2016 AACR.
Clinical analysis of 40 multiple myeloma patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head.
Sun Wan-Jun,Zhang Jia-Jia,An Na,Shen Men,Huang Zhong-Xia,Li Xin
The Journal of international medical research
Objectives To investigate the clinical characteristics, survival and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and head extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP). Methods Forty MM patients were enrolled in the study (18 men, 22 women; median age, 55 years). Results Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 24 (5-78) months and 17 (2-36) months, respectively. The 2-, 3- and 5-year OS rates were 51%, 20% and 7%, respectively. The 2-year PFS was 15%. Median OS and PFS in patients administered velcade were 26 (18-50) and 22.5 (5-78) months, compared with 20 (10-30) and 13.5 (2-36) months in patients without velcade, respectively. Median OS was 23.5 (5-50) months in patients with EMP at MM diagnosis ( n = 25) and 36 (22-78) months in patients with head EMP diagnosed during the disease course ( n = 15). Sixteen MM patients had EMP invasion of the head only and 24 had invasion at multiple sites. Median OS was 25 (22-78) months in patients with EMP of the head only and 22 (5-78) months in patients with EMP invasion at multiple sites. Conclusion MM patients with head EMP show a more aggressive disease course and shorter OS and PFS. The prognosis of these patients is poor, especially in patients with head EMP at MM diagnosis, though combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival.
Tandem Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Improves Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Disease and High-Risk Cytogenetics: A Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Gagelmann Nico,Eikema Diderik-Jan,Koster Linda,Caillot Denis,Pioltelli Pietro,Lleonart Juan Bargay,Reményi Péter,Blaise Didier,Schaap Nicolaas,Trneny Marek,Passweg Jakob,Porras Rocio Parody,Cahn Jean Yves,Musso Maurizio,Poiré Xavier,Fenk Roland,Itälä-Remes Maija,Pavone Vincenzo,Fouillard Loic,Maertens Johan,Bron Dominique,Pouli Anastasia,Schroyens Wilfried,Schönland Stefan,Garderet Laurent,Yakoub-Agha Ibrahim,Kröger Nicolaus
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Although high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant combined with novel agents continues to be the hallmark of first-line treatment in newly diagnosed transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients, the impact of tandem autologous or autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic transplant for patients with extramedullary disease (EMD) and high-risk cytogenetics is not yet defined. Here, we analyzed clinical and cytogenetic data from 488 adult myeloma patients with EMD undergoing single autologous (n = 373), tandem autologous (n = 84), or autologous-allogeneic transplant (n = 31) between 2003 and 2015. At least 1 high-risk abnormality was present in 41% (n = 202), with del(17p) (40%) and t(4;14) (45%) the most frequent. More than 1 high-risk abnormality was found in 54%. High-risk cytogenetics showed worse 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 54% and 29%, respectively, versus 78% and 49% for standard-risk cytogenetics (P < .001). Co-segregation of high-risk abnormalities did not seem to affect outcome. Regarding transplant regimen, OS and PFS were 70% and 43% for single autologous versus 83% and 52% for tandem autologous and 88% and 58% for autologous-allogeneic (P = .06 and P = .30). In multivariate analysis high-risk cytogenetics were associated with worse survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; P = .003), whereas tandem autologous significantly improved outcome versus single autologous transplant (HRs, .46 and .64; P = .02 and P = .03). Autologous-allogeneic transplant did not significantly differ in outcome but appeared to improve survival, but results were limited because of small population (HR, .31). In conclusion, high-risk cytogenetics is frequently observed in newly diagnosed myeloma with EMD and significantly worsens outcome after single autologous, whereas a tandem autologous transplant strategy may overcome onset poor prognosis.
Impact of extramedullary disease in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation: a study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.
Gagelmann Nico,Eikema Diderik-Jan,Iacobelli Simona,Koster Linda,Nahi Hareth,Stoppa Anne-Marie,Masszi Tamás,Caillot Denis,Lenhoff Stig,Udvardy Miklos,Crawley Charles,Arcese William,Mariette Clara,Hunter Ann,Leleu Xavier,Schipperus Martin,Delforge Michel,Pioltelli Pietro,Snowden John A,Itälä-Remes Maija,Musso Maurizio,van Biezen Anja,Garderet Laurent,Kröger Nicolaus
We investigated extramedullary disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and its impact on outcome following first-line autologous stem cell transplantation. We identified 3744 adult myeloma patients who received up-front single (n=3391) or tandem transplantation (n=353) between 2005 and 2014 with available data on extramedullary involvement at diagnosis. The overall incidence of extramedullary disease was 18.2% (n=682) and increased per year from 6.5% (2005) to 23.7% (2014). Paraskeletal involvement was found in 543 (14.5%) and extramedullary organ involvement in 139 (3.7%). More patients with extramedullary organ involvement had multiple involved sites (≥2; <0.001). In a comparison of patients with single sites with patients without the disease, up-front transplantation resulted in at least similar 3-year progression-free survival (paraskeletal: =0.86, and extramedullary organ: =0.88). In single paraskeletal involvement, this translated less clearly into worse 3-year overall survival (=0.07) while single organ involvement was significantly worse (=0.001). Multiple organ sites were associated with worse outcome (<0.001 and =0.01). First-line treatment with tandem compared with single transplantation resulted in similar survival in patients with extramedullary disease at diagnosis (=0.13 for both).
Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 is an inducible stress response gene associated with extramedullary spread and poor prognosis of multiple myeloma.
Handa Hiroshi,Kuroda Yuko,Kimura Kei,Masuda Yuta,Hattori Hikaru,Alkebsi Lobna,Matsumoto Morio,Kasamatsu Tetsuhiro,Kobayashi Nobuhiko,Tahara Ken-Ichi,Takizawa Makiko,Koiso Hiromi,Ishizaki Takuma,Shimizu Hiroaki,Yokohama Akihiko,Tsukamoto Norifumi,Saito Takayuki,Murakami Hirokazu
British journal of haematology
Extramedullary myeloma (EMM) occurs when myeloma develops outside the bone marrow; it often develops after chemotherapy and is associated with the acquisition of chemo-resistance and a fatal course. The mechanisms underlying extramedullary spread have not yet been fully elucidated. MALAT1 is a highly abundantly and ubiquitously expressed long non-coding RNA that plays important roles in cancer metastasis. The aims of this study were to clarify the association of MALAT1 with EMM and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of EMM formation under chemotherapeutic pressure. MALAT1 expression was significantly higher in multiple myeloma (MM) than in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Furthermore, MALAT1 expression was markedly higher in EMM compared with that in corresponding intramedullary myeloma cells. A higher MALAT1 level was associated with shorter overall and progression-free survival. MALAT1 expression level was positively correlated with expression of HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1 and HSP90B1 but not with TP53 expression. MALAT1 was significantly upregulated by bortezomib and doxorubicin. Considering the known functions of MALAT1, our results suggest that it acts as a stress response gene that is upregulated by chemotherapy, thereby linking chemotherapy to EMM formation. Elucidating the biological implication of long non-coding RNA contributes to deeper understanding concerning the pathogenesis and investigation of novel therapeutic targets for MM.
CIC Mutation as a Molecular Mechanism of Acquired Resistance to Combined BRAF-MEK Inhibition in Extramedullary Multiple Myeloma with Central Nervous System Involvement.
Da Vià Matteo Claudio,Solimando Antonio Giovanni,Garitano-Trojaola Andoni,Barrio Santiago,Munawar Umair,Strifler Susanne,Haertle Larissa,Rhodes Nadine,Teufel Eva,Vogt Cornelia,Lapa Constantin,Beilhack Andreas,Rasche Leo,Einsele Hermann,Kortüm K Martin
Combined MEK-BRAF inhibition is a well-established treatment strategy in BRAF-mutated cancer, most prominently in malignant melanoma with durable responses being achieved through this targeted therapy. However, a subset of patients face primary unresponsiveness despite presence of the activating mutation at position V600E, and others acquire resistance under treatment. Underlying resistance mechanisms are largely unknown, and diagnostic tests to predict tumor response to BRAF-MEK inhibitor treatment are unavailable. Multiple myeloma represents the second most common hematologic malignancy, and point mutations in BRAF are detectable in about 10% of patients. Targeted inhibition has been successfully applied, with mixed responses observed in a substantial subset of patients mirroring the widespread spatial heterogeneity in this genomically complex disease. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is an extremely rare, extramedullary form of multiple myeloma that can be diagnosed in less than 1% of patients. It is considered an ultimate high-risk feature, associated with unfavorable cytogenetics, and, even with intense treatment applied, survival is short, reaching less than 12 months in most cases. Here we not only describe the first patient with an extramedullary CNS relapse responding to targeted dabrafenib and trametinib treatment, we furthermore provide evidence that a point mutation within the capicua transcriptional repressor (CIC) gene mediated the acquired resistance in this patient. KEY POINTS: BRAF mutations constitute an attractive druggable target in multiple myeloma. This is the first genomic dissection of the central nervous system involvement in a multiple myeloma patient harboring a druggable BRAF mutation. Deep genomic characterization of the extramedullary lesion prompted a personalized therapeutic approach. Acquisition of CIC mutation confers a mechanism of BRAF-MEK inhibitor drug resistance in multiple myeloma. The in silico interrogation of the CoMMpass clinical study revealed 10 patients with somatic mutations of CIC and its downregulation at gene expression level in multiple myeloma. CIC gene silencing decreases the sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells to BRAF-MEK inhibition in vitro. The correlation between CIC downregulation and ETV4/5 nuclear factor expression in multiple myeloma BRAF-mutant cells is shown for the first time. CIC mutation, its downregulation, and the related downstream effect on MMP24 support disseminative potential providing new clues in the extramedullary biology definition.
Clinical characteristics and prognosis of multiple myeloma with bone-related extramedullary disease at diagnosis.
Tian Chen,Wang Lu,Wu Ling,Zhu Lei,Xu Wengui,Ye Zhaoxiang,Zhao Zhigang,Wang Yafei,Zhang Yizhuo
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological neoplasm which results in diffuse or focal bone infiltration and extramedullary lesions. It's reported that infiltration of organs by plasma cells indicated worse prognosis, but the prognosis of patients with bone-related extramedullary disease (bEMD) is still unknown. One hundred and fourteen newly diagnosed MM patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results showed that the clinical features, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with and without bEMD had no statistical significance. Rib (46.1%) and vertebrae (17.9%) are common sites bEMD involved. Patients with diffuse bEMD had worse prognosis compared with patients with focal bEMD. Bisphosphonates played an important role in prolonging the survival of patients with bEMD. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is sensitive in discovering bEMD than whole body low dose CT suggesting PET/CT to be a promising technique for initial staging. High β2-microglobulin and low albumin indicated shorter survival in patients with bEMD.
Cytogenetics in multiple myeloma patients progressing into extramedullary disease.
Besse Lenka,Sedlarikova Lenka,Greslikova Henrieta,Kupska Renata,Almasi Martina,Penka Miroslav,Jelinek Tomas,Pour Ludek,Adam Zdenek,Kuglik Petr,Krejci Marta,Hajek Roman,Sevcikova Sabina
European journal of haematology
BACKGROUND:Extramedullary disease in multiple myeloma patients is an uncommon event occurring either at the time of diagnosis, or during disease progression/relapse. This manifestation is frequently associated with poor outcome and resistance to treatment. We evaluated chromosomal alterations of plasma cells of multiple myeloma patients with extramedullary relapse, either in the bone marrow (BM) or at extramedullary sites, and in previous BM collection by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Thirty-one patients [25 BM plasma cells (BMPCs), 18 extramedullary tumor plasma cells], of which 12 had paired samples of BM and extramedullary plasma cells and 14 had previous collection of BM, were investigated for the presence of chromosomal aberrations (CHAs): del(17)(p13), del(13)(q14), 14q32 disruption, t(4;14)(p16;q32), t(14;16)(q32;q23), gain(1)(q21), and hyperdiploidy status. RESULTS:Overall, in unrelated samples, t(4;14) was more prevalent in extramedullary plasma cells, and hyperdiploidy was more frequent in BMPCs. In paired samples, there was a higher frequency of del(13)(q14) and 14q32 disruption in BMPCs. Frequency of all studied CHAs was higher in BMPCs of extramedullary patients than in their previous sample collection. CONCLUSION:These data show that plasma cells harbor more aberrations during their transformation into extramedullary form.
Extraosseous Multiple Myeloma: Case Report of Presentation in the Lower Extremity Soft Tissues with Literature Review.
Ames Jeff,Al-Samaraee Ahmad,Takahashi Takashi
Case reports in radiology
A rare presentation of extramedullary multiple myeloma in the soft tissues of the bilateral thighs prompted a literature review of published cases of extramedullary multiple myeloma (EM-MM) and solitary plasmacytomas to determine the relative anatomic distribution of these lesions. All available published cases in English were included in the analysis, dating back to 1966 and including 2,538 extramedullary myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma lesions. Analysis of the anatomic location of EM-MM lesions demonstrates the majority being in the upper airway (33.8%), soft tissues including retroperitoneum and abdomen (14.1%), gastrointestinal tract (10.3%), central nervous system, head and neck (16.0%), and GU (2.4%). We were able to find only 44 documented cases of extremity soft tissue lesions, comprising 1.7% of all lesions.
PD-1/PD-L1 expression in extra-medullary lesions of multiple myeloma.
Crescenzi Anna,Annibali Ombretta,Bianchi Antonella,Pagano Anastasia,Donati Michele,Grifoni Alba,Avvisati Giuseppe
Multiple myeloma patients may develop extraosseous involvement in the course of the disease making prognosis very poor and new drugs clearly needed. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis has emerged as a master immune checkpoint in antitumor responses and recent studies investigated the role of PD-L1 in multiple myeloma cells; no data however are still available about PD-L1 expression in extramedullary localizations. We demonstrate PD-L1 expression in 4/12 cases of extraosseous myeloma suggesting that these lesions represent a specialized microenvironment. We found presence of PD-1+ infiltrating lymphocytes in all observed cases supporting the relevance of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint in extramedullary myeloma. We also investigated the correlation in PD1/PD-L1 staining between marrow staining and EMP lesions.
Distinct Clinical Outcomes between Paramedullary and Extramedullary Lesions in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma.
Batsukh Khishigjargal,Lee Sung-Eun,Min Gi June,Park Sung Soo,Jeon Young-Woo,Yoon Jae-Ho,Cho Byung-Sik,Eom Ki-Seong,Kim Yoo-Jin,Kim Hee-Je,Lee Seok,Cho Seok-Goo,Kim Dong-Wook,Lee Jong Wook,Min Woo-Sung,Min Chang-Ki
This retrospective study aimed to compare the clinical features of paramedullary lesions (PLs) and extramedullary lesions (ELs) of plasmacytomas at diagnosis, using positron emission tomography integrated with computed tomography, using glucose labeled with the positron-emitting radionuclide F (F-FDG-PET/CT) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), and to address their prognostic impact. Sixty-four patients with NDMM presenting ELs (n=22) and/or PLs (n=42) were included. Patients with ELs at initial presentation had unfavorable laboratory parameters of calcium and lactate dehydrogenase, a higher percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, and showed a trend toward advanced international staging system (ISS), compared to patients with PLs. Using X-ray imaging, high bone disease (HBD) was observed in 50% and 71% of patients with ELs and PLs, respectively. After a median follow-up of 29.2 months (range, 3.4-76.5 months) in survivors, patients with ELs had a significantly lower overall survival (OS) (p=0.033) than patients with PLs did, whereas the progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ significantly (p=0.818). However, the PFS after 1 progression was significantly worse in patients with ELs than in those with PLs (p=0.017). In the multivariate analyses, the negative impact of initial ELs on OS (p=0.033) was sustained. Our results demonstrated the different clinical features and outcomes of ELs and PLs in NDMM. Patients with initial ELs showed a shorter PFS after 1 progression, which translated into poor OS, providing insight into the different biological effect of ELs.