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    Influence of sugar supplementation of the extender on motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of dog spermatozoa during freezing. Yildiz C,Kaya A,Aksoy M,Tekeli T Theriogenology Influence of different sugars supplemented to the extender on the motility, viability and intact acrosome rates of dog spermatozoa during dilution, equilibration and freezing was studied. The ejaculate was divided into 10 aliquots, which were diluted 1:3 with TRIS-citric acid extender containing 240 mMTRIS, 63 mM citric acid, 8% (v/v) glycerol, 20% (v/v) egg yolk and 70 mM sugar, which was either fructose, galactose, glucose, xylose (monosaccharide), lactose, trehalose, maltose, sucrose (disaccharide) or raffinose (trisaccharide). No sugar was added to the extender in the control group. Extended semen samples were cooled to 5 degrees C over 45 min, packaged in 0.25-mL straws, equilibrated for 2 h at 5 degrees C and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Samples were thawed by placing straws into 37 degrees C water for 30 sec. Motility, viable sperm and intact acrosome rates decreased gradually in all groups after equilibration and consecutively freezing (P<0.001). The type of sugar significantly effected motility, viability and acrosomal integrity during equilibration and freezing (P<0.05). Galactose, lactose, trehalose, maltose and sucrose reduced damaged acrosome percentages in equilibrated samples (P<0.05). Sugar supplementation did not enhance motility and viability during equilibration. The disaccharides, except lactose, reduced post-thaw dead sperm and/or damaged acrosome percentages without promoting post-thaw motility (P<0.01), whereas monosaccharides, especially fructose and xylose, improved motility (P<0.05) along with viability and intact acrosome rates (P<0.05). Trehalose, xylose and fructose significantly increased total active sperm rates (motility x live sperm rate x normal acrosome rate) compared to other sugars (P<0.01) and control (P<0.0001) in frozen thawed samples. Therefore, sugar supplementation of the extender influenced post-equilibration and post-thaw sperm quality, and the type or locality of protective impact of the sugar on dog spermatozoa vary according to type of the sugar. 10.1016/S0093-691X(00)00373-3
    Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa in dogs. Shimatsu Y,Yuzawa H,Aruga K,Nakura M The Veterinary record 10.1136/vr.153.12.369
    Cryopreservation of canine spermatozoa: theoretical prediction of optimal cooling rates in the presence and absence of cryoprotective agents. Thirumala Sreedhar,Ferrer Maria S,Al-Jarrah Abdul,Eilts Bruce E,Paccamonti Dale L,Devireddy Ram V Cryobiology In the present study a shape independent differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) technique was used to measure the dehydration response during freezing of ejaculated canine sperm cells. Volumetric shrinkage during freezing of canine sperm cell suspensions was obtained at cooling rates of 5 and 10 degrees C/min in the presence of extracellular ice and CPAs (6 different combinations of freezing media were used, ranging from a media with no CPAs, and those with 0.5%, 3%, and 6% glycerol and with 0.5% and 3% Me(2)SO). Using previously published data, the canine sperm cell was modeled as a cylinder of length 105.7mum and a radius of 0.32mum with an osmotically inactive cell volume, V(b), of 0.6 V(o), where V(o) is the isotonic cell volume. By fitting a model of water transport to the experimentally obtained volumetric shrinkage data the best fit membrane permeability parameters (L(pg) and E(Lp)) were determined. The "combined best fit" membrane permeability parameters at 5 and 10 degrees C/min for canine sperm cells in the absence of CPAs are: L(pg)=0.52x10(-15)m(3)/Ns (0.0029mum/min-atm) and E(Lp)=64.0kJ/mol (15.3kcal/mol) (R(2)=0.99); and the corresponding parameters in the presence of CPAs ranged from L(pg)[cpa]=0.46 to 0.53x10(-15) m(3)/Ns (0.0027-0.0031mum/min-atm) and E(Lp)[cpa]=46.4-56.0kJ/mol (11.1-13.4kcal/mol). These parameters are significantly different than previously published parameters for canine and other mammalian sperm obtained at suprazero temperatures and at subzero temperatures in the absence of extracellular ice. The parameters obtained in this study also suggest that optimal rates of freezing canine sperm cells ranges from 10 to 30 degrees C/min; these theoretical cooling rates are found to be in close conformity with previously published but empirically determined optimal cooling rates.
    Effect of prostatic fluid on the quality of fresh and frozen-thawed canine epididymal spermatozoa. Korochkina E,Johannisson A,Goodla Lavanya,Morrell J M,Axner E Theriogenology Canine epididymal spermatozoa have a low freeze-tolerance ability compared with ejaculated spermatozoa, which could arise from the absence of prostatic fluid (PF). Therefore, the purpose of this work was to elucidate the influence of PF on the quality of canine epididymal sperm before and after freezing. Caudae epididymides were retrieved from eight dogs after routine castration. Spermatozoa were released by slicing the tissue and were extended in either Tris solution or PF before freezing. Frozen sperm samples were thawed at 70 °C for 8 seconds in a waterbath. Sperm concentration, motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis, morphology, plasma membrane, acrosome and chromatin integrity were assessed in the fresh sperm samples (after 20 minutes incubation) and at 0 and 4 hours after thawing. Progressive motility, distance straight line, distance average path, average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, linearity, wobble, and beat cross frequency were significantly increased after extraction into PF. There was a higher proportion of spermatozoa with DNA damage in the PF treatment group at 4 hours after thawing than in the Tris treatment group (15.8% vs. 6.7%, P < 0.05). These results suggest that the addition of PF to canine spermatozoa activates sperm motility in fresh spermatozoa but has a negative effect on chromatin integrity after freezing-thawing. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.06.024
    Maintaining canine sperm function and osmolyte content with multistep freezing protocol and different cryoprotective agents. Setyawan Erif Maha Nugraha,Kim Min Jung,Oh Hyun Ju,Kim Geon A,Jo Young Kwang,Lee Seok Hee,Choi Yoo Bin,Lee Byeong Chun Cryobiology Cryopreservation procedures cause osmotic stress to spermatozoa following cryoinjury and reduce their content of osmolytes. Conventional method for cryoprotectant loading and dilution on canine semen freezing which could be categorized in single step protocol, makes decreasing in sperm performance such as motility, morphology and viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if a multistep protocol using glycerol or ethylene glycol can be used to overcome the osmotic sensitivity of canine spermatozoa, and to identify osmolytes that were involved in regulation of osmotic stress. A multistep protocol, comprising serial loading and dilution of cryoprotective agents by dividing the total volume of extender into 4 steps (14%, 19%, 27%, and 40%) every 30s, was compared to a single step method. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the multistep group showed superior quality (P<0.05) compared with the single step process in progressive motility (23.3 ± 1.3% vs. 12.5 ± 1.6%), intact membranes (66.5 ± 2.8% vs. 49.5 ± 2.6%) and bent tail (29.2 ± 3.2% vs. 46.2 ± 1.9%). Multistep also succeeded in minimizing loss of the osmolytes carnitine (20.6 ± 2.0 nmol/U G6PDH vs. 10.8 ± 2.1 nmol/U G6PDH) and glutamate (18.4 ± 1.6 nmol/U G6PDH vs. 14.4 ± 0.8 nmol/U G6PDH) compared to the single step group. Moreover, glycerol with multistep was more advantageous for maintaining sperm quality than ethylene glycol. In conclusion, the multistep protocol with glycerol can be used to improve the morphology, motility and osmolytes content of frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.08.010
    Effect of cryopreservation of zona-binding capacity of canine spermatozoa in vitro. Ivanova M,Mollova M,Ivanova-Kicheva M G,Petrov M,Djarkova T,Somlev B Theriogenology The hemizona assay (HZA) was used as a functional test for zona pellucida binding capacity of fresh and frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa. We investigated 30 ejaculates from 3 dogs with sperm motility > 70% and sperm concentration > 5.10(8) cells per ejaculate with up to 20% abnormal and dead spermatozoa. Fifteen ejaculates were each divided into 2 portions: one portion was used for analysis of fresh semen, the other for cryopreserved semen. On the day of the experiments, in vitro-matured canine oocytes were bisected into 2 equal hemizonae. One half of the hemizonae were coincubated with fresh capacitated (control) spermatozoa, the other half of the hemizonae were coincubated with frozen-thawed (tested) spermatozoa at final concentration of 1 to 2 x 10(6) cells/mL in 200 microL droplets of BSA-supplemented Toyoda, Yokojama and Hoshi (TYH) medium at 37 degrees C, 5%, CO2 for 1 h. Sperm suspensions were examined kinesigraphically for post capacitation type of movement. The Student's t-test was used to compare differences between semen parameters. The data on HZA binding activity of fresh and frozen-thawed canine semen were analyzed by ANOVA and then by the Newman-Keuls multiple range method. The results showed no differences in the initial semen quality parameters among the 3 dogs. After thawing, the semen from Dog 1 and Dog 2 demonstrated relatively uniform sperm parameters, while in Dog 3 sperm motility, and viability and the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa were significantly decreased. The binding activity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa from the 3 dogs was significantly reduced (29.40 +/- 9.02, 18.60 +/- 3.30, 8.20 +/- 4.49) compared with that (107.20 +/- 19.22, 109.80 +/- 20.75, 78.20 +/- 12.47; P < 0.01) of fresh spermatozoa. The results showed that semen samples with similar sperm parameters prior to cryopreservation displayed different sperm zona-binding capacity after freezing. The HZI (value of sperm binding capacity of frozen-thawed vs fresh semen samples) was higher in Dog 1 (27.43) than in Dog 2 (16.90) or Dog 3 (10.40), and thus confirmed the variation of zona binding activity after thawing between dogs. The freezability of individual dog semen is discussed. In conclusion HZA may be a valuable tool for evaluating the post-thaw fertilizing ability of canine spermatozoa.
    Quality of canine semen submitted to single or fractionated glycerol addition during the freezing process. Silva A R,Cardoso R C S,Uchoa D C,Silva L D M Theriogenology Glycerol is the cryoprotector most frequently used to freeze semen from different species. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of single and fractionated glycerol addition on canine semen quality after thawing. Sperm fractions from 12 stud dogs were collected, evaluated, extended in Tris plus egg-yolk and separated into two aliquots to which glycerol was added in one step (single) or in three steps at 5-min intervals (fractionated). Semen was frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. A thermoresistance test was performed over a period of 120 min at 37-39 degrees C to evaluate the percentage of mobile spermatozoa (motility) and the status of motility (vigor) after thawing. There were no significant differences between the two methods of glycerol addition-immediately after thawing, and during the thermoresistance test-in sperm motility, vigor or morphology. A significant reduction in motility and vigor was found at 15 min after thawing and these parameters continued to decline until 120 min. In conclusion, glycerol can be added to canine semen in single or fractionated manner, but the single addition method is the easiest and the most practical to use.
    Addition of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in tris-based extender improves post-thaw quality and motion dynamics of dog spermatozoa. Sun Lingwei,Wu Caifeng,Xu Jiehuan,Zhang Shushan,Dai Jianjun,Zhang Defu Cryobiology The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of different concentrations of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in a tris-based extender on semen quality parameters in post-thawed dog semen. Twenty-four ejaculates were collected from eight male Beagle dogs using an artificial vagina. Pooled semen was diluted with a tris-based extender supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mM BHT, at a final concentration of 200 × 10 spermatozoa/mL. After thawing, sperm samples were assessed for motility parameters (CASA), membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA), mitochondrial activity (JC-1/PI), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The total motility, progressive motility, and average path velocity of the frozen-thawed sperm were significantly higher in the BHT1.5 group than in the control and the other sample groups (P < 0.05). Higher values of straight-line velocity, curvilinear velocity, amplitude of the lateral head displacement, and linearity were observed in the BHT1.0, BHT1.5, and BHT2.0 groups than in the control (P < 0.05). The BHT1.0 and BHT1.5 groups had higher percentages of straightness and acrosome integrity than the other groups (P < 0.05). Beat cross frequency, plasma membrane integrity, and GPx activity of the BHT1.5 and BHT2.0 groups were higher than those of the control (P < 0.05). A lower concentration of MDA was observed in the BHT1.0, BHT1.5, and BHT2.0 groups than in the control (BHT0) (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that 1.5 mM BHT is the optimal concentration for improving the post-thaw quality of canine spermatozoa. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2020.10.006
    Effect of quercetin on the motility of cryopreserved canine spermatozoa. Kawasaki Yuta,Sakurai Daichi,Yoshihara Tatsuya,Tsuchida Mei,Harakawa Shinji,Suzuki Hiroshi Cryobiology The addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation solutions for preventing oxidative stress to sperm from several species, including that from humans, has been studied previously. Quercetin is a flavonoid contained in subarctic trees with freeze resistance and is known to be a strong antioxidant. Therefore, the effect of quercetin on the cryopreservation of dog spermatozoa was examined in this study. The proportions of total motile spermatozoa were significantly higher at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min and at 60, 120, and 150 min after thawing in groups treated with 5 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml of quercetin dissolved in 0.1% DMSO added to the second extender based on skim milk compared to that in the control group, respectively. There were no differences between the experimental groups in the proportion of total motile spermatozoa during the observation periods. The proportion of total motile spermatozoa among those treated with 5 μg/ml of quercetin in 0.1% DMSO was improved by approximately 10-20% at 30-180 min after thawing compared to that in the control group. To evaluate the fertility of cryopreserved spermatozoa treated with quercetin, 2 × 10 spermatozoa were transcervically inseminated into bitches, and a total of 18 puppies were delivered in three bitches. These results indicated that supplementation of quercetin as a cryoprotectant to the skim milk-based extender improved the motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa from dogs compared to those of the control group. And fertility of cryopreserved spermatozoa with quercetin supplementation was proven with higher efficiency. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2020.08.006
    Effect of antioxidant supplementation on semen quality and reactive oxygen species of frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa. Michael A,Alexopoulos C,Pontiki E,Hadjipavlou-Litina D,Saratsis P,Boscos C Theriogenology The objective of this study was to evaluate post-thaw quality of frozen dog semen processed with diluents containing different antioxidants. Ejaculates were collected, pooled and evaluated for concentration, motility, rapid steady forward movement (RSF movement), viability, acrosomal integrity and by the hypo-osmotic swelling test. Also, superoxide production, hydroxyl radicals and total reactive oxygen species (tROS) were determined. The pool was divided in seven aliquots, for control and test conditions, which were processed for cryopreservation. The sperm pellets were diluted to a final concentration of 200x10(6)sperm/ml with TRIS-glucose-egg yolk extender containing one of the following supplements: vitamin C (1.5mM), NAC (N-acetyl-l-cysteine; 1.5mM), taurine (0.6mM), catalase (300U/ml), vitamin E (0.3mM) and B16 [5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-2-phenyl-penta-2,4-dienoic acid; 0.3mM]. Post-thaw semen evaluation showed that mean (+/-S.E.M.) motility was increased (p<0.001) after addition of catalase (49.75+/-3.63 versus 39.00+/-2.90 in controls), whereas more spermatozoa with RSF movement were observed (p<0.001) after the catalase, NAC and vitamin E treatments (31.75+/-3.46, 28.00+/-3.27, 26.75+/-3.15, respectively, versus 17.00+/-2.26 in controls). Viability was increased (p<0.001) after addition of catalase, taurine, NAC and tocopherol (66.00+/-3.03, 61.90+/-2.48, 60.60+/-1.93 and 60.50+/-4.12, respectively, versus 51.70+/-2.81 in controls). The percentage of swollen spermatozoa was increased after addition of catalase and taurine (61.75+/-1.61 and 61.25+/-1.49, respectively, versus 55.65+/-1.64 in controls). Acrosomal integrity was not influenced in any case. B16 addition had adverse effects on all parameters evaluated. None of the reactive oxygen species were significantly reduced post-thaw in antioxidant treated semen. The results suggest that catalase had the most pronounced effect in improving post-thaw quality of canine spermatozoa. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.04.053
    Theoretical aspects of canine semen cryopreservation. Eilts Bruce E Theriogenology Changes in canine sperm cells during freezing and thawing can cause damage to the cells resulting in cell death. No standardized freezing or thawing method appears to be ideal for all dogs and all ejaculates, because intrinsic variations in properties such as osmotic sensitivity between sperm cells from different dogs and ejaculates makes the cellular response to cryopreservation unpredictable according to the normal physics of cryobiology. Research in canine semen cryopreservation is difficult because the low ejaculate volume makes multiple comparisons from a single ejaculate difficult. True fertility data is also very limited on cryopreserved canine ejaculates. Despite this, the cottage industry that has evolved to cryopreserve dog sperm has been very successful using empirically derived methods that accommodate most ejaculates. Therefore, the practitioner must follow the recommendations supplied by the freezing center to achieve the best potential results. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.05.019
    Freezing dog semen in presence of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene improves postthaw sperm membrane integrity. Neagu V R,García B Macías,Sandoval C Salazar,Rodríguez A Morillo,Ferrusola C Ortega,Fernández L González,Tapia J A,Peña F J Theriogenology In an attempt to evaluate the protective effect of a lipid-soluble antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT), semen from four dogs (Canis familiaris) was frozen in two different extenders (Uppsala or INRA-96 plus glycerol) with or without 1mM BHT. Sperm membrane integrity using flow cytometry and motility using a computerized system were evaluated in each experimental group. The Uppsala extender was superior in all aspects of sperm function. The percentage of sperm membranes was significantly higher in semen samples frozen in presence of BHT. Our results suggest that the Uppsala extender can be improved with the addition of BHT. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2009.10.021
    Incorporation of taurine and hypotaurine did not improve the efficiency of the Uppsala Equex II extender for dog semen freezing. Martins-Bessa A,Rocha A,Mayenco-Aguirre A Theriogenology The working hypothesis of the present study was that supplementation of the Uppsala Equex II (UE) extender with the amino acid (AA), taurine (T) and hypotaurine (H) would improve dog sperm post-thaw quality, as previously seen for ram and bull semen, respectively. Five pools from 15 ejaculates of 15 dogs were used. Each AA was added to the UE extender at a concentration of 25, 50 and 7 5mM. Amino acid-free extender was used as a control. The following post-thaw parameters were evaluated: sperm motility by light microscopy and by CASA evaluation, longevity, viability (eosin-nigrosin staining), and flow cytometry (FC) was used to assess acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity after PI/Fitc-PSA and PI-Rhodamine staining, respectively. Post-thaw sperm motility and velocity did not differ among extenders. Amplitude of lateral head displacement was lower for sperm frozen in the 25 mM H-supplemented extender. Semen frozen in the extender with 50 mM of T resulted in higher number of live sperm with damaged acrosomes after thawing. Higher numbers of live sperm with minimal mitochondrial activity were obtained for samples frozen with 25 and 50 mM T-supplemented extenders. Semen frozen in the control and 50 mM T-supplemented extenders had the highest number of live (eosin-nigrosin stain negative) sperm immediately post-thawing. We concluded that supplementation of the Uppsala extender with T or H did not improve sperm post-thaw mitochondrial activity or semen motility and viability. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.07.015
    Comparing ethylene glycol with glycerol for cryopreservation of canine semen in egg-yolk TRIS extenders. Martins-Bessa Ana,Rocha António,Mayenco-Aguirre A Theriogenology The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of substituting glycerol (G) for ethylene glycol (EG) when cryopreserving dog semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 13 dogs was pooled into five samples and frozen in egg-yolk Tris extenders with variable ethylene glycol and glycerol concentrations, with or without Equex STM Paste. Two widely used glycerol extenders (Uppsala Equex II and Norwegian) were utilized as controls. Semen quality parameters assessed after thawing were total subjective motility (TSM), computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA), eosin-nigrosin staining, and flow cytometry (FC) after staining with the PI/Fitc-PSA (fluorescein isotiocianate conjugated with the agglutinin of Pisum sativum, PSA) fluorochromes. No advantages were seen in using EG to replace G when freezing dog semen or combining EG and G in the freezing medium. The Uppsala Equex II provided the best overall post-thaw parameters, followed by the egg-yolk Tris experimental extender with 5% EG and Equex STM Paste. The extender with 4% EG produced similar results to the Norwegian extender. High correlations (r>0.98) were obtained between eosin-nigrosin staining and FC, as well as between subjective and computerized motility assessment (r>0.90). 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.06.004
    Dimethylformamide as a cryoprotectant for canine semen diluted and frozen in ACP-106C. Mota Filho A C,Teles C H A,Jucá R P,Cardoso J F S,Uchoa D C,Campello C C,Silva A R,Silva L D M Theriogenology The objective was to assess the effect of adding various concentrations of dimethylformamide on characteristics of canine semen diluted in powdered coconut water (ACP-106C; ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil) and frozen at -196°C. Fifteen ejaculates were collected by manual stimulation from five adult Boxer dogs. The sperm-rich fraction was diluted in ACP-106C (ACP Biotecnologia) containing 10% egg yolk and divided into four aliquots. The cryoprotectants used for each aliquot were 6% glycerol (control group; CG) or 2%, 4%, or 6% dimethylformamide (DF2, DF4, and DF6, respectively). After thawing, total motility (mean ± SEM) for CG (58.4 ± 24.6) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the other groups (2% dimethylformamide, 24.4 ± 12.3; 4% dimethylformamide, 26.5 ± 16.1; and 6% dimethylformamide, 21.7 ± 17.9). Furthermore, there was a greater percentage of fast, average, and slow moving sperm (assessed with computer-aided semen analysis; CASA) in CG in comparison with the other three groups. Therefore, based on concentrations tested in this study, dimethylformamide, together with ACP-106C (ACP Biotecnologia) and 10% egg yolk as a diluent, yielded unsatisfactory in vitro results for freezing canine semen. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.05.010
    Cryopreservation of canine epididymal sperm using ACP-106c and TRIS. Mota Filho Antônio Cavalcante,Silva Herlon Victor Rodrigues,Nunes Thalles Gothardo Pereira,de Souza Mírley Barbosa,de Freitas Luana Azevedo,de Araújo Airton Alencar,da Silva Lúcia Daniel Machado Cryobiology The objective was to cryopreserve sperm recovered from the canine epididymal cauda immediately after an orchiectomy. The sperm was stored for 12h at 4 °C using ACP-106c and TRIS as extenders. Sixty adult male dogs were used. The testis-epididymis complex (TEC) was removed, immersed in 0.9% saline and transported to the laboratory. The 60 TEC were divided into groups according to the 4 °C cooling time (0 h or 12 h) and according to the extender used for sperm recovery (ACP-106c or TRIS), forming 4 experimental groups: G0h-ACP, G12h-ACP, G0h-TRIS and G12h-TRIS. The sperm were recovered from the epididymal cauda using the retrograde flow technique. Next, 1.0 mL of ACP-106c or 1.0 mL of TRIS (preheated to 37 °C for 5 min) was added to the sperm of each epididymis. One week later, the sperm was thawed at 37 °C for 1 min, and its morphology, functionality and total and progressive sperm motilities were analyzed. Other parameters were obtained by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA). The data were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) (P<0.05). The total motility values were 52.17 ± 1.78 and 49.8 ± 1.93 for groups G0h-ACP and G12h-ACP and 50.7 ± 2.06 and 43.90 ± 2.51 for groups G0h-TRIS and G12h-TRIS, respectively. A decrease in total sperm motility was observed after 12h of cooling for both extenders (P<0.05). ACP-106c can be used as an extender for freezing canine epididymal sperm, and the freezing procedure must be performed immediately after sperm recovery. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.04.013
    The advantages of LDL (low density lipoproteins) in the cryopreservation of canine semen. Bencharif D,Amirat L,Anton M,Schmitt E,Desherces S,Delhomme G,Langlois M-L,Barrière P,Larrat M,Tainturier D Theriogenology A medium containing LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins, the cryoprotective component of chicken egg yolk) was compared with egg yolk for the preservation canine spermatozoa during the freeze-thaw process. Twenty sperm samples taken from 10 dogs were frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C in seven different media: one control medium containing 20% egg yolk, and six test media containing 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, and 10% LDL, respectively. Following thawing, sperm motility was assessed using a Hamilton-Thorne Sperm Analyser equipped with the CEROS 12 software. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was 55.3% in the 6% LDL medium (optimal concentration) compared with 27.7% in the egg yolk based medium (p<0.05). In comparison with the egg-yolk medium, the LDL medium also resulted in an improved preservation of spermatozoa during the freezing process (p<0.05) in terms of acrosomal integrity (FITC-PSA test), flagellar plasma membrane integrity (HOS test), and DNA integrity (Acridine Orange test). In addition, six Beagle bitches were inseminated twice, via the intra-uterine route, at an interval of 24h; 200x10(6) spermatozoa that had been previously frozen in the 6% LDL medium were used per insemination. All of the bitches became pregnant (gestation rate of 100%). In conclusion, the 6% LDL medium provides improved protection of the spermatozoa during the freeze-thaw process and a marked improvement in the motility parameters of canine spermatozoa in comparison with the control medium containing egg yolk alone. Finally, the use of LDL as a cryoprotectant for canine semen does not interfere with fertility. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.06.095
    Factors affecting the reproductive performance of bitches: A prospective cohort study involving 1203 inseminations with fresh and frozen semen. Hollinshead F K,Hanlon D W Theriogenology The aim of this prospective cohort study was to utilize multivariable statistical methods to identify factors that significantly affected whelping rate, litter size and gestation length in a large population of bitches of many different breeds, presented for routine breeding management. In addition, we aimed to determine the incidence of dystocia and the proportion of bitches undergoing a caesarean section procedure. A total of 1146 individual bitches representing 84 different breeds contributed 1203 inseminations over the 9 year (2007-2015) study period. Bitches were inseminated with either frozen-thawed (n = 645), fresh (n = 543) or chilled (n = 15) semen from 1371 different males. The mean (SD) whelping rate was 74± 4% and the mean litter size was 5.8 ± 3.1 pups per litter for all bitches in the study. The whelping rate was significantly lower in bitches inseminated with frozen-thawed semen compared with bitches inseminated with fresh semen (71% vs 80% respectively; P < 0.001). Semen that was classified as having poor motility (<30% progressive) resulted in a significantly lower whelping rate (37%) than semen classified as good (30-65% progressive; whelping rate = 67%) or excellent (>65% progressive; whelping rate = 79%). There was a linear decline in whelping rate with advancing age. Greyhounds and Labradors demonstrated a significantly higher whelping rate (88% and 94% respectively) compared with all other breeds (71.3%, P < 0.001). Bitches inseminated with frozen-thawed semen had significantly smaller litter sizes than bitches inseminated with fresh semen (5.4 ± 3.1 vs 6.2 ± 3.0 pups per litter respectively; P = 0.02). Smaller breeds had significantly smaller litters (4.4 ± 2.1 pups) than medium (5.2 ± 2.9 pups), large (5.9 ± 2.9 pups) or giant (6.7 ± 3.8 pups) breeds. For each advancing year of age, litter size decreased by 0.13 pups per litter. The mean (SD) gestation length from LH0 was 65 ± 1.9 d. Greyhounds had a significantly longer pregnancy duration (68.0 ± 1.5 d) than other breeds. For each additional year of bitch age, gestation length increased by 0.11 days (P < 0.01), and for each additional pup per litter, gestation length was reduced by 0.08 days (P < 0.05). Of the 890 bitches for which whelping outcomes were recorded; 409 (46%) whelped normally without assistance, 249 (28%) had an elective C-section, 205 (23%) underwent an emergency C-section and 27 (3%) were medically managed or required veterinary assistance for dystocia. Brachycephalic breeds were 11.3 (95CI = 9.3-17.9; P < 0.001) times more likely to have a C-section compared to all other breeds. Bitches with litter sizes of one or two pups had a C-section rate of 83%, whereas bitches with litter sizes of three or more pups had a C-section rate of 43% (P < 0.001). This study provides important clinical information to optimise whelping rates, litter size and the prediction of whelping in certain breeds for clinicians working in canine reproduction. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.06.021
    Effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) in canine sperm cryopreservation: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Lucio C F,Silva L C G,Regazzi F M,Angrimani D S R,Nichi M,Assumpção M E O,Vannucchi C I Cryobiology The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of different concentrations (0, 10 and 20 mM) of reduced glutathione supplemented to the extender for canine semen cryopreservation. Six normospermic dogs were used and each ejaculate was divided in 3 experimental groups, according to GSH concentration (GSH-0, GSH-10 and GSH-20 Groups). After thawing, samples were evaluated by sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), flow cytometric evaluation of plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and activity, chromatin susceptibility to acid-induced denaturation, and measurement of spontaneous and induced production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In vivo tests were carried out with GSH-0 and GSH-10 groups, for which six bitches were inseminated with semen cryopreserved in extender without GSH or containing 10 mM GSH. Intrauterine insemination was performed by cervical catheterization on the 5th and 6th days after the LH surge, detected by serum progesterone and LH assays. In the CASA evaluation, GSH-20 group had the lowest total and progressive motility and lower percentage of sperm with rapid and slow speed. Groups treated with glutathione showed lower percentage of acrosome damage, but higher percentage of plasma membrane injury. GSH-20 group had higher percentage of sperm with low mitochondrial activity and higher concentration of induced TBARS. Both groups (GSH-0 and GSH-10) had positive pregnancies. In conclusion, 20 mM GSH supplementation to canine cryopreservation extender promoted sperm damage, especially to mitochondrial activity. However, addition of 10 mM GSH resulted in acrosome protection, preserving fertility rate. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2016.02.001
    Effects of kinetin supplementation on the post-thaw motility, viability, and structural integrity of dog sperm. Qamar Ahmad Yar,Fang Xun,Bang Seonggyu,Kim Min Jung,Cho Jongki Cryobiology Oxidative stress is one of the major issues associated with cryopreservation because it causes a marked reduction in the post-thaw quality of semen. This study investigated the ability of kinetin to preserve the structural and functional integrity of dog sperm during cryopreservation. Pooled ejaculates were divided into 5 equal aliquots, diluted with buffer 2 supplemented with different concentrations of kinetin (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μM), and finally cryopreserved. The optimal concentration of kinetin was 50 μM based on the significantly improved (P < 0.05) motion characteristics and viability of post-thaw sperm samples. Moreover, kinetin-supplemented samples exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) sperm counts with the intact plasma membrane, normal acrosomes, mitochondria, and chromatin than control. The beneficial effects of kinetin were also reflected by the significant increase in the expression levels of anti-apoptotic (B-cell lymphoma, BCL2) and protamine-related genes (protamine 2, PRM2; protamine 3, PRM3), and decrease in the expression of pro-apoptotic (BCL2-associated X, BAX) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-modulating genes (ROS modulator 1, ROMO1) in kinetin-supplemented sperm samples than in control. The results demonstrated that supplementation of buffer 2 with 50 μM kinetin is ideal for reducing the magnitude of oxidative damage during semen cryoprocessing and improving the post-thaw quality of dog semen. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2020.05.015
    Cryopreservation of dog semen: a review. England G C Journal of reproduction and fertility. Supplement Success with artificial insemination of frozen dog semen has been limited. The major problems are associated with identifying the time of optimal fertility for insemination of the bitch, achieving intrauterine deposition of spermatozoa, the variation in post-thaw semen quality between individual dogs and poor spermatozoal survival after freeze-thawing. Many of these problems have been investigated and, to some extent, overcome; however, poor post-thaw spermatozoal longevity remains a problem and results from the lack of ordered logical studies of cryopreservation. The purpose of this paper is to review studies of dog spermatozoal preservation and insemination and to highlight those areas of cryopreservation that have been neglected.
    Effects of taurine and hypotaurine supplementation and ionophore concentrations on post-thaw acrosome reaction of dog spermatozoa. Martins-Bessa A,Rocha A,Mayenco-Aguirre A Theriogenology The aim of this work was to study of the effect of the amino acids (AA) taurine (T) and hypotaurine (H) and of different calcium ionophore concentrations on the ability of capacitated frozen-thawed dog sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR). Fifteen ejaculates grouped into five pools were used. Sperm was frozen at a concentration of 80x10(6)sperm cells/mL in the Uppsala Equex extender (UE) supplemented with 25, 50 and 75mM of either AA. The UE extender without T or H was used as control. After thawing, sperm was capacitated with Canine Capacitation Medium for 20min. Sperm was then challenged with calcium ionophore A23178 at 0, 2.5 and 10microM concentration and evaluated for integrity of plasma and acrosome membranes after 5, 15 and 30min of incubation, utilizing PI/Fitc-PNA fluorescent staining and flow cytometry. Sperm cryopreserved in UE supplemented with 50mM T (UE 50T) had higher AR rates than sperm cryopreserved with UE 75T, UE 25H and UE 50H, but AR rates were similar to semen frozen with the control extender. Challenges with 2.5 and 10microM/L of calcium ionophore increased AR in frozen-thawed sperm incubated for 5, 15 and 30min. The combination of calcium ionophore concentration and incubation time resulting in the highest AR rate was 10microM and 15min. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.07.006
    Long-term preservation of chilled canine semen: effect of commercial and laboratory prepared extenders. Iguer-ouada M,Verstegen J P Theriogenology The present study was conducted to evaluate chilled semen conservation over time in 3 commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extenders, including a new Tris-glucose extender. The beneficial effect of adding egg yolk to these media was also analyzed. The effects of these extenders on motility and acrosome reaction were characterized objectively using a computer-aided semen analyzer and the chlortetracycline staining, respectively. No significant differences were observed when comparing the different commercial extenders without egg yolk, but addition of egg yolk improved all motility parameters significantly (preservation of 50% of motility was observed at 3.2+/-1, 2.9+/-0.5, 2.3+/-0.5, 8.5+/-0.2, 5.4+/-1.1, 5.2+/-0.4 d, for Biladyl, green extender and fresh-phos extenders without and with egg yolk, respectively). Motility parameters were best preserved in egg yolk supplemented Biladyl extender with a mean percentage of 86.3+/-10.5 motile spermatozoa after 7 d at 4 degrees C. Efficacy of egg yolk-supplemented commercial extenders on sperm motility at 4 degrees C was (in decreasing order) as follows: Biladyl > green extender > fresh-phos. However, high quality motility and the percentage of motile spermatozoa were highest with some of the laboratory prepared extenders: a 50% conservation rate of motile spermatozoa was observed following the use of supplemented egg yolk extenders. These are classified in decreasing order as follows: Tris-glucose (13+/-1 d) > Tris-fructose (9.7+/-0.6) > EDTA (4.+/-0.6 d) > Tris-bes (3.6+/-1.1 d). A low concentration of motile spermatozoa was still observed in the Tris-glucose egg yolk extender 16 d after collection, clearly demonstrating the importance of the medium and the beneficial effect of egg yolk on sperm motility of 4 degrees C chilled semen. Similar effects of extender were observed for acrosome reactions. Egg yolk clearly had a protective effect reducing acrosome reactions significantly in all media tested as follows: the highest acrosome losses were observed in the fresh-phos and EDTA extenders without egg yolk; the lowest rate was observed with Tris-glucose supplemented egg yolk extender. In conclusion, at 4 degrees C, egg yolk extender best-protected sperm motility parameters. Differences in osmolarity between the extenders in terms of substrate related to sperm metabolic activity may explain the optimal results obtained using egg yolk-supplemented Tris-glucose extender, which preserved motility and acrosome integrity in chilled dog semen. These results indicated that good quality dog spermatozoa could be preserved for up to 10 d.
    Differences among dogs in response of their spermatozoa to cryopreservation using various cooling and warming rates. Yu I,Songsasen N,Godke R A,Leibo S P Cryobiology Spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymides of 16 dogs of various breeds were suspended in an isotonic salt solution (DIMI medium) containing 0.6 M glycerol, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and their "survival" was measured after thawing. In the first experimental series, duplicate samples of spermatozoa from each of 11 dogs were cooled at rates of 0.5, 3, 11, 58, or 209 degrees C/min, stored in liquid nitrogen, and the frozen samples warmed at approximately 830 or at 33 degrees C/min. Sperm "survival" was judged by microscopic assessments of motility and of membrane integrity, the latter as assayed with Fertilight, a double fluorescent stain. Motility of frozen spermatozoa that were thawed rapidly, averaged for 11 dogs, was low at low rates, increased to a maximum at 11 degrees C/min, and then decreased significantly at higher rates (P<0.01). This inverted V-shaped curve was also observed with slow thawing, although the apparent optimum cooling rate ranged from 3 to 11 degrees C/min. The integrity of sperm plasma membranes showed a similar dependence on cooling rate, although the percentages of spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes were higher than the percentages of motile spermatozoa. Motility of spermatozoa, as a function of cooling rate, varied considerably from male to male (P<0.01), whereas membrane integrity was much more consistent among the 11 dogs. In the second experimental series with spermatozoa from 5 dogs, motility of spermatozoa frozen at 0.5 degrees C/min and warmed at 3.6, 33, 140, or 830 degrees C/min also exhibited an inverted V-shaped survival curve, in this case as a function of warming rate. In summary, high survival of frozen-thawed canine epididymal spermatozoa depended on both cooling and warming rates, but spermatozoa from each dog exhibited their own sensitivity to cooling and warming rates. 10.1016/S0011-2240(02)00005-6
    Automated sperm morphometry and morphology analysis of canine semen by the Hamilton-Thorne analyser. Rijsselaere Tom,Van Soom Ann,Hoflack Geert,Maes Dominiek,de Kruif Aart Theriogenology Computer-assisted sperm morphometry has the potential to eliminate several drawbacks inherent to the current methods of sperm morphology evaluation, and allows for the identification of subtle sperm characteristics which cannot be detected by visual evaluation. In the present study, the Metrix Oval Head Morphology software implemented in the Hamilton-Thorne CEROS (version 12.1; HTR 12.1 Metrix) computer-aided semen analyser was evaluated for canine sperm morphometry and morphology analysis. Comparison of sperm morphometric measurements of 200 spermatozoa from pooled semen samples (n = 4) at 40x and 60x demonstrated a more accurate identification of the sperm head boundaries at a magnification level 60x. Dilution of pooled semen samples (n = 4) to a sperm concentration of 50 x 10(6) ml(-1) allowed for a correct evaluation of the sperm cell dimensions whereas 100 x 10(6) and 200 x 10(6) ml(-1) resulted in a higher percentage of rejected spermatozoa due to overlapping. No differences in morphometric dimensions were found when 100 or 200 spermatozoa were evaluated for each of 15 dogs. The mean morphometric parameters of canine spermatozoa, based on the fresh ejaculates of 23 dogs, were: major 6.65 +/- 0.20 microm; minor 3.88 +/- 0.14 microm; area 20.66 +/- 1.04 microm2; elongation 58.64 +/- 2.58 %; perimeter 17.57 +/- 0.43 microm and tail length 48.93 +/- 10.16 microm. Large variations in morphometric dimensions were detected among individual dogs. After cryopreservation, significantly lower morphometric dimensions were obtained for all the evaluated sperm samples (n = 12). Finally, a correlation of 0.82 (P < 0.05) was established for the percentage of normal spermatozoa assessed by subjective evaluation and by the HTR 12.1 Metrix (n = 39 semen samples). In conclusion, dilution of the semen samples to approximately 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and an objective lens magnification of 60x, analysing at least 100 spermatozoa, are the technical settings proposed to obtain reliable and objective sperm morphometric measurements by the HTR 12.1 Metrix in canine. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.01.005
    Spermatozoa from the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) display typical canid hyper-sensitivity to osmotic and freezing-induced injury, but respond favorably to dimethyl sulfoxide. Johnson Amy E M,Freeman Elizabeth W,Wildt David E,Songsasen Nucharin Cryobiology We assessed the influences of medium osmolality, cryoprotectant and cooling and warming rate on maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) spermatozoa. Ejaculates were exposed to Ham's F10 medium (isotonic control) or to this medium plus NaCl (350-1000mOsm), sucrose (369 and 479mOsm), 1M glycerol (1086mOsm) or dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO, 1151mOsm) for 10 min. Each sample then was diluted back into Ham's medium and assessed for sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. Although glycerol and Me2SO had no influence (P>0.05), NaCl and sucrose solutions affected sperm motility (P<0.05), but not membrane integrity. Motility of sperm exposed to <600mOsm NaCl or sucrose was less (P<0.05) than fresh ejaculate, but comparable (P>0.05) to the control. As osmolality of the NaCl solution increased, motility decreased to <5%. In a separate study, ejaculates were diluted in Test Yolk Buffer containing 1M glycerol or Me2SO and cooled from 5°C to -120°C at -57.8°C, -124.2°C or -67.0°C/min, frozen in LN2, thawed in a water bath for 30s at 37°C or 10s at 50°C, and then assessed for motility, plasma- and acrosomal membrane integrity. Cryopreservation markedly (P<0.05) reduced sperm motility by 70% compared to fresh samples. Higher (P<0.05) post-thaw motility (20.0±1.9% versus 13.5±2.1%) and membrane integrity (51.2±1.7% versus 41.5±2.2%) were observed in samples cryopreserved in Me2SO than in glycerol. Cooling rates influenced survival of sperm cryopreserved in glycerol with -57.8°C/min being advantageous (P<0.05). The findings demonstrate that although maned wolf spermatozoa are similar to domestic dog sperm in their sensitivity to osmotic-induced motility damage, the plasma membranes tolerate dehydration, and the cells respond favorably to Me2SO as a cryoprotectant. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.04.004
    Acrosin release and acrosin activity during incubation in capacitating media using fresh and frozen-thawed dog sperm. de los Reyes Mónica,Palomino Jaime,Martínez Víctor,Aretio Carolina,Gutiérrez Michel Biological research We evaluated the effect of time and temperature on acrosin release from the acrosomal cap and the activity of this enzyme during in vitro capacitation in fresh and frozen/thawed dog sperm. Sperm-rich fractions of six ejaculates from three dogs were processed as fresh and frozen samples. Each sperm sample was incubated in canine capacitation medium (CCM) for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h at 20°C and at 37°C. After incubation, the samples were assessed by the indirect immunofluorescent staining technique. The probability of having unlabeled sperm (PUS), indicating acrosin loss, was modelled by a binomial distribution using logistic regression. There was a linear relationship between PUS and time at both temperatures (p<0.001); however, a major percentage of unlabeled sperm was observed in frozen/thawed samples soon after incubation, indicating that the release of acrosin was affected by capacitation time, mainly in frozen samples. Temperature influenced acrosin release only in cryopreserved sperm (p<0.05). Acrosin activity was measured by digestion halos on slides coated with gelatin-substrate film during each time period; a significant increase in the number of large halos was observed in fresh samples throughout the experiment, whereas frozen/thawed sperm showed a decreased rate of halo diameters during culture. Thus, there appears to differences between fresh and frozen dog sperm in terms of acrosin release and the level of acrosin activity in the course of in vitro capacitation. /S0716-97602011000200005
    Metformin Improves Quality of Post-Thaw Canine Semen. Grandhaye Jérémy,Partyka Agnieszka,Ligocka Zuzanna,Dudek Agata,Niżański Wojciech,Jeanpierre Eric,Estienne Anthony,Froment Pascal Animals : an open access journal from MDPI Sperm cryopreservation is an assisted reproductive technique routinely used in canine species for genetic conservation. However, during cryopreservation, the DNA damages are still elevated, limiting the fertilization rate. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether supplementation of canine semen extender with a molecule limiting the metabolic activities can improve the quality of frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa. We used metformin, known to limit the mitochondrial respiratory and limit the oxidative stress. Before and during the freezing procedure, metformin (50µM and 500µM) has been added to the extender. After thawing, sperm exposed to metformin conserved the same viability without alteration in the membrane integrity or acrosome reaction. Interestingly, 50µM metformin improved the sperm motility in comparison to the control, subsequently increasing mitochondrial activity and NAD content. In addition, the oxidative stress level was reduced in sperm treated with metformin improving the sperm quality as measured by a different molecular marker. In conclusion, we have shown that metformin is able to improve the quality of frozen-thawed dog semen when it is used during the cryopreservative procedure. 10.3390/ani10020287
    Detection of calcium ionophore induced membrane changes in dog sperm as a simple method to predict the cryopreservability of dog semen. Szász F,Sirivaidyapong S,Cheng F P,Voorhout W F,Marks A,Colenbrander B,Solti And L,Gadella B M Molecular reproduction and development The sensitivity of dog sperm cells for extracellular Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-ionophore challenge was compared to the detrimental effects of an optimized freeze/thawing protocol. Three sperm-rich fractions of ejaculates from 9 dogs were obtained, and one aliquot of each ejaculate was washed in a modified Tyrode's medium (HBT containing 0.1 mM Ca(2+)), without (control sample) and with 2.5 microM Ca(2+)-ionophore (induced sample) and incubated for 60 min at 38 degrees C in humidified atmosphere. Another aliquot from the same semen fractions was diluted, washed in a Tris buffer, and packed into 0.5-ml straws with a Tris buffer containing 7.5 vol % glycerol. The samples were stored for 1 week in liquid nitrogen after a computer-driven three-step freeze protocol and subsequently thawed for 50 sec in a 37 degrees C water bath and reconstituted into HBT. The acrosome integrity was determined using fluorescein-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA-FITC) as an acrosomal marker, while the vitality of the sperm cells was simultaneously assessed with the membrane impermeable DNA supravital stain ethidium homodimer 1 (EthD-1) using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The motility of frozen/thawed sperm samples was evaluated by microscopic as well as computerized motility analyses. Remarkably, the percentage sperm cells that underwent acrosome reactions induced by Ca(2+)-ionophore correlated very positively (r = 0.93) with the amount of acrosome damage observed in cryopreserved sperm samples. Furthermore, the degree of cellular damage induced by Ca(2+)-ionophore treatment correlated very negatively (r = -0.99) with the relative amount of sperm cells that remained motile after cryopreservation. Such clear correlations between Ca(2+)-ionophore induced acrosome reaction and motility parameters for frozen/thawed dog sperm cells were not found, suggesting that the generation of acrosome leakage and sperm immotility are two independent detrimental processes occurring during cryopreservation. From these results it can be concluded that Ca(2+)-ionophore treatment followed by simultaneous determination PNA-FITC and EthD-1 staining can be used to predict the cryopreservability of ejaculates from individual dogs used as donors. 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2795(200003)55:3<289::AID-MRD7>3.0.CO;2-K
    Improved Post-Thaw Quality of Canine Semen after Treatment with Exosomes from Conditioned Medium of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Qamar Ahmad Yar,Fang Xun,Kim Min Jung,Cho Jongki Animals : an open access journal from MDPI Freezing decreases sperm quality, ultimately affecting fertilizing ability. The repair of freeze-damaged sperm is considered crucial for improving post-thaw viability and fertility. We investigated the effects of exosomes derived from canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on dog sperm structure and function during cryopreservation. The pooled ejaculate was diluted with buffer, without (Control), or with exosomal proteins (25, 50, or 100 µg/mL). Using fresh semen, the determined optimal exosomal protein concentration was 50 µg/mL (Group 2) which was used in further experiments. Post-thaw sperm treated with exosomes were superior to control () in terms of motility (56.8 ± 0.3% vs. 47.2 ± 0.3%), live sperm percentage (55.9 ± 0.4% vs. 45.4 ± 0.4%), membrane integrity (55.6 ± 0.5% vs. 47.8 ± 0.3%), and acrosome integrity (60.4 ± 1.1% vs. 48.6 ± 0.4%). Moreover, expression of genes related to the repair of the plasma membrane (, , and ), and chromatin material (, and ) was statistically higher in exosome-treated sperm than control, but the expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species modulator 1 gene was significantly higher in control. Therefore, exosomal treatment may improve the quality of post-thaw dog semen through initiating damaged sperm repair and decreasing reactive oxygen species production. 10.3390/ani9110865
    Myoinositol Supplementation of Freezing Medium Improves the Quality-Related Parameters of Dog Sperm. Qamar Ahmad Yar,Fang Xun,Kim Min Jung,Cho Jongki Animals : an open access journal from MDPI Oxidative stress during freeze-thaw procedures results in reduced semen fertility. A decrease in free radical levels can improve the post-thaw sperm quality. We examined the effects of myoinositol supplementation in freezing medium on the structure and function of cryopreserved dog sperm. Pooled ejaculates were diluted with buffer without or with myoinositol (1 or 2 mg/mL). Analysis of fresh semen revealed that the optimal concentration of myoinositol was 1 mg/mL, and this concentration was used in further experiments. Post-thaw semen quality in the myoinositol-supplemented group was superior ( 0.05) compared with that in the control group in terms of motility (57.9 ± 0.4% vs. 47.8 ± 0.2%), sperm viability (57.5 ± 0.5% vs. 44.6 ± 0.6%), intact plasma membrane (56.6 ± 0.4% vs. 46.2 ± 0.6%), and acrosome membrane (59.3 ± 0.5% vs. 51.8 ± 0.5%). In addition, sperm in the myoinositol-supplemented group showed a significantly lower expression of pro-apoptotic () and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator () genes but higher expression of anti-apoptotic (), and protamine-related ( and ) genes compared with that in the control group. Therefore, myoinositol supplementation before freezing can protect against oxidative stress and improve post-thaw dog sperm quality. 10.3390/ani9121038
    Intravaginal insemination of bitches with fresh and frozen-thawed semen with addition of prostatic fluid: use of an infusion pipette and the Osiris catheter. Nizański Wojciech Theriogenology One hundred fifty-two bitches of seven breeds were vaginally inseminated with fresh or frozen-thawed semen of 10 stud dogs of respective breeds. The semen was supplemented with prostatic fluid before insemination. In experiment 1 bitches of each breed were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, consisting of 29 females (group 1), 33 females (group 2) and 32 females (group 3). In group 1 bitches were inseminated into vagina with fresh semen using a bovine infusion pipette. In group 2 bitches were inseminated into vagina with fresh semen using the Osiris catheter. In group 3 bitches were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen with the Osiris catheter. The number of sperms in each insemination dose was adjusted to 300 x 10(6). In experiment two bitches were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, consisting of 30 females (group A) and 28 females (group B). In group A bitches were inseminated with fresh semen, whereas in group B with frozen-thawed semen. Osiris catheter was used in both groups. The total number of sperms was adjusted to provide 250 x 10(6) of progressively motile spermatozoa in each insemination dose. In experiment 1 the pregnancy rates/whelping rates were 86.2/82.8%, 81.8/81.8% and 59.4/59.4% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The differences between group 1 and 3 were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The litter sizes at birth/litter sizes at weaning were 5.8+/-2.3/5.4+/-2.0, 6.3+/-1.4/5.7+/-1.0 and 3.9+/-1.2/3.5+/-1.5 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The litter size at birth and at weaning was reduced (p < 0.05) when frozen-thawed semen was used for insemination (group 3). There were not significant (p > 0.05) differences in the litter size between groups 1 and 2. In experiment 2 pregnancy rates/whelping rates and litter sizes at birth/litter sizes at weaning were 86.7/86.7%, 60.7/57.1% (p < 0.05) and 6.1+/-1.6/5.7+/-1.7, 4.0+/-1.4/3.8+/-1.4 (p < 0.05) in groups A and B, respectively. This study shows that results of AI with a fresh semen using a bovine infusion pipette and the Osiris catheter are equivalent. The results of the use of the Osiris catheter for vaginal insemination of frozen-thawed dog semen extended with prostatic fluid after thawing are not encouraging. The pregnancy rate, whelping rate and litter size are reduced when frozen-thawed, prostatic fluid-supplemented semen is vaginally deposited using the Osiris catheter. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.01.001
    Cryopreservation of microencapsulated canine sperm. Shah Shambhu,Otsuki Tsubasa,Fujimura Chika,Yamamoto Naoki,Yamashita Yasuhisa,Higaki Shogo,Hishinuma Mitsugu Theriogenology The objective was to develop a method for cryopreserving microencapsulated canine sperm. Pooled ejaculates from three beagle dogs were extended in egg yolk tris extender and encapsulated using alginate and poly-L-lysine at room temperature. The microcapsules were cooled at 4 °C, immersed in pre-cooled extender (equivalent in volume to the microcapsules) to reach final concentration of 7% (v/v) glycerol and 0.75% (v/v) Equex STM paste, and equilibrated for 5, 30 and 60 min at 4 °C. Thereafter, microcapsules were loaded into 0.5 mL plastic straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, characteristics of microencapsulated canine sperm were evaluated after glycerol addition at 4 °C. Glycerol exposure for 5, 30 and 60 min did not significantly affect progressive motility, viability, or acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm compared with pre-cooled unencapsulated sperm (control). In Experiment 2, characteristics of frozen-thawed canine microencapsulated sperm were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h of culture at 38.5 °C. Pre-freeze glycerol exposure for 5, 30, and 60 min at 4 °C did not influence post-thaw quality in unencapsulated sperm. Post-thaw motility and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm decreased more than those of unencapsulated sperm (P < 0.05) following glycerol exposure for 5 min. However, motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of microencapsulated sperm after 30 and 60 min glycerol exposure were higher than unencapsulated sperm cultured for 6 or 9 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, since microencapsulated canine sperm were successfully cryopreserved, this could be a viable alternative to convention sperm cryopreservation in this species. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.10.008
    Theoretical aspects of canine cryopreserved semen evaluation. Eilts Bruce E Theriogenology Evaluation of canine cryopreserved semen has the ultimate goal of determining if an individual frozen ejaculate will have acceptable fertility. This is difficult in that there is no accepted normal fertility for the dog. The fertility of the female also plays a crucial role in estimating the fertility of the male. Poor female fertility can make a fertile male appear less fertile. Variability of animals, breeding technique, breeding timing, and number of cells inseminated make comparisons in canine fertility difficult to truly measure. Many more animals are needed to provide meaningful statistical results than are usually used. Several tests, including motility in bright field and phase contrast microscopy, computer analysis of motility, sperm morphology, sperm membrane integrity, capacitation and sperm function tests have been investigated to predict fertility, however few of these tests have actually been correlated with fertility. More work is needed to create one or more tests that accurately predict fertility of cryopreserved canine semen. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.05.017
    Freeze-dried dog sperm: Dynamics of DNA integrity. Olaciregui M,Luño V,Gonzalez N,De Blas I,Gil L Cryobiology Freeze-drying (FD) has been proposed as an alternative method to preserve spermatozoa. During the FD procedure, sperm DNA might become damaged by both freezing and drying stresses caused by the endonucleases, the oxidative stress and the storage conditions. We examined the DNA integrity of dog sperm freeze-dried with two kinds of chelating agents in FD buffers and storage at two different temperatures. Ejaculated sperm from four dogs were suspended in basic medium (10 mM Tris-HCl buffer+50 mM NaCl) supplemented with 50 mM EGTA or with 50 mM EDTA and then freeze-dried. Sperm samples were stored at 4°C as room temperature, and the analysis of DNA damage was performed after a month and 5 months of storage using a Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test. We found four different sperm populations according to the size of the halos around the sperm head: (1) absent halo, (2) <6 μm, (3) 6-10 μm, (4) >10 μm. All of them coexisted in each freeze-dried dog semen samples and differed significantly among different treatments. The highest percentage of spermatozoa with halo >10 μm was obtained when the semen samples were freeze-dried in EDTA medium and stored at room temperature for five months. Results suggested that both, the kind of chelating agent as well as storage temperature and period, influenced DNA integrity of freeze-dried dog sperm. 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.08.001
    Artificial insemination with frozen semen in dogs: a retrospective study of 10 years using a non-surgical approach. Thomassen R,Sanson G,Krogenaes A,Fougner J A,Berg K Andersen,Farstad W Theriogenology From 1994 to 2003, a total of 526 bitches of 99 different breeds were artificially inseminated in 685 estrus cycles with domestic (n = 353) or imported (n = 332) frozen-thawed semen from 368 males. The overall whelping rate was 73.1% and mean (+/- S.E.M.) litter size 5.7 +/- 0.1 pups. The whelping rate was higher after intrauterine insemination (75.0%; n = 665) than after intravaginal insemination (10.0%, n = 20; P < 0.05). Insemination at the optimal time resulted in a higher whelping rate (78%, n = 559; P < 0.01) and larger litter size (5.8 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05) than inseminations performed late or too late (55.7% and 4.5 +/- 0.5, n = 61). Two inseminations (n = 384) yielded a higher whelping rate (P < 0.05) and mean litter size (P < 0.01) than one insemination (n = 241), 78.1% and 6.0 +/- 0.2 and 70.5% and 5.1 +/- 0.2, respectively. For inseminations performed at the optimal time, however, the whelping rate was not significantly different for bitches inseminated twice (79.3%, n = 358) versus once (76.8%, n = 168), but the litter size was larger (6.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.3 +/- 0.3). Semen classified as of poor quality (progressive motility < 50% or percentage abnormal sperm > 20%) resulted in a lower whelping rate (P < 0.01) than semen classified as of good quality (progressive motility > or = 50% and percentage abnormal sperm < or = 20%), 61 and 77%, respectively. Small breeds (n = 50) had a smaller litter size (3.9 +/- 0.3; P < 0.01) than larger breeds (medium [5.7 +/- 0.3, n = 94], large [5.9 +/- 0.2, n = 295] or giant breeds [6.1 +/- 0.5, n = 62] [P < 0.01]). Bitches older than 6 years had a lower whelping rate (68.2%) than younger ones (77.0%; P < 0.05). The duration of pregnancy was longer (P < 0.01) for bitches with a litter size of < 3 pups (61.7 +/- 0. 4 days, n = 30) than for bitches with larger litters (60.5 +/- 0.1 days, n = 177). These results show the potential of transcervical intrauterine insemination for routine artificial insemination in dogs. The results with frozen semen inseminations were optimised by inseminating bitches < or = 6 years old 2 and 3 days after ovulation with semen of good quality from males < or = 8 years old. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.01.022
    Effect of post-thaw dilution with autologous prostatic fluid on dog semen motility and sperm acrosome status. Rota Ada,Milani Chiara,Romagnoli Stefano Theriogenology The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-thaw dilution with autologous prostatic fluid on motility parameters, longevity and acrosome status of frozen-thawed dog spermatozoa. After semen collection, seminal plasma was separated by centrifugation and stored frozen until use. Sperm pellets were diluted in two steps with an egg yolk-Tris extender to a final concentration of 5% glycerol and 0.5% Equex STM Paste. After thawing, semen was diluted 1:2 either with Tris buffer or with the autologous prostatic fluid. Motility was evaluated using a phase contrast microscope and a computer-assisted motility analyser system immediately after thawing and at hourly intervals up for 4h at 38 degrees C. The status of acrosomes was assessed with Spermac stain at thawing and after 2 h of incubation. Motility and straight line velocity were initially higher in prostatic fluid-diluted samples (0 h and 0 and 1h, respectively), but decreased to values similar to those of Tris-diluted samples in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, both the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement were lower in prostatic fluid-diluted samples (1 and 3 h and 0, 1 and 3 h, respectively). The dilution did not have any significant effect on the percentage of acrosome-intact spermatozoa at either thawing or after 2 h. The pattern of motility of prostatic fluid-diluted samples suggests a reduction in hyperactivated motility with time, even though prostatic fluid neither prolonged spermatozoa longevity nor had any effect on the status of spermatozoa acrosomes. 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2006.09.001
    Cryopreservation of canine embryos. Abe Yasuyuki,Suwa Yoshinori,Asano Tomoyoshi,Ueta Yoshiko Yanagimoto,Kobayashi Nanae,Ohshima Natsumi,Shirasuna Saori,Abdel-Ghani Mohammed Ali,Oi Maya,Kobayashi Yoshiyasu,Miyoshi Masafumi,Miyahara Kazuro,Suzuki Hiroshi Biology of reproduction The assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, and cryopreservation of gametes have contributed considerably to the development of biomedical sciences in addition to improving infertility treatments in humans as well as the breeding of domestic animals. However, ARTs used in canine species have strictly limited utility when compared with other mammalian species, including humans. Although successful somatic cell cloning has been reported, artificial insemination by frozen semen to date is only available for the improved breeding and reproduction for companion and working dogs as well as guide dogs for the blind. We describe here the successful cryopreservation of embryos and subsequent embryo transfer in dogs. Canine embryos were collected from excised reproductive organs after artificial insemination and subsequently cryopreserved by a vitrification method. When the 4-cell to morula stage of cryopreserved embryos were nonsurgically transferred into the uteri of nine recipient bitches using a cystoscope, five recipients became pregnant and four of them delivered a total of seven pups. The cryopreservation of embryos in canine species will facilitate the transportation and storage of genetic materials and will aid in the elimination of vertically transmitted diseases in dogs. In addition, this technique will contribute to the improved breeding of companion and working dogs such as guide dogs, drug-detecting dogs, and quarantine dogs. 10.1095/biolreprod.110.087312
    Improved viability and fertility of frozen-thawed dog sperm using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Qamar Ahmad Yar,Fang Xun,Kim Min Jung,Cho JongKi Scientific reports Cryopreservation procedures negatively affect the quality traits of sperm, causing certain changes at structural and molecular levels due to thermal, mechanical, osmotic, and oxidative damage. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) for providing protection to the dog sperm against cryo-damage. Canine Ad-MSCs were selected on the basis of the significantly higher gene expression for different proteins actively involved in the cell repair including annexin 1 (ANX1), histone H3 (H3) and high mobility group B (HMGB) protein compared to skin fibroblasts. Semen was collected from four healthy dogs by digital manipulation. The washed pooled ejaculates were diluted with buffer 2 (extender) supplemented without Ad-MSCs (Control), with 2.5 × 10 Ad-MSCs/mL (Group 1) or with 5 × 10 Ad-MSCs/mL (Group 2). Group 1 exhibited significantly higher post-thaw motility, live sperm, intact plasma membrane and normal acrosomes than the other groups. Additionally, Group 1 showed significantly higher expression levels of genes related to the repair of membranes (ANX1, dysferlin; DYSF, and fibronectin; FN1) and chromatin material (H3 and HMGB). Protein expression of ANX1, H 3, and FN1 was also statistically more in Group 1 than in Control. The results confirm that canine Ad-MSCs can effectively preserve the quality of frozen-thawed sperm by a reduction in cryoinjury. At an appropriate concentration, Ad-MSCs significantly improve the quality of post-thaw dog sperm. 10.1038/s41598-020-61803-8
    Blood Transfusions in Dogs and Cats Receiving Hemodialysis: 230 Cases (June 1997-September 2012). Langston C,Cook A,Eatroff A,Mitelberg E,Chalhoub S Journal of veterinary internal medicine BACKGROUND:Multiple factors exist that contribute to anemia in dogs and cats receiving hemodialysis, can necessitate transfusion. OBJECTIVES:To describe blood product usage in dogs and cats with acute and chronic kidney disease that were treated with intermittent hemodialysis to determine risk factors associated with the requirement for blood product transfusion. ANIMALS:83 cats and 147 dogs undergoing renal replacement therapy at the Animal Medical Center for acute or chronic kidney disease. METHODS:Retrospective medical record review of all dogs and cats receiving renal replacement therapy for kidney disease, from June 1997 through September 2012. RESULTS:Blood products (whole blood, packed RBCs, or stromal-free hemoglobin) were administered to 87% of cats and 32% of dogs. The number of dialysis treatments was associated with the requirement for transfusion in cats (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.13, 4.32), but not in dogs (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95, 1.03). Administration of a blood product was associated with a higher likelihood of death in dogs (OR 3.198, 95% CI 1.352, 7.565; P = .0098), but not in cats (OR 1.527, 95% CI 0.5404, 4.317, P = .2). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:Veterinary hospitals with a hemodialysis unit should have reliable and rapid access to safe blood products in order to meet the needs of dogs and cats receiving dialysis. 10.1111/jvim.14658