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    Insights into Hydrophobic Ion Pairing from Molecular Simulation and Experiment. Kozuch Daniel J,Ristroph Kurt,Prud'homme Robert K,Debenedetti Pablo G ACS nano Hydrophobic ion pairing (HIP) is the process by which a charged hydrophilic molecule of interest is electrostatically coupled with an oppositely charged hydrophobic counterion to produce a complex with greater hydrophobicity than the original molecule. This process is of interest in drug delivery, but a molecular-based mechanistic understanding is still incomplete. In this work, we used molecular simulation and experiment to study a model system of Polymyxin B (drug) and oleic acid (hydrophobic counterion). Validation of the simulation system was performed by assessing HIP complex stability under various solvent conditions, and the results were found to be in good agreement with experiment. The effects of solvent composition, particle size, and charge ratio on the observed hydrophobicity, morphology, and stability were studied through the simulation of small HIP clusters. Microsecond simulation of a larger system was then used to characterize the kinetics of assembly. Particle formation over longer length (μm) and time scales (ms) was studied experimentally via flash nanoprecipitation, and the formation of electrostatically stabilized nanoparticles was observed. These results provide a mechanistic and morphological picture of the HIP event and will help inform the development of future formulations that utilize HIP. 10.1021/acsnano.0c01835
    Reaction-Based Fluorescent Probes for the Detection and Imaging of Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Species. Wu Luling,Sedgwick Adam C,Sun Xiaolong,Bull Steven D,He Xiao-Peng,James Tony D Accounts of chemical research This Account describes a range of strategies for the development of fluorescent probes for detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive (redox-active) sulfur species (RSS). Many ROS/RNS have been implicated in pathological processes such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and aging, while many RSS play important roles in maintaining redox homeostasis, serving as antioxidants and acting as free radical scavengers. Fluorescence-based systems have emerged as one of the best ways to monitor the concentrations and locations of these often very short lived species. Because of the high levels of sensitivity and in particular their ability to be used for temporal and spatial sampling for in vivo imaging applications. As a direct result, there has been a huge surge in the development of fluorescent probes for sensitive and selective detection of ROS, RNS, and RSS within cellular environments. However, cellular environments are extremely complex, often with more than one species involved in a given biochemical process. As a result, there has been a rise in the development of dual-responsive fluorescent probes (AND-logic probes) that can monitor the presence of more than one species in a biological environment. Our aim with this Account is to introduce the fluorescent probes that we have developed for in vitro and in vivo measurement of ROS, RNS, and RSS. Fluorescence-based sensing mechanisms used in the construction of the probes include photoinduced electron transfer, intramolecular charge transfer, excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. In particular, probes for hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, superoxide, peroxynitrite, glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine, and hydrogen sulfide are discussed. In addition, we describe the development of AND-logic-based systems capable of detecting two species, such as peroxynitrite and glutathione. One of the most interesting advances contained in this Account is our extension of indicator displacement assays (IDAs) to reaction-based indicator displacement assays (RIAs). In an IDA system, an indicator is allowed to bind reversibly to a receptor. Then a competitive analyte is introduced into the system, resulting in displacement of the indicator from the host, which in turn modulates the optical signal. With an RIA-based system, the indicator is cleaved from a preformed receptor-indicator complex rather than being displaced by the analyte. Nevertheless, without a doubt the most significant result contained in this Account is the use of an ESIPT-based probe for the simultaneous sensing of fibrous proteins/peptides AND environmental ROS/RNS. 10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00302
    Photochromic switching of excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) fluorescence: a unique route to high-contrast memory switching and nondestructive readout. Lim Seon-Jeong,Seo Jangwon,Park Soo Young Journal of the American Chemical Society Aiming at the high-contrast photochromic switching of fluorescence emission and its perfect nondestructive readout, a polymer film highly loaded with a specific photochromic compound, 1,2-bis(2'-methyl-5'-phenyl-3'-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene (BP-BTE), and an excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT)-active compound, 2,5-bis(5'-tert-butyl-benzooxazol-2'-yl)hydroquinone (DHBO), was employed in this work. The special class of photochrome, BP-BTE, has negligible absorbance at 415 nm both in the open form and in the 365 nm photostationary state (PSS), and the ESIPT fluorophore, DHBO, emits large Stokes' shifted (175 nm; lambda(max)(abs) = 415 nm, lambda(max)(em) = 590 nm) and enhanced fluorescence (Phi(F)(powder) = 10%, Phi(F)(soln) = 2%). Bistability, high-contrast switching (on/off fluorescence switching ratio >290), nondestructive readout (over 125000 shots), and erasability were all together accomplished in this novel recording medium. 10.1021/ja0637604
    De Novo Design of Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer Emitters via a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel. Wu Kailong,Zhang Tao,Wang Zian,Wang Lian,Zhan Lisi,Gong Shaolong,Zhong Cheng,Lu Zheng-Hong,Zhang Song,Yang Chuluo Journal of the American Chemical Society Developing excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) emitters with high photoluminescence quantum yields (Φs) and long fluorescence lifetimes in solid state remains a formidable challenge. In this study, we integrated the molecular design tactics of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) into ESIPT molecules with the goals of improving their Φs and increasing their fluorescence lifetimes. Two proof-of-concept molecules, PXZPDO and DMACPDO, were developed by adopting symmetric D-π-A-π-D molecular architectures (where D and A represent donors and acceptors, respectively) featuring electron-donating phenoxazine or a 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine moiety, an ESIPT core β-diketone, and phenylene π-bridges. Both molecules exhibited sole enol-type forms stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds and exhibited a unique and dynamic ESIPT character that was verified by transient absorption analyses. Endowed with distinct TADF features, PXZPDO and DMACPDO showed high Φs of 68% and 86% in the film state, coupled with notable delayed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.33 and 1.94 μs, respectively. Employing these ESIPT emitters successfully achieved maximum external quantum efficiencies (ηs) of 18.8% and 23.9% for yellow and green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), respectively, which represent the state-of-the-art device performances for ESIPT emitters. This study not only opens a new avenue for designing efficient ESIPT emitters with high Φs and long fluorescence lifetimes in solid state but also unlocks the huge potential of ESIPT emitters in realizing high-efficiency OLEDs. 10.1021/jacs.8b04795
    Deciphering the Positional Influence of the Hydroxyl Group in the Cinnamoyl Part of 3-Hydroxy Flavonoids for Structural Modification and Their Interaction with the Protonated and B Form of Calf Thymus DNA Using Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Studies. Pradhan Ankur Bikash,Haque Lucy,Bhuiya Sutanwi,Ganguly Aniruddha,Das Suman The journal of physical chemistry. B Studies on the interaction of naturally occurring flavonoids with different polymorphic forms of nucleic acid are helpful for understanding the molecular aspects of binding mode and providing direction for the use and design of new efficient therapeutic agents. However, much less information is available on the interactions of these compounds with different polymorphic forms of DNA at the molecular level. In this report we investigated the interaction of two widely abundant dietary flavonoids quercetin (Q) and morin (M) with calf thymus (CT) DNA. Spectrophotometric, spectropolarimetric, viscosity measurement, and molecular docking simulation methods are used as tools to delineate the binding mode and probable location of the flavonoids and their effects on the stability and conformation of DNA. It is observed that in the presence of the protonated form of DNA the dual fluorescence of Q and M resulting from the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) is modified significantly. Structural analysis showed Q and M binds weakly to the B form (groove binding) compared to the protonated form of CT DNA (electrostatic interaction). In both cases, Q binds strongly to both forms of DNA compared to M. 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b02827
    Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer to carbon atoms: nonadiabatic surface-hopping dynamics simulations. Xia Shu-Hua,Xie Bin-Bin,Fang Qiu,Cui Ganglong,Thiel Walter Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) between two highly electronegative atoms, for example, oxygen and nitrogen, has been intensely studied experimentally and computationally, whereas there has been much less theoretical work on ESIPT to other atoms such as carbon. We have employed CASSCF, MS-CASPT2, RI-ADC(2), OM2/MRCI, DFT, and TDDFT methods to study the mechanistic photochemistry of 2-phenylphenol, for which such an ESIPT has been observed experimentally. According to static electronic structure calculations, irradiation of 2-phenylphenol populates the bright S1 state, which has a rather flat potential in the Franck-Condon region (with a shallow enol minimum at the CASSCF level) and may undergo an essentially barrierless ESIPT to the more stable S1 keto species. There are two S1/S0 conical intersections that mediate relaxation to the ground state, one in the enol region and one in the keto region, with the latter one substantially lower in energy. After S1 → S0 internal conversion, the transient keto species can return back to the S0 enol structure via reverse ground-state hydrogen transfer in a facile tautomerization. This mechanistic scenario is verified by OM2/MRCI-based fewest-switches surface-hopping simulations that provide detailed dynamic information. In these trajectories, ESIPT is complete within 118 fs; the corresponding S1 excited-state lifetime is computed to be 373 fs in vacuum. Most of the trajectories decay to the ground state via the S1/S0 conical intersection in the keto region (67%), and the remaining ones via the enol region (33%). The combination of static electronic structure computations and nonadiabatic dynamics simulations is expected to be generally useful for understanding the mechanistic photophysics and photochemistry of molecules with intramolecular hydrogen bonds. 10.1039/c5cp00101c
    Exploring the non-covalent binding behaviours of 7-hydroxyflavone and 3-hydroxyflavone with hen egg white lysozyme: Multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking perspectives. Das Sourav,Rohman Mostofa Ataur,Singha Roy Atanu Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology The interactions of bio-active flavonoids, 7-hydroxyflavone (7HF) and 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) have been established using differential spectroscopic techniques along with the help of molecular docking method. The characteristic dual fluorescence of 3HF due to the excited intramolecular state proton transfer (ESIPT) process is altered markedly upon binding with HEWL. Both the flavonoids quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HEWL through static quenching mechanism while the binding affinity of 7HF was found to be greater than 3HF under experimental conditions. The binding constant (K) values were estimated to be in the order of 10 M and decreased with the rise in temperature. The contributions of the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH° and ΔS°) revealed that hydrophobic forces along with hydrogen bonding played a crucial role in the interaction of HEWL with 7HF and 3HF respectively and this finding was aptly supported by the molecular docking studies. The donor (HEWL) to acceptors (7HF and 3HF) binding distances were calculated using the Föster's theory. The phenomena of blue shifting of the emission maxima of the residues indicated the increase in hydrophobicity around the Trp micro-environment upon addition of the flavonoids was observed from synchronous and 3D fluorescence measurements whereas REES study indicated the decrease in mobility of the Trp residues upon addition of the ligands. The CD, FTIR and thermal melting studies indicated the alteration in the structural stability of HEWL on ligand binding and it was found that the % α-helical content decreased on complexation with 7HF and 3HF respectively as compared to native state. The flavonoids were found to inhibit the enzymatic activity of HEWL. The molecular docking results and accessible surface area (ASA) calculations revealed that the flavonoids bind within the active site of HEWL. The negative ΔG° values obtained from experimental and molecular docking studies indicate the spontaneity of the interaction processes. 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.01.021
    Understanding solvent effects on luminescent properties of a triple fluorescent ESIPT compound and application for white light emission. Sun Wenhao,Li Shayu,Hu Rui,Qian Yan,Wang Shuangqing,Yang Guoqiang The journal of physical chemistry. A A triple fluorescent compound, N-salicylidene-3-hydroxy-4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenylamine (SalHBP), was dispersed in solid polymers and was developed as a white-light-emitting source in LED by using it as the first simple single compound with different configurations. The CIE coordinates were at (0.29, 0.35), close to those of pure white light. To explore speciation mechanisms in this single compound white light, SalHBP was dissolved in protic, nonpolar, and moderate polar solvent, respectively. Upon excitation, blue, green, and yellowish green emissions were observed from the three solutions at various temperatures. The conformation of SalHBP at room temperature was described by a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. With the aid of hybrid density functional theory at the B3LYP/TZVP and PBE0/TZVP levels, three observed emission bands of SalHBP were assigned from the five most probable excited state conformations that were derived from four ground state conformations. The effect of solvent on the emission of SalHBP was summarized as a possibility for forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds between solvent and SalHBP molecules and competition between intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. 10.1021/jp900688h
    Modulated photophysics of an ESIPT probe 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde within motionally restricted environments of liposome membranes having varying surface charges. Paul Bijan Kumar,Guchhait Nikhil The journal of physical chemistry. B The present work demonstrates the modulation of excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) emission of 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde (HN12) upon its interaction with the liposomal vesicles/bilayer of dimyristoyl-l-α-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl-l-α-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) and its subsequent implementation as an efficient molecular reporter for probing of microheterogeneous environments of lipid-bilayer system. Modifications on the emission profile of HN12 in terms of remarkable emission intensity enhancement coupled with a hypsochromic shift induced by the presence of DMPC and DMPG membranes have been interpreted to be vivid manifestations of the interactions between the two partners. Steady-state anisotropy, red-edge excitation shift (REES), and time-resolved fluorescence measurements have been fruitfully exploited to complement other experimental findings. Probable binding site of HN12 in the lipid-bilayers has been assessed on the basis of intertwining the results of fluorescence quenching with other experimental results and is further substantiated from docking studies. 10.1021/jp1048138
    Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) fine tuned by quinoline-pyrazole isomerism: pi-conjugation effect on ESIPT. Chung Min-Wen,Lin Tsung-Yi,Hsieh Cheng-Chih,Tang Kuo-Chun,Fu Hungshin,Chou Pi-Tai,Yang Shen-Han,Chi Yun The journal of physical chemistry. A A series of quinoline/isoquinoline-pyrazole isomers (I-III), in which the pyrazole moiety is in a different substitution position, was strategically designed and synthesized, showing a system with five-membered intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Despite the similarity in molecular structure, however, only I undergoes excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, as evidenced by the distinct 560 nm proton-transfer emission and its associated relaxation dynamics. The experimental results support a recent theoretical approach regarding the conjugation effect on a proton (or hydrogen atom) transfer reaction (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4862-4867). The concept simply predicts that more extended pi conjugation, i.e., resonance, for proton-transfer tautomer species could allow for efficient delocalization of excess charge in the reaction center, resulting in a larger thermodynamic driving force for proton transfer. 10.1021/jp1036102
    Location and binding mechanism of an ESIPT probe 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid in unsaturated fatty acid bound serum albumins. Ghorai Shyamal Kr,Tripathy Debi Ranjan,Dasgupta Swagata,Ghosh Sanjib Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology The binding site and the binding mechanism of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (3HNA) in oleic acid (OA) bound serum albumins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA)) have been determined using steady state and time resolved emission of tryptophan residues (Trp) in proteins and the ESIPT emission of 3HNA. Time resolved anisotropy of the probe 3HNA and low temperature phosphorescence of Trp residues of BSA in OA bound BSA at 77K reveals a drastic change of the binding site of 3HNA in the ternary system compared to that in the free protein. 3HNA binds near Trp213 in the ternary system whereas 3HNA binds near Trp134 in the free protein. The structure of OA bound BSA generated using docking methodology exhibits U-bend configuration of all bound OA. The docked pose of 3HNA in the free protein and in OA bound albumins (ternary systems) and the concomitant perturbation of the structure of proteins around the binding region of 3HNA corroborate the enhanced ESIPT emission of 3HNA and the energy transfer efficiency from the donor Trp213 of BSA to 3HNA acceptor in 3HNA-OA-BSA system. 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.12.007
    An ESIPT fluorescent probe sensitive to protein α-helix structures. Jiang Nan,Yang Chanli,Dong Xiongwei,Sun Xianglang,Zhang Dan,Liu Changlin Organic & biomolecular chemistry A large majority of membrane proteins have one or more transmembrane regions consisting of α-helices. Membrane protein levels differ from one type of cell to another, and the expression of membrane proteins also changes from normal to diseased cells. For example, prostate cancer cells have been reported to have downregulated expression of membrane proteins, including zinc transporters, compared with normal prostate cells. These reports inspired us to design a fluorescence probe sensitive to protein α-helical structures to discriminate individual prostate cancer cells from normal ones. A benzazole derivative ( in this study) was observed to emit strong fluorescence resulting from an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in protein α-helical environments. The intensity of ESIPT fluorescence of was observed to be positively correlated with the α-helix content of proteins. The molecular docking simulation suggested that it had low energy for the binding of to proteins when the binding sites were localized within the α-helical regions of protein via H-bonds. Furthermore, was found to be localized in cell membranes through binding to transmembrane α-helical regions of membrane proteins, and was capable of probing differences in the α-helix contents of membrane proteins between normal and cancerous prostate cells through changes in the ESIPT emission intensity. These results indicated that could distinguish individual prostate cancer cells from normal ones, as the changes in the ESIPT fluorescence intensity of could reflect the regulation in expression of the membrane proteins including zinc transporters. This recognition strategy of individual prostate cancer cells might contribute to early diagnosis techniques for prostate cancer. 10.1039/c4ob00405a
    Using molecular simulation to characterise metal-organic frameworks for adsorption applications. Düren Tina,Bae Youn-Sang,Snurr Randall Q Chemical Society reviews Molecular simulation is a powerful tool to predict adsorption and to gain insight into the corresponding molecular level phenomena. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of how molecular simulation can be used to characterise metal-organic frameworks for adsorption applications. Particular attention is drawn to how these insights can be combined to develop design principles for specific applications. 10.1039/b803498m
    Pore size effect on adsorption and release of metoprolol tartrate in mesoporous silica: Experimental and molecular simulation studies. Luo Shicheng,Hao Jiakang,Gao Yanmei,Liu Deping,Cai Qing,Yang Xiaoping Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been widely studied as drug carriers to get sustained release behaviors, however, their application in sustained release of metoprolol tartrate (MPT) is limited. The possible reason is due to MPT molecule being bulky, while normal type MSNs like MCM-41 and SBA-15 have pore sizes of only 3-6 nm. In this study, two MCF-26 type MSNs were prepared with pore size of 11 or 15 nm, and used to conduct MPT release in comparison with MCM-41 and SBA-15. Both molecular simulation and MPT release experiments were performed to identify the pore size effect on adsorption and diffusion (release) of MPT in these MSNs. Finally, a kind of pH-sensitive MPT drug delivery system was obtained by coating the chosen MCF-26@MPT with an enteric polymer, which might find promising application in treating morning hypertension attack by orally administrating the drug delivery system before bedtime. 10.1016/j.msec.2019.03.050
    Performance evaluation of activated carbon with different pore sizes and functional groups for VOC adsorption by molecular simulation. An Yaxiong,Fu Qiang,Zhang Donghui,Wang Yayan,Tang Zhongli Chemosphere Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are growing pollutants now that cause air pollution and threaten human health. In this paper, the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo was used to simulate the adsorption performance of activated carbon on VOCs (benzene, toluene, acetone and methanol). After simulating different pore sizes (0.902 nm,1.997 nm,3 nm and 4 nm) adsorption performances of activated carbon, activated carbon with a pore size of 1.997 nm was selected to further study the influence of functional groups (carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl and hydrogen), and the capillary condensation was explained by the Kelvin equation. Furthermore, effects of functional groups under saturated vapor pressure (P) of VOCs that range from 0 to 0.1 P were explained by the accessible volume and intermolecular interaction potential, respectively. Under pressure range of 0-0.1 P, at the beginning of adsorption of acetone and methanol, carboxyl and amino groups could reduce the threshold pressure while hydroxyl and hydrogen have the opposite effect. For benzene and toluene, all functional groups have little effect on the threshold pressure, and they reduce the adsorption capacity instead. It could be concluded that the activated carbon could achieve the best adsorption effect on acetone and methanol, on the contrary, the addition of functional groups on benzene and toluene will weaken their adsorption performance. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.011
    A bio-metal-organic framework for highly selective CO(2) capture: A molecular simulation study. Chen Yifei,Jiang Jianwen ChemSusChem A recently synthesized bio-metal-organic framework (bio-MOF-11) is investigated for CO(2) capture by molecular simulation. The adenine biomolecular linkers in bio-MOF-11 contain Lewis basic amino and pyrimidine groups as the preferential adsorption sites. The simulated and experimental adsorption isotherms of pure CO(2), H(2), and N(2) are in perfect agreement. Bio-MOF-11 exhibits larger adsorption capacities compared to numerous zeolites, activated carbons, and MOFs, which is attributed to the presence of multiple Lewis basic sites and nano-sized channels. The results for the adsorption of CO(2)/H(2) and CO(2)/N(2) mixtures in bio-MOF-11 show that CO(2) is more dominantly adsorbed than H(2) and N(2). With increasing pressure, the selectivity of CO(2)/H(2) initially increases owing to the strong interactions between CO(2) and the framework, and then decreases as a consequence of the entropy effect. However, the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) monotonically increases with increasing pressure and finally reaches a constant. The selectivities in bio-MOF-11 are higher than in many nanoporous materials. The simulation results also reveal that a small amount of H(2)O has a negligible effect on the separation of CO(2)/H(2) and CO(2)/N(2) mixtures. The simulation study provides quantitative microscopic insight into the adsorption mechanism in bio-MOF-11 and suggests that bio-MOF-11 may be interesting for pre- and post-combustion CO(2) capture. 10.1002/cssc.201000080
    Lysozyme Adsorption on Porous Organic Cages: A Molecular Simulation Study. Zhao Daohui,Wang Yuqing,Su Qianwen,Li Libo,Zhou Jian Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids Recently, porous organic cages (POCs) have emerged as a novel porous material with many merits and are widely utilized in many application fields. In this work, for the first time, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism of lysozyme adsorption onto the CC3 crystal, a kind of widely studied POC material. The simulation results show that lysozyme adsorbs onto the surface of CC3 with "top end-on," "back-on," or "side-on" orientations. It is found that the van der Waals interaction is the primary contribution to the binding; the conformation of the lysozyme is well preserved during the adsorption process. This provides some evidence for its biocompatibility and feasibility in biorelated applications. Arginine plays an important role in mediating the adsorption through nonpolar aliphatic chains. More importantly, the distribution and structure of the water layer on the POC surface has a significant impact on adsorption. This study provides insights into the development of POC materials with defined morphologies for the adsorption of biomolecules and may help the rational design of biorelated systems. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02233
    Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration: A Molecular Simulation Exploration. Wei Wan,Gupta Krishna M,Liu Jie,Jiang Jianwen ACS applied materials & interfaces Organic solvents are intensively used in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Their separation and recovery account for a significant portion of energy consumption and capital cost in many industrial processes. In this study, three microporous crystalline zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-25, ZIF-71, and ZIF-96) are investigated as organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) membranes by molecular simulations. The fluxes of five solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and n-hexane) are predicted. Despite the smallest aperture size among the three ZIFs, ZIF-25 exhibits the highest flux for polar solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile) because of its hydrophobic nature, whereas hydrophilic ZIF-96 shows the highest flux for nonpolar n-hexane. The analysis of structural information and interaction energy reveals that the solvent-framework interaction is crucial to determine solvent permeation. Good correlations between solvent permeances and a combination of solvent properties are found. In the presence of a model solute (paracetamol), solvent permeances are marginally affected; moreover, the rejection of paracetamol is 100% for the three ZIF membranes in all five solvents. This study highlights that the pore chemistry, in addition to pore size, plays an important role in solvent permeation, and it suggests that ZIFs are potential OSN membranes for the recovery of organic solvents. 10.1021/acsami.8b08364
    Combined TDDFT and AIM Insights into Photoinduced Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) Mechanism in Hydroxyl- and Amino-Anthraquinone Solution. Zheng Daoyuan,Zhang Mingzhen,Zhao Guangjiu Scientific reports Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and atoms in molecules (AIM) theory are combined to study the photoinduced excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) dynamics for eight anthraquinones (AQs) derivatives in solution. The calculated absorption and emission spectra are consistent with the available experimental data, verifying the suitability of the theory selected. The systems with the excited-state exothermic proton transfer, such as 1-HAQ, 1,5-DHAQ and TFAQ, emit completely from transfer structure (T), while the reactions for those without ESIPT including 1,4-DHAQ and AAAQ appear to be endothermic. Three reaction properties of three systems (1,8-DHAQ, DCAQ and CAAQ) are between the exothermic and endothermic, sensitive to the solvent. Energy scanning shows that 1,4-DHAQ and AAAQ exhibit the higher ESIPT energy barriers compared to 1-HAQ, 1,5-DHAQ and TFAQ with the "barrierless" ESIPT process. The ESIPT process is facilitated by the strengthening of hydrogen bonds in excited state. With AIM theory, it is observed that the change in electrons density ρ(r) and potential energy density V(r) at BCP position between ground state and excited state are crucial factors to quantitatively elucidate the ESIPT. 10.1038/s41598-017-14094-5
    The role played by solvent polarity in regulating the competitive mechanism between ESIPT and TICT of coumarin (E-8-((4-dimethylamino-phenylimino)-methyl)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one). Han Jianhui,Cao Bifa,Li You,Zhou Qiao,Sun Chaofan,Li Bo,Yin Hang,Shi Ying Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and twist intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) are the two most fundamental dynamic processes, ubiquitous in biological and chemical reactions. The excited-state properties of (E-8-((4-dimethylamino-phenylimino)-methyl)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (CDPA) in various solvents with different polarities were investigated by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy combined with DFT/TDDFT calculations. The results demonstrated that CDPA exhibited low fluorescence in polar acetonitrile (ACN) due to ESIPT but high fluorescence in nonpolar n-Hexane was attributed to intramolecular rotation blocking ESIPT. TDDFT calculations confirmed that the dramatic phenyl group torsional of CDPA in Hexane, whereas a near planar conformation in ACN solvent. The ESIPT barrier decreases regularly with the increase of solvent polarity from n-Hexane, tetrahydrofuran to ACN solvent. These results demonstrated that the ESIPT and TICT processes of CDPA are competitive mechanisms. Our work revealed the effect solvent polarity on the emission behavior and excited-state deactivation mechanism of CDPA, which could help to design and develop new polarity probe in the microenvironments. 10.1016/j.saa.2020.118086
    Reactive probes for ratiometric detection of Co2+ and Cu+ based on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer mechanism. Maity Debabrata,Kumar Vikash,Govindaraju T Organic letters An excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism based two reactive probes HBTCo and HBTCu is reported for the selective detection of Co(2+) and Cu(+) respectively in a reducing aqueous environment. Co(2+) and Cu(+) mediated oxidative benzylic ether (C-O) bond cleavage offers ratiometric detection of these metal ions. 10.1021/ol302904c
    Excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) based fluorescence sensors and imaging agents. Sedgwick Adam C,Wu Luling,Han Hai-Hao,Bull Steven D,He Xiao-Peng,James Tony D,Sessler Jonathan L,Tang Ben Zhong,Tian He,Yoon Juyoung Chemical Society reviews In this review we will explore recent advances in the design and application of excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) based fluorescent probes. Fluorescence based sensors and imaging agents (probes) are important in biology, physiology, pharmacology, and environmental science for the selective detection of biologically and/or environmentally important species. The development of ESIPT-based fluorescence probes is particularly attractive due to their unique properties, which include a large Stokes shift, environmental sensitivity and potential for ratiometric sensing. 10.1039/c8cs00185e
    TDDFT study on the excited-state proton transfer of 8-hydroxyquinoline: key role of the excited-state hydrogen-bond strengthening. Lan Sheng-Cheng,Liu Yu-Hui Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been employed to study the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). Infrared spectra of 8HQ in both the ground and the lowest singlet excited states have been calculated, revealing a red-shift of the hydroxyl group (-OH) stretching band in the excited state. Hence, the intramolecular hydrogen bond (O-H···N) in 8HQ would be significantly strengthened upon photo-excitation to the S1 state. As the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction occurs through hydrogen bonding, the ESIPT reaction of 8HQ is effectively facilitated by strengthening of the electronic excited-state hydrogen bond (O-H···N). As a result, the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction would occur on an ultrafast timescale with a negligible barrier in the calculated potential energy curve for the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, although the intramolecular proton-transfer reaction is not favorable in the ground state, the ESIPT process is feasible in the excited state. Finally, we have identified that radiationless deactivation via internal conversion (IC) becomes the main dissipative channel for 8HQ by analyzing the energy gaps between the S1 and S0 states for the enol and keto forms. 10.1016/j.saa.2014.12.015
    12-hydroxy-1-azaperylene-limiting case of the ESIPT system: enol-keto tautomerization in S0 and S1 states. Deperasińska Irena,Gryko Daniel T,Karpiuk Elena,Kozankiewicz Bolesław,Makarewicz Artur,Piechowska Joanna The journal of physical chemistry. A Absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescence excitation spectra of 12-hydroxy-1-azaperylene (HAP) and 1-azaperylene were studied in n-alkane matrices at 5 K. Two stable tautomers of HAP, each of them in n-nonane embedded in two sites, were identified and attributed to the enol and keto forms. Theoretical calculations of the energy and vibrational structure of the spectra suggest that tautomer A, with the (0, 0) transition energy at 18,980 ± 10 cm(-1) (and 19,060 ± 10 cm(-1) in the high energy site), should be identified as the keto form, whereas tautomer B, with the (0, 0) energy at 19,200 ± 20 cm(-1) (19,290 ± 20 cm(-1)), as the enol form. Observation of absorption and fluorescence of both tautomeric forms and lack of large Stokes shift of fluorescence of the keto form classify HAP as the limiting case of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer system. 10.1021/jp2103353
    Location of fluorescent probes (2'-hydroxy derivatives of 2,5-diaryl-1,3-oxazole) in lipid membrane studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. Posokhov Yevgen,Kyrychenko Alexander Biophysical chemistry 2'-Hydroxy derivatives of 2,5-diaryl-1,3-oxazole are known as environment-sensitive ratiometric excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) fluorescent probes, which are used to monitor physicochemical properties of lipid membranes. However, because of their heterogeneous membrane distribution, accurate experimental determination of the probe position is difficult. To estimate the location of the ESIPT probes in lipid membranes we have performed fluorescence measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the series composed of 2-(2'-hydroxy-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazole (1), 2-(2'-hydroxy-phenyl)-5-(4'-biphenyl)-1,3-oxazole (2), and 2-(2'-hydroxy-phenyl)-phenanthro[9,10-d]-1,3-oxazole (3), the structure of the ESIPT-moiety of 2-(2'-hydroxy-phenyl)-oxazole was varied by either aromatic ring substitution or annealing, leading to the systematical increase in the hydrophobic character of the probes. The comparison of the fluorescence behavior of probes 1-3 in a wide variety of solvents with those in phospholipid vesicles revealed that all three probes prefer to reside inside a membrane. Our MD results demonstrate that the probes locate from the glycerol residues and the polar carbonyl groups of phospholipids up to hydrophobic acyl chain units. It has been found that the probe location correlates well with the size of the aromatic moiety, being gradually shifted from 11.1 Å to 7.6 Å from the bilayer center for probes 1 to 3, respectively. Our results may be useful for the design of novel fluorescent probes for fluorescence sensing of specific regions within a lipid membrane. 10.1016/j.bpc.2018.01.005
    Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) luminescence mechanism for 4-N,N-diethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in propylene carbonate, acetonitrile and the mixed solvents. Chen Yan,Piao Yongzhe,Feng Xia,Yu Xi,Jin Xiaoning,Zhao Guangjiu Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy In this work, density functional theory (DFT) and time density functional theory (TDDFT) methods were employed to investigate the nature of the double fluorescence emission of DEAHF in these three solvents. We analyzed the geometric structures, vibrational frequencies, frontier molecular orbitals (MOs), molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPS), calculated absorption and fluorescence spectra and the potential-energy curves for DEAHF. All the results show that the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DEAHF is strengthened from S to S and the electron density redistribution occurs between the proton acceptor and donor, which can facilitate ESIPT. Moreover, the geometric structures, absorption and emission spectra, MEPS and potential-energy curve of DEAHF are identical. It reveals theoretically that ACN and PC can maintain the polarity of the solvent with 1:1 mixing, which is consistent with the experimental results. 10.1016/j.saa.2019.117416
    Spectral deciphering of the interaction between an intramolecular hydrogen bonded ESIPT drug, 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid, and a model transport protein. Paul Bijan Kumar,Ray Debarati,Guchhait Nikhil Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP The present work demonstrates a detailed characterization of the interaction of a bio-active drug molecule 3,5-dichlorosalicyclic acid (3,5DCSA) with a model transport protein Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The drug molecule is a potential candidate exhibiting Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) reaction and the modulation of ESIPT photophysics within the bio-environment of the protein has been exploited spectroscopically to monitor the drug-protein binding interaction. Apart from evaluating the binding constant (K (±10%) = 394 M(-1)) the probable location of the neutral drug molecule within the protein cavity (hydrophobic subdomain IIA) is explored by AutoDock-based blind docking simulation. The rotational relaxation dynamics of the drug within the protein has been interpreted on the lexicon of the two-step and wobbling-in-cone model. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy delineates the effect of drug binding on the protein secondary structure in terms of decrease of α-helical content of BSA with increasing drug concentration. Also the esterase activity of the drug:protein conjugate system is found to be reduced in comparison to the native protein. 10.1039/c2cp23496c