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    Overcoming the thermodynamic equilibrium of an isomerization reaction through oxidoreductive reactions for biotransformation. Liu Jing-Jing,Zhang Guo-Chang,Kwak Suryang,Oh Eun Joong,Yun Eun Ju,Chomvong Kulika,Cate Jamie H D,Jin Yong-Su Nature communications Isomerases perform biotransformations without cofactors but often cause an undesirable mixture of substrate and product due to unfavorable thermodynamic equilibria. We demonstrate the feasibility of using an engineered yeast strain harboring oxidoreductase reactions to overcome the thermodynamic limit of an isomerization reaction. Specifically, a yeast strain capable of consuming lactose intracellularly is engineered to produce tagatose from lactose through three layers of manipulations. First, GAL1 coding for galactose kinase is deleted to eliminate galactose utilization. Second, heterologous xylose reductase (XR) and galactitol dehydrogenase (GDH) are introduced into the ∆gal1 strain. Third, the expression levels of XR and GDH are adjusted to maximize tagatose production. The resulting engineered yeast produces 37.69 g/L of tagatose from lactose with a tagatose and galactose ratio of 9:1 in the reaction broth. These results suggest that in vivo oxidoreaductase reactions can be employed to replace isomerases in vitro for biotransformation. 10.1038/s41467-019-09288-6
    Comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose in chocolate. Lee A,Storey D M Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP D-tagatose is a potential new sugar substitute. Ingested D-tagatose is incompletely absorbed from the small intestine; unabsorbed D-tagatose reaches the colon where it is completely fermented. In a double-blind, controlled crossover study, the gastrointestinal effects were compared following acute consumption of 40 g plain chocolates containing 20 g of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose by 50 healthy adults ages 18 to 24 years. Consumption of D-tagatose was not associated with a significant increase in the frequency of passing feces, or in the number of subjects passing watery feces. However, lactitol consumption was associated with an increase in both of these occurrences. Consumption of chocolate containing D-tagatose and lactitol resulted in significant increases in colic, flatulence, borborygmi, and bloating compared to consumption of the sucrose-containing chocolate, but the majority of symptoms were described as only "slightly more than usual." D-tagatose-containing chocolate did not provoke significantly more of these symptoms than lactitol-containing chocolate. A significant number of subjects reported nausea following consumption of D-tagatose chocolate compared to the sucrose chocolate control, and multiple symptoms occurred in some subjects. Overall, these results demonstrate that a 20-g dose of D-tagatose is tolerated well in comparison to lactitol. 10.1006/rtph.1998.1255
    Human tolerance to a single, high dose of D-tagatose. Buemann B,Toubro S,Raben A,Astrup A Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP The addition of 29 g D-tagatose added as a sweetener to a continental breakfast was tested for the appearance of gastrointestinal side effects in a double-blind randomized cross-over study with 29 g sucrose as a control treatment. The subjects reported the side effects during 72 h following the test meal on a questionnaire grading the symptoms on a five-level scale ranging from "none" to "very strong." Although "rumbling in the stomach," "distention," "nausea," "rumbling in the gut," "flatulence, " and "diarrhea" scored significantly higher with D-tagatose, the sugar otherwise was well tolerated in most of the subjects. Two cases of vomiting after D-tagatose were recorded but in one of the cases its relation to the D-tagatose intake was questionable. Only the "distention" score remained higher with D-tagatose for more than 24 h. Nausea, vomiting, and perceived distension may be due to an osmotic effect in the small intestine of unabsorbed D-tagatose. The increased flatus is caused by D-tagatose being fermented in the large intestine. Diarrhea may be explained by osmotic effects in the colon from nondegraded D-tagatose or nonabsorbed short-chain fatty acids produced by the increased fermentation. 10.1006/rtph.1998.1252
    Effects of acute and repeated oral doses of D-tagatose on plasma uric acid in normal and diabetic humans. Saunders J P,Donner T W,Sadler J H,Levin G V,Makris N G Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, is a naturally occurring ketohexose proposed for use as a low-calorie bulk sweetener. Ingested D-tagatose appears to be poorly absorbed. The absorbed portion is metabolized in the liver by a pathway similar to that of D-fructose. The main purpose of this study was to determine if acute or repeated oral doses of D-tagatose would cause elevations in plasma uric acid (as is seen with fructose) in normal humans and Type 2 diabetics. In addition, effects of subchronic D-tagatose ingestion on fasting plasma phosphorus, magnesium, lipids, and glucose homeostasis were studied. Eight normal subjects and eight subjects with Type 2 diabetes participated in this two-phase study. Each group was comprised of four males and four females. In the first phase, all subjects were given separate 75 g 3-h oral glucose and D-tagatose tolerance tests. Uric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium were determined in blood samples collected from each subject at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after dose. In the 8-week phase of the study, the normals were randomly placed into two groups which received 75 g of either D-tagatose or sucrose (25 g with each meal) daily for 8 weeks. The diabetics were randomized into two groups which received either 75 g D-tagatose or no supplements of sugar daily for 8 weeks. Uric acid, phosphorus, magnesium, lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin were determined in fasting blood plasma of all subjects at baseline (time zero) and biweekly over the 8 weeks. The 8-week test did not demonstrate an increase in fasting plasma uric acid in response to the daily intake of D-tagatose. However, a transient increase of plasma uric acid levels was observed after single doses of 75 g of D-tagatose in the tolerance test. Plasma uric acid levels were found to rise and peak at 60 min after such dosing. No clinical relevance was attributed to this treatment-related effect because excursions of plasma uric acid levels above the normal range were small and were of short duration. Consistent with earlier observations on fructose, the increase of plasma uric acid was associated with a slight decrease of plasma phosphorus and a slight increase of magnesium. The daily ingestion of D-tagatose for 8 weeks had no effect on fasting plasma magnesium, phosphorus, cholesterol, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin levels. The ingestion of three 25-g doses per day for a period of 8 weeks resulted in varying amounts of flatulence in seven of the eight subjects, and some degree of diarrhea in six subjects. D-tagatose holds promise as a sweetener with no adverse clinical effects observed in these studies. 10.1006/rtph.1998.1264
    Characteristics and significance of D-tagatose-induced liver enlargement in rats: An interpretative review. Bär A Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP This review addresses the issue of asymptomatic liver enlargement in rats. It was necessitated by the observation of significantly increased liver weights in rats fed diets with 10 to 20% D-tagatose, a potential new bulk sweetener, for between 28 and 90 days. Increases of liver size without accompanying histopathological changes or impairment of organ function have been observed in rats in response to the ingestion of various xenobiotic compounds (including some food additives), changes of dietary composition (e.g. , high doses of fructose and sucrose), metabolic aberrations (e.g., diabetes), as well as normal pregnancy and lactation. The underlying mechanism(s) are not yet understood in detail but peroxisome proliferation, microsomal enzyme induction, increased storage of glycogen or lipids, and hyperfunction due to an excessive workload are well-established causes of hepatomegaly in rats. In D-tagatose- and fructose-fed rats, a treatment-related increase of hepatic glycogen storage was identified as a likely cause of the liver enlargement. Dietary levels of 5% and about 15-20% were determined as no-effect levels (NOEL) for D-tagatose- and fructose-induced liver enlargement, respectively. At doses above the NOEL, D-tagatose is about four times more efficient than fructose in inducing liver enlargement. On the other hand, the estimated intake of D-tagatose from its intended uses in food is about four times lower than the actual fructose intake. Consequently, a similar safety margin would apply for both sugars. Considering the similarity of the liver effects in rats of fructose, a safe food ingredient, and D-tagatose, the absence of histopathological changes in rats fed a diet with 20% D-tagatose for 90 days, and the absence of adverse long-term consequences of glycogen-induced liver enlargement in rats, it is concluded that the observed liver enlargement in D-tagatose-fed rats has no relevance for the assessment of human safety of this substance. 10.1006/rtph.1999.1298
    Tagatose and milk allergy. Taylor S L,Lambrecht D M,Hefle S L Allergy 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00701.x
    D-tagatose has low small intestinal digestibility but high large intestinal fermentability in pigs. Laerke H N,Jensen B B The Journal of nutrition The digestibility of D-tagatose, its effect on the digestibility of macronutrients and the metabolic response of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract to the ingestion of this carbohydrate were studied in pigs. Eight pigs were fed a low fiber diet comprising 15% sucrose (control group). Another eight pigs were fed a similar diet except that 100 g sucrose per kg diet was replaced by D-tagatose (test group). After 18 d, the pigs were killed and the gastrointestinal contents removed for analysis. The digestibility of D-tagatose was 25.8 +/- 5.6% in the distal third of the small intestine. The small intestinal digestibilities of dry matter (86.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 92.9 +/- 0.9%), gross energy (74.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 80.7 +/- 1.8%) and sucrose (90.4 +/- 2.5 vs. 98.0 +/- 0.5%) were lower (P < 0. 05) in the pigs fed D-tagatose. Digestibilities of starch, protein and fat did not differ between groups. D-Tagatose, sucrose and starch were fully digested in the large intestine. The fecal digestibilities of energy, dry matter and fat did not differ between the two groups, whereas D-tagatose reduced the fecal digestibility of protein (91.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 93.5 +/- 0.7%, P < 0.05). D-Tagatose served as a substrate for the microbiota in the cecum and proximal colon as indicated by a reduced pH, and a greater ATP concentration, adenylate energy charge (AEC) ratio and concentration of short-chain fatty acids. In particular, the increase in the concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate suggests possible health benefits of this monosaccharide. 10.1093/jn/129.5.1002
    Effect of oral D-tagatose on liver volume and hepatic glycogen accumulation in healthy male volunteers. Boesch C,Ith M,Jung B,Bruegger K,Erban S,Diamantis I,Kreis R,Bär A Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP Standard toxicity tests with high levels of D-tagatose showed a reversible enlargement of the liver in Sprague-Dawley rats without increase of liver enzymes. The present study tests the hypotheses that partial substitution of dietary sucrose by D-tagatose for 28 days increases the volume of human liver and the concentration of liver glycogen. Twelve healthy, male volunteers were studied in a double-blind crossover study with ingestion of D-tagatose (3x15 g daily) and placebo (sucrose, 3x15 g daily) for periods of 28 days each. Liver volume and glycogen concentration have been determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy, which were accompanied by routine medical examinations. MR examinations before and after the treatments revealed no effects (P>0.05) of treatment, period, or subject for changes in liver volume or glycogen concentration. A steady increase of liver volumes, independent of the D-tagatose or placebo intake, has been observed over the study in parallel with a slight increase in body weight. The treatment with D-tagatose was not associated with clinically relevant changes of the examined clinico-chemical and hematological parameters, including liver enzymes and uric acid. 10.1006/rtph.2001.1470
    Removal and prevention of dental plaque with d-tagatose. Lu Y,Levin G V International journal of cosmetic science Dental plaque develops when early bacterial colonizers adhere to the acquired pellicle (saliva-derived proteinous coating on the tooth surface) followed by adhesion of late interspecies colonizers to form this type of biofilm (coaggregation). In developing a d-tagatose-based toothpaste, we examined 15 oral isolates, including both early colonizers (Streptococcus and Actinomyces) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, and Actinobacillus), and tested them for their ability to coaggregate with each other. We then tested the ability of d-tagatose to reverse any such coaggregations. Coaggregation was examined visually and scored by using a system ranging from 0, for no visible coaggregation to 4, for maximum coaggregation. d-Tagatose, at a concentration of less than 750 mm, completely reversed the coaggregation of 17 (60%) of 28 strongly coaggregating pairs (coaggregation score = 2 or higher) tested. In contrast, d-sorbitol had little reversal effect. d-Tagatose-sensitive coaggregations were d-galactose-reversible as well. d-Tagatose acted on both early and late colonizers; both groups, especially the late colonizers, were frequently involved in periodontal diseases. Thus, d-tagatose has the potential for preventing and removing plaque development and for altering the subgingival microbiota. These effective qualities offer conservative control of gingival and periodontal disease. 10.1046/j.1467-2494.2002.00141.x
    In vitro fermentation pattern of D-tagatose is affected by adaptation of the microbiota from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Laerke H N,Jensen B B,Højsgaard S The Journal of nutrition Knowledge of the fermentation pattern of D-tagatose is important for the assessment of energy value and compliance of D-tagatose. In vitro fermentation experiments with pig intestinal contents and bacteria harvested from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs were used to investigate the degradation of D-tagatose and the formation of fermentation products. Two groups of eight pigs were fed either a control diet containing 150 g/kg sucrose or a diet which had 100 g/kg of the sucrose replaced by D-tagatose. After 18 d the pigs were killed and the gastrointestinal contents collected for in vitro studies. No microbial fermentation of D-tagatose occurred in the stomach or in the small intestine, whereas the sugar was fermented in the cecum and colon. Formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate and some heptanoate were produced by the microbial fermentation of D-tagatose by gut microbiota. Hydrogen and methane were also produced. The population of D-tagatose-degrading bacteria in fecal samples and the capacity of bacteria from the hindgut to degrade D-tagatose were higher in the pigs adapted to D-tagatose compared with unadapted pigs. In unadapted pigs, the major fermentation product from D-tagatose was acetic acid. Much more butyric and valeric acids were produced from D-tagatose by bacterial slurries of tagatose-adapted pigs compared with unadapted pigs; this was especially the case for samples from the colon. We conclude that D-tagatose is not fermented in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the ability of the large intestinal microbiota to ferment D-tagatose is dependent on adaptation. 10.1093/jn/130.7.1772
    The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects. Buemann B,Toubro S,Raben A,Blundell J,Astrup A The British journal of nutrition A double-blind randomized crossover study was performed with nineteen normal-weight men to investigate the effect on subsequent ad libitum food intake of replacing 29 g sucrose with 29 g D-tagatose as sweetener to a breakfast meal. D-Tagatose is a malabsorbed stereoisomer of fructose with potential application as a bulk sweetener. Food intake was measured at lunch offered 4 h after the breakfast meal, during the afternoon with access to abundant snacks, and finally at a supper buffet 9 h after the breakfast. Energy intake at lunch and during the snacking period was similar after ingesting the two sugars, while it was 15% lower after ingesting D-tagatose than with sucrose at supper (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal factors such as the osmotic effects of unabsorbed D-tagatose causing distension of the gut might have mediated the acute appetite-suppressing effect. The present paper also refers to data from a preceding study in which we observed an increased self-reported energy intake after ingestion of D-tagatose compared with sucrose which, in fact, suggests a relative hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose. However, self-reported food intake may be biased by selective under-reporting and this subsequent study with a more controlled assessment of food intake was therefore conducted. This present study did not support any hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose, but rather suggests that D-tagatose may contribute to a reduced energy intake.
    Small-bowel absorption of D-tagatose and related effects on carbohydrate digestibility: an ileostomy study. Normén L,Laerke H N,Jensen B B,Langkilde A M,Andersson H The American journal of clinical nutrition BACKGROUND:The ketohexose D-tagatose is a new sweetener with a low energy content. This low energy content may be due to either low absorption of the D-tagatose or decreased absorption of other nutrients. OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to measure the excretion of D-tagatose from the human small bowel, to calculate the apparent absorption of D-tagatose, and to study the effects of D-tagatose on the small-bowel excretion of other carbohydrates. DESIGN:A controlled diet was served for 2 periods of 2 d during 3 consecutive weeks to 6 ileostomy subjects. In one of the periods, 15 g D-tagatose was added to the diet daily. Duplicate portions of the diet and ileostomy effluents were freeze-dried and analyzed to calculate the apparent net absorption of D-tagatose and carbohydrates. RESULTS:Median D-tagatose excretion was 19% (range: 12-31%), which corresponded to a calculated apparent absorption of 81% (69-88%). Of the total amount of D-tagatose excreted [2.8 g (1.7-4.4 g)], 60% (8-88%) was excreted within 3 h. Between 3 and 5 h, 32% (11-82%) was excreted. Excretion of wet matter increased by 41% (24-52%) with D-tagatose ingestion. Sucrose and D-glucose excretion increased to a small extent, whereas no significant changes were found in the excretion of dry matter, energy, starch, or D-fructose. CONCLUSIONS:The apparent absorption of 15 g D-tagatose/d was 81%. D-Tagatose had only a minor influence on the apparent absorption of other nutrients. 10.1093/ajcn/73.1.105
    Effect of diets containing sucrose vs. D-tagatose in hypercholesterolemic mice. Police Sara B,Harris J Clay,Lodder Robert A,Cassis Lisa A Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) Effects of functional sweeteners on the development of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis are unknown. The objective was to compare the effect of dietary carbohydrate in the form of sucrose (SUCR) to D-tagatose (TAG; an isomer of fructose currently used as a low-calorie sweetener) on body weight, blood cholesterol concentrations, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. LDLr(-/-) male and female mice were fed either standard murine diet or a diet enriched with TAG or SUCR as carbohydrate sources for 16 weeks. TAG and SUCR diets contained equivalent amounts (g/kg) of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. We measured food intake, body weight, adipocyte diameter, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations, and aortic atherosclerosis. Macrophage immunostaining and collagen content were examined in aortic root lesions. CONTROL and TAG-fed mice exhibited similar energy intake, body weights and blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but SUCR-fed mice exhibited increased energy intake and became obese and hyperglycemic. Adipocyte diameter increased in female SUCR-fed mice compared to TAG and CONTROL. Male and female SUCR-fed mice had increased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared to TAG and CONTROL. Atherosclerosis was increased in SUCR-fed mice of both genders compared to TAG and CONTROL. Lesions from SUCR-fed mice exhibited pronounced macrophage immunostaining and reductions in collagen content compared to TAG and CONTROL mice. These results demonstrate that in comparison to sucrose, equivalent substitution of TAG as dietary carbohydrate does not result in the same extent of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. 10.1038/oby.2008.508
    Dietary supplementation with d-tagatose in subjects with type 2 diabetes leads to weight loss and raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Donner Thomas W,Magder Laurence S,Zarbalian Kiarash Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) Oral d-tagatose (d-tag) attenuates the rise in plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reduces food intake in healthy human subjects. A reduction in food consumption and less weight gain occur in rats fed tagatose. This pilot study explored the metabolic effects of d-tag given daily to 8 human subjects with type 2 DM for 1 year. We hypothesized that this treatment period would lead to weight loss and improvements in glycated hemoglobin and the lipid profile. A 2-month run-in period was followed by a 12-month treatment period when 15 g of oral d-tag was taken 3 times daily with food. No serious adverse effects were seen during the 12-month treatment period. Ten of the initially 12 recruited subjects experienced gastrointestinal side effects that tended to be mild and transient. When 3 subjects were excluded who had oral diabetes, medications added and/or dosages increased during the study and mean (SD) body weight declined from 108.4 (9.0) to 103.3 (7.3) kg (P = .001). Glycated hemoglobin fell nonsignificantly from 10.6% ± 1.9% to 9.6% ± 2.3% (P = .08). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol progressively rose from a baseline level of 30.5 ± 15.8 to 41.7 ± 12.1 mg/dL at month 12 in the 6 subjects who did not have lipid-modifying medications added during the study (P < .001). Significant improvements in body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in this pilot study suggest that d-tag may be a potentially useful adjunct in the management of patients with type 2 DM. 10.1016/j.nutres.2010.09.007
    Production of D-tagatose, a low caloric sweetener during milk fermentation using L-arabinose isomerase. Rhimi Moez,Chouayekh Hichem,Gouillouard Isabelle,Maguin Emmanuelle,Bejar Samir Bioresource technology Lactobacillusdelbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are used for the biotransformation of milk in yoghurt. During milk fermentation, these lactic acid bacteria (LAB) hydrolyze lactose producing a glucose moiety that is further metabolized and a galactose moiety that they are enable to metabolize. We investigated the ability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains expressing a heterologous L-arabinose isomerase to convert residual D-galactose to D-tagatose. The Bacillus stearothermophilus US100l-arabinose isomerase (US100l-AI) was expressed in both LAB, using a new shuttle vector where the araA US100 gene is under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter of the L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 hlbA gene. The production of L-AI by these LAB allowed the bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose during fermentation in laboratory media and milk. We also established that the addition of L-AI to milk also allowed the conversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose during the fermentation process. 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.078
    Tagatose, a new antidiabetic and obesity control drug. Lu Y,Levin G V,Donner T W Diabetes, obesity & metabolism A potentially important new drug for treating type 2 diabetes, tagatose, is now in phase 3 clinical trial. The history, development, additional health benefits, mechanisms of action and the potential for the drug are presented in context with a review of the rapidly growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes and treatments for it. An epimer of fructose, the natural hexose tagatose was originally developed by Spherix Incorporated (formerly Biospherics Inc.) as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Only 20% of orally ingested tagatose is fully metabolized, principally in the liver, following a metabolic pathway identical to that of fructose. Following a decade of studies, tagatose became generally recognized as safe for use in foods and beverages under US FDA regulation. The simple sugar is commercially produced by isomerization of galactose, which is prepared from lactose. Early human studies suggested tagatose as a potential antidiabetic drug through its beneficial effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. A subsequent 14-month trial confirmed its potential for treating type 2 diabetes, and tagatose showed promise for inducing weight loss and raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, both important to the control of diabetes and constituting benefits independent of the disease. Furthermore, tagatose was shown to be an antioxidant and a prebiotic, both properties cited in the maintenance and promotion of health. No current therapies for type 2 diabetes provide these multiple health benefits. The predominant side effects of tagatose are gastrointestinal disturbances associated with excessive consumption, generally accommodated within 1- to 2-week period. The health and use potentials for tagatose (branded Naturlose((R)) for this use) are given with respect to current type 2 diabetes drugs and markets. Under an FDA-affirmed protocol, Spherix is currently conducting a phase 3 trial to evaluate a placebo-subtracted treatment effect based on a decrease in HbA(1c) levels. Side effects, contraindications and possibly beneficial new findings will be carefully monitored. It is hoped that early results of the trial may become available by mid-2008. If a subsequent NDA is successful, tagatose may fill a major health need. 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00799.x
    Tagatose: from a sweetener to a new diabetic medication? Espinosa Ikna,Fogelfeld Leon Expert opinion on investigational drugs IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD:Tagatose is a naturally occurring simple sugar that is a more palatable bulk low-calorie (1.5 kcal/g) sweetener. It was approved as a food additive by the FDA in 2003. Tagatose has been studied as a potential antidiabetic and antiobesity medication. In preliminary studies in humans, tagatose has shown a low postprandial blood glucose and insulin response. Its proposed mechanism of action may involve interference in the absorption of carbohydrates by inhibiting intestinal disaccharidases and glucose transport. It may also act through hepatic inhibition of glycogenolysis. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW:This article summarizes tagatose Phase I and II diabetes trials. It describes the pharmacodynamics and possible mechanism of action of this agent. Literature from 1974 to 2009 is reviewed. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN:Better understanding of the implications of postprandial hyperglycemia. An appreciation of the liver as a target of glucose control. Increased awareness of tagatose, a sweetener, as a potential new medication that operates through improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia. TAKE HOME MESSAGE:Tagatose is currently being studied as a postprandial antihyperglycemic agent that may be safer with regard to hypoglycemia. Ongoing Phase III clinical trials will provide more definitive answers. 10.1517/13543780903501521
    Thermal stability of tagatose in solution. Luecke Katherine J,Bell Leonard N Journal of food science Tagatose, a monosaccharide similar to fructose, has been shown to behave as a prebiotic. To deliver this prebiotic benefit, tagatose must not degrade during the processing of foods and beverages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability of tagatose in solutions. Tagatose solutions were prepared in 0.02 and 0.1 M phosphate and citrate buffers at pHs 3 and 7, which were then held at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C. Pseudo-1st-order rate constants for tagatose degradation were determined. In citrate and phosphate buffers at pH 3, minimal tagatose was lost and slight browning was observed. At pH 7, tagatose degradation rates were enhanced. Degradation was faster in phosphate buffer than citrate buffer. Higher buffer concentrations also increased the degradation rate constants. Enhanced browning accompanied tagatose degradation in all buffer solutions at pH 7. Using the activation energies for tagatose degradation, less than 0.5% and 0.02% tagatose would be lost under basic vat and HTST pasteurization conditions, respectively. Although tagatose does breakdown at elevated temperatures, the amount of tagatose lost during typical thermal processing conditions would be virtually negligible. Practical Application: Tagatose degradation occurs minimally during pasteurization, which may allow for its incorporation into beverages as a prebiotic. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01601.x
    Galactose to tagatose isomerization at moderate temperatures with high conversion and productivity. Bober Josef R,Nair Nikhil U Nature communications There are many industrially-relevant enzymes that while active, are severely limited by thermodynamic, kinetic, or stability issues (isomerases, lyases, transglycosidases). In this work, we study Lactobacillus sakei L-arabinose isomerase (LsLAI) for D-galactose to D-tagatose isomerization-that is limited by all three reaction parameters. The enzyme demonstrates low catalytic efficiency, low thermostability at temperatures > 40 °C, and equilibrium conversion < 50%. After exploring several strategies to overcome these limitations, we show that encapsulating LsLAI in gram-positive Lactobacillus plantarum that is chemically permeabilized enables reactions at high rates, high conversions, and elevated temperatures. In a batch process, this system enables ~ 50% conversion in 4 h starting with 300 mM galactose (an average productivity of 37 mM h), and 85% conversion in 48 h. We suggest that such an approach may be invaluable for other enzymatic processes that are similarly kinetically-, thermodynamically-, and/or stability-limited. 10.1038/s41467-019-12497-8
    Safety and Efficacy of D-Tagatose in Glycemic Control in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes. Ensor Mark,Banfield Amy B,Smith Rebecca R,Williams Jarrod,Lodder Robert A Journal of endocrinology, diabetes & obesity The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the treatment effect of D-tagatose on glycemic control, determined by a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and safety profile of D-tagatose compared to placebo. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the treatment effects on fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, changes in BMI, and the proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of <7%. Type 2 diabetic patients not taking any blood glucose lowering medications were administered either 15 g of D-tagatose dissolved in 125-250 ml of water three times a day or placebo with meals. Reduction in HbA1c was statistically significant compared to placebo at all post-baseline time points in the ITT population. Additionally, secondary endpoints were achieved in the ITT population with regard to LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c targets of <7%. D-tagatose was unable to lower triglycerides or raise HDL compared to placebo. A subgroup LOCF analysis on the ITT US population showed a greater and statistically significant LS mean reduction in HbA1c in the D-tagatose group at all post-baseline visits. Based on these results it is concluded that in the ITT population D-tagatose is an effective single agent at treating many of the therapy targets of type 2 diabetes including lowering fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, and lowering of LDL and total cholesterol.
    d-Tagatose production by permeabilized and immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum using whey permeate. Jayamuthunagai J,Srisowmeya G,Chakravarthy M,Gautam P Bioresource technology The aim of the work is to produce d-Tagatose by direct addition of alginate immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum cells to lactose hydrolysed whey permeate. The cells were untreated and immobilized (UIC), permeabilized and immobilized (PIC) and the relative activities were compared with purified l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) for d-galactose isomerization. Successive lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli and d-galactose isomerization using l-AI from Lactobacillus plantarum was performed to investigate the in vivo production of d-tagatose in whey permeate. In whey permeate, maximum conversion of 38% and 33% (w/w) d-galactose isomerization by PIC and UIC has been obtained. 162mg/g and 141mg/g of d-tagatose production was recorded in a 48h reaction time at 50°C, pH 7.0 with 5mM Mn ion concentration in the initial substrate mixture. 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.123
    Beneficial effect of tagatose consumption on postprandial hyperglycemia in Koreans: a double-blind crossover designed study. Kwak Jung Hyun,Kim Min Sun,Lee Jin Hee,Yang Yoon Jung,Lee Ki Ho,Kim Oh Yoen,Lee Jong Ho Food & function The present study determined the effect of tagatose supplementation on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal (n = 54) and hyperglycemic subjects [n = 40, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes]. In a double-blind crossover designed study, study subjects were randomly assigned to consume a sucralose-erythritol drink (the placebo) or a tagatose-containing drink (the test) with a seven-day interval. Finally, 85 subjects completed the study (normal, n = 52; hyperglycemic, n = 33). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after ingestion and analyzed for fasting and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Basic anthropometric parameters and lipid files were also measured. Hyperglycemic subjects were basically older and heavier, and showed higher levels of triglyceride, total- and LDL-cholesterols and apolipoprotein AI and B compared with normal subjects. After consuming the tagatose (5 g)-containing drink, hyperglycemic subjects had a significant reduction in serum levels of glucose at 120 min (p = 0.019) and glucose area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.017), however these were not observed in normal subjects. When ages were matched between the two groups, the glucose response patterns were shown to be similar. Additionally, normal subjects who received a high-dose of tagatose-containing drinks (10 g) showed significantly lower levels of insulin at 30 min (p = 0.004) and 60 min (p = 0.011), insulin AUC (p = 0.009), and C-peptide at 30 min (p = 0.004), 60 min (p = 0.011) and C-peptide AUC (p = 0.023). In conclusion, a single dietary supplement in the form of a tagatose-containing drink may be beneficial for controlling postprandial glycemic response in Koreans. 10.1039/c3fo00006k
    Tagatose stability in milk and diet lemonade. Bell Leonard N,Luecke Katherine J Journal of food science UNLABELLED:The monosaccharide tagatose has been shown to behave physiologically as a prebiotic. To provide its healthful prebiotic effect to consumers, tagatose must not break down during food processing and storage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage and thermal stabilities of tagatose in milk and lemonade. Tagatose (0.9% to 1.5%) was added to commercially available shelf stable milk and diet lemonade. Samples were stored at 20, 40, 61, and 81 °C. Tagatose loss was monitored chromatographically. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for tagatose degradation were determined along with the reaction's activation energy. No tagatose degradation was observed in lemonade at temperatures equal to or less than 61 °C. Degradation occurred faster in milk because of its higher pH in comparison to lemonade and its dairy proteins enabling the Maillard reaction. The activation energy for tagatose degradation in milk was 24.6 kcal/mol. Using this activation energy, it was estimated that less than 0.1% tagatose would be lost during pasteurization and less than 4% would be lost during storage at 25 °C for 6 mo. Although tagatose degradation occurs in beverages, the extent of its loss during pasteurization and storage would be very low. Tagatose can be formulated into beverages with minimal concern about its degradation and the subsequent loss of prebiotic activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATION:Tagatose can be incorporated into beverages as a prebiotic to improve the healthful characteristics of the product without significant degradation. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02456.x
    Physical and chemical stability of tagatose powder. Grant Lenese D,Bell Leonard N Journal of food science Tagatose is a reduced-calorie monosaccharide that displays prebiotic properties. Water can interact with powdered tagatose to varying extents, depending upon the storage environment. Adsorbed water can impact the stability of tagatose, altering its functionality and usability as an ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of bulk tagatose powder as a function of relative humidity (RH) and temperature. Powdered tagatose was stored in desiccators at 20, 30, and 40 °C and 33% to 85% RH. Moisture contents (MC), physical characteristics, tagatose degradation profiles, and browning kinetics were monitored for 12 mo. The critical RH associated with deliquescence (RH0) was approximately 85% at 20 °C. MC values below RH0 were all less than 2% (wb). The MC at 85% RH ranged from 55% to 80% (wb), increasing as temperature decreased. At 33% RH and 20 °C tagatose remained a free flowing powder. As either temperature or RH increased, varying degrees of physical caking occurred. At 85% RH, tagatose deliquesced at all temperatures. Browning occurred in all samples at 40 °C. Despite physical caking and browning, measurable tagatose degradation was only observed in the deliquesced sample at 85% RH and 40 °C, where 20% loss occurred in 6 mo. Although extreme RHs and temperatures are required for tagatose degradation to occur, intermediate RHs and temperatures promote physical caking and deliquescence, which create handling problems during product formulation. The exposure of tagatose to elevated relative humidities and temperatures should be avoided to maintain its physical and chemical quality. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02591.x
    The Effect of D-Tagatose on Fructose Absorption in a Rat Model. Williams Jarrod,Spitnale Michael,Lodder Robert Journal of developing drugs D-tagatose is in development as a medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The effect of oral D-tagatose on the absorption of D-fructose was assessed when co-administered in this study. In the pilot study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed C14 labeled fructose and glucose concomitantly to establish dose levels for the treatment group of rats fed C14 labeled fructose together with D-tagatose. Rats were administered 0, 600, 2000, 6000, or 12000 mg/kg of D-tagatose along with 2000 mg/kg of fructose. Blood samples were taken over 60 minutes and were assessed using scintillation counting. 600, 2000, and 6000 mg/kg of D-tagatose decreased fructose absorption by 1%, 26%, and 30% respectively (12000 mg/kg group was stopped short of completion due to intolerance) as measured by AUC of scintillation counts. The 600 and 2000 mg/kg of D-tagatose groups showed no difference in plasma glucose concentrations compared to placebo while a rise in glucose was seen in the 6000 mg/kg of D-tagatose groups. The results indicate that D-tagatose may be useful in reducing fructose absorption, which could lead to a beneficial outcome. 10.4172/2329-6631.1000111
    Effects of Three Low-Doses of D-Tagatose on Glycemic Control Over Six Months in Subjects with Mild Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Under Control with Diet and Exercise. Ensor Mark,Williams Jarrod,Smith Rebecca,Banfield Amy,Lodder Robert A Journal of endocrinology, diabetes & obesity The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and the effect of D-tagatose on the glycemic control of subjects with type 2 diabetes as determined by HbA levels at the end of 6 months of therapy using the subject's own baseline HbA level as a comparator. The determination of the minimal dose required to cause a statistically significant reduction in HbA was of particular interest. Eight weeks after screening, the qualifying subjects were randomized to receive one of three doses of D-tagatose: 2.5 g TID, 5.0 g TID or 7.5 g TID. Blood levels of HbA, fasting blood glucose concentrations, plasma lipids, changes in body weight, changes in body mass index, and change in insulin levels were checked at each study visit and at the end of the study. Treatment success, as measured by the reduction of HbA, was greatest for the 7.5 g D-tagatose dose group, although the difference between the treatments was not statistically significant. For fasting glucose, only the 7.5 g dosage group exhibited reductions from baseline at the 3- and 6-month time points. Mean body weights reduced in a dose-response fashion, with the 5.0 g and the 7.5 g D-tagatose doses providing the greatest reductions. D-tagatose at dosages of 2.5 g, 5.0 g, and 7.5 g TID for six months were well tolerated by this subject population. D-tagatose at 5.0 g TID was the minimal dose required to reduce HbA. D-tagatose at 7.5 g TID provided the greatest effect in most measured efficacy parameters.
    Dual-Enzyme Metal Hybrid Crystal for Direct Transformation of Whey Lactose into a High-Value Rare Sugar D-Tagatose: Synthesis, Characterization, and a Sustainable Process. Rai Shushil Kumar,Kaur Harpreet,Kauldhar Baljinder Singh,Yadav Sudesh Kumar ACS biomaterials science & engineering A dual-enzyme metal-organic hybrid crystal was constructed through self-assembling of manganese phosphate embedded with β-galactosidase and L-arabinose isomerase for facile synthesis of rare sugar D-tagatose. The synthesized crystal-like hierarchical system (MnHC@β-Gal+L-AI) was extensively characterized for structural features and catalytic reactions. The results indicated that upon immobilization onto the hybrid crystal, the activity of β-galactosidase and L-arabinose iomerase was enhanced by a factor of 1.6- and 1.5-fold, respectively. The developed MnHC@β-Gal+L-AI exhibited excellent efficiency with a net equilibrium level conversion of low-cost substrate whey lactose (100%) into D-glucose (∼50%), D-galactose (∼25%), and D-tagatose (∼25%). In addition, the fabricated hybrid crystals displayed cofactor regeneration ability. Therefore, the developed hybrid system was observed to be efficiently reused more than 5 times in a batch level conversion. Hence, the developed dual-enzyme-based hybrid crystal provides a platform for direct transformation of whey lactose into rare sugar D-tagatose. 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00841
    D-Tagatose Is a Promising Sweetener to Control Glycaemia: A New Functional Food. Guerrero-Wyss Marion,Durán Agüero Samuel,Angarita Dávila Lisse BioMed research international The objective of the current research was to review and update evidence on the dietary effect of the consumption of tagatose in type 2 diabetes, as well as to elucidate the current approach that exists on its production and biotechnological utility in functional food for diabetics. Articles published before July 1, 2017, were included in the databases PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Scielo, including the terms "Tagatose", "Sweeteners", "Diabetes Mellitus type 2", "Sweeteners", "D-Tag". D-Tagatose (D-tag) is an isomer of fructose which is approximately 90% sweeter than sucrose. Preliminary studies in animals and preclinical studies showed that D-tag decreased glucose levels, which generated great interest in the scientific community. Recent studies indicate that tagatose has low glycemic index, a potent hypoglycemic effect, and eventually could be associated with important benefits for the treatment of obesity. The authors concluded that D-tag is promising as a sweetener without major adverse effects observed in these clinical studies. 10.1155/2018/8718053
    Rare sugars, d-allulose, d-tagatose and d-sorbose, differently modulate lipid metabolism in rats. Nagata Yasuo,Mizuta Narumi,Kanasaki Akane,Tanaka Kazunari Journal of the science of food and agriculture BACKGROUND:Rare sugars including d-allulose, d-tagatose, and d-sorbose are present in limited quantities in nature; some of these rare sugars are now commercially produced using microbial enzymes. Apart from the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycaemic activities of d-allulose, effects of these sugars on lipid metabolism have not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to determine if and how d-tagatose and d-sorbose modulate lipid metabolism in rats. After feeding these rare sugars to rats, parameters on lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS:No diet-related effects were observed on body weight and food intake. Hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity was lowered by d-allulose and d-sorbose but increased by d-tagatose. Faecal fatty acid excretion was non-significantly decreased by d-allulose, but significantly increased by d-sorbose without affecting faecal steroid excretion. A trend toward reduced adipose tissue weight was observed in groups fed rare sugars. Serum adiponectin levels were decreased by d-sorbose relative to the control. Gene expression of cholesterol metabolism-related liver proteins tended to be down-regulated by d-allulose and d-sorbose but not by d-tagatose. In the small intestine, SR-B1 mRNA expression was suppressed by d-sorbose. CONCLUSION:Lipid metabolism in rats varies with rare sugars. Application of rare sugars to functional foods for healthy body weight maintenance requires further studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. 10.1002/jsfa.8687
    The Rare Sugar Tagatose Differentially Inhibits the Growth of and by Interfering With Mitochondrial Processes. Chahed Abdessalem,Nesler Andrea,Navazio Lorella,Baldan Barbara,Busato Isabella,Ait Barka Essaid,Pertot Ilaria,Puopolo Gerardo,Perazzolli Michele Frontiers in microbiology Rare sugars are monosaccharides with limited availability in nature and their biological functions are largely unknown. Among them, tagatose was developed as a low-calorie sweetener and showed beneficial effects on human health. Tagatose is metabolized by only certain microbial taxa and inhibits the growth of important crop pathogens (e.g., ), but its mode of action and the microbial responses are unknown. The aim of this study was to understand the tagatose mode of action against spp., with the final aim of developing new plant protection products. Tagatose inhibited growth and caused severe ultrastructural alterations, with the formation of circular and concentric mitochondrial cristae. Decreased ATP content and reduced oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were found in tagatose-incubated as compared to the control, with the consequent accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of genes related to apoptosis and oxidative stress response. On the other hand, tagatose did not, or only slightly, affect the growth, cellular ultrastructure and mitochondrial processes in , indicating a species-specific response to this rare sugar. The mode of action of tagatose against was mainly based on the inhibition of mitochondrial processes and this rare sugar seems to be a promising active substance for the further development of eco-friendly fungicides, thanks to its anti-nutritional properties on some phytopathogens and low risk for human health. 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00128
    Elegant and Efficient Biotransformation for Dual Production of d-Tagatose and Bioethanol from Cheese Whey Powder. Zheng Zhaojuan,Xie Jiaxiao,Liu Peng,Li Xin,Ouyang Jia Journal of agricultural and food chemistry In this study, the dual production of valuable d-tagatose and bioethanol from lactose and cheese whey powder is presented. First, a one-pot biosynthesis involving lactose hydrolysis and d-galactose isomerization for d-tagatose production was established using crude enzymes of recombinant Escherichia coli with l-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) at 50 °C. Compared to the current enzymatic system, only L-AI was overexpressed, because of the unexpectedly thermotolerant β-galactosidase in E. coli BL21(DE3). Moreover, this high temperature rendered the d-glucose catabolism of E. coli inactive, while retaining all fermentable sugars for bioethanol fermentation. Thereafter, the mixed sugar syrup was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22. A total of 23.5 g/L d-tagatose and 26.9 g/L bioethanol was achieved from cheese whey powder containing 100 g/L lactose. This bioprocess not only provides an efficient method for the functionalization of byproduct whey, but also offsets the high production cost of d-tagatose and bioethanol. 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05150
    Effect of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and tagatose as a synbiotic combination in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis murine model. Son S J,Koh J H,Park M R,Ryu S,Lee W J,Yun B,Lee J-H,Oh S,Kim Y Journal of dairy science Synbiotics, a combination of prebiotics and probiotics, produce synergistic effects to promote gastrointestinal health. Herein, we investigated the synbiotic interaction between the Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG; a probiotic strain) and tagatose (a prebiotic) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis murine model. Initially, body weight, food intake, and clinical features were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, and the addition of LGG, tagatose, or both ameliorated these effects. In our pyrosequencing analysis of fecal microbiota, DSS treatment increased the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased that of Firmicutes. When LGG and tagatose were administered as synbiotics, the gut microbiota composition recovered from the dysbiosis caused by DSS treatment. In particular, the abundance of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia was significantly associated with probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic treatments. Taken together, our results suggest that LGG and tagatose as synbiotics can alleviate colitis, and synbiotics could be applied as dietary supplements in dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese. 10.3168/jds.2018-15013
    Two-stage biosynthesis of D-tagatose from milk whey powder by an engineered Escherichia coli strain expressing L-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus plantarum. Zhang Guoyan,Zabed Hossain M,Yun Junhua,Yuan Jiao,Zhang Yufei,Wang Yang,Qi Xianghui Bioresource technology In this study, a new strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (CY.6) was identified and its L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) encoding gene (araA) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 for the biosynthesis of D-tagatose from milk whey powders (WP). Whole-cell biotransformation of lactose in WP into D-tagatose was done by three technological approaches, including 100%, 50% and 0% hydrolysis of lactose in WP before biotransformation, where simultaneous saccharification and biotransformation (SSB, 0% prior hydrolysis of lactose) produced maximum amounts of D-tagatose. Two-stage SSB provided 73.6% conversion efficiency (based on D-galactose) and 36.8% (in term of lactose), with 51.5 g/L of D-tagatose after 96 h, while concentration of D-tagatose produced after first stage was 34.4 g/L. Yield and volumetric productivity of D-tagatose after two-stage SSB were found to be 0.26 g/g of WP (0.37 g/g of lactose, 0.74 g/g of D-galactose produced from lactose) and 0.54 g/L/h, respectively. 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123010
    Characterization of a d-tagatose 3-epimerase from Caballeronia fortuita and its application in rare sugar production. Li Shengnan,Chen Ziwei,Zhang Wenli,Guang Cuie,Mu Wanmeng International journal of biological macromolecules Recently, rare sugars have caused extensively attention due to their beneficial physiological functions and potential applications in food systems and medical fields. Ketose 3-epimerase (KEase) can catalyze reversibly the epimerization between ketoses which is the pivotal enzyme in Izumoring strategy and an effective tool for biological production of rare sugars. In this work, a KEase from Caballeronia fortuita was recombined and characterized as a d-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTEase, EC 5.1.3.31). The recombinant DTEase displayed the highest activity at pH7.5 and 65°C in the presence of Co. The recombinant DTEase displayed the relatively high thermostability and the half-life (t) was determined to be 7.13, 5.13, and 1.05h at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively. The recombinant DTEase had a wide substrate specificity and the specific activities towards d-tagatose, d-allulose, d-fructose and l-sorbose were measured to be 801±2.3, 450±2.7, 270±1.5 and 55±1.8Umg, respectively. So far, the recombinant DTEase exhibited the highest specific activity towards d-tagatose compared with other reported KEases. Furthermore, the recombinant DTEase could produce 314.2g/L d-sorbose from 500g/L d-tagatose and 147.0g/L d-allulose from 500g/L d-fructose, with a transformation ratio of 68.2% and 29.4%, respectively. The recombinant DTEase could realize effectively the transformations between various ketoses and was a prominent candidate for production of rare sugars. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.112
    Reduced Susceptibility to Sugar-Induced Metabolic Derangements and Impairments of Myocardial Redox Signaling in Mice Chronically Fed with D-Tagatose when Compared to Fructose. Collotta Debora,Lucarini Laura,Chiazza Fausto,Cento Alessia Sofia,Durante Mariaconcetta,Sgambellone Silvia,Chini Jacopo,Baratta Francesca,Aragno Manuela,Mastrocola Raffaella,Masini Emanuela,Collino Massimo Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Background:D-tagatose is an isomer of fructose and is ~90% as sweet as sucrose with less caloric value. Nowadays, D-tagatose is used as a nutritive or low-calorie sweetener. Despite clinical findings suggesting that D-tagatose could be beneficial in subjects with type 2 diabetes, there are no experimental data comparing D-tagatose with fructose, in terms of metabolic derangements and related molecular mechanisms evoked by chronic exposure to these two monosaccharides. Materials and methods:C57Bl/6j mice were fed with a control diet plus water (CD), a control diet plus 30% fructose syrup (L-Fr), a 30% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr), a control diet plus 30% D-tagatose syrup (L-Tg), or a 30% D-tagatose solid diet plus water (S-Tg), during 24 weeks. Results:Both solid and liquid fructose feeding led to increased body weight, abnormal systemic glucose homeostasis, and an altered lipid profile. These effects were associated with vigorous increase in oxidative markers. None of these metabolic abnormalities were detected when mice were fed with both the solid and liquid D-tagatose diets, either at the systemic or at the local level. Interestingly, both fructose formulations led to significant Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) accumulation in mouse hearts, as well as a robust increase in both myocardial AGE receptor (RAGE) expression and NF-B activation. In contrast, no toxicological effects were shown in hearts of mice chronically exposed to liquid or solid D-tagatose. Conclusion:Our results clearly suggest that chronic overconsumption of D-tagatose in both formulations, liquid or solid, does not exert the same deleterious metabolic derangements evoked by fructose administration, due to differences in carbohydrate interference with selective proinflammatory and oxidative stress cascades. 10.1155/2018/5042428
    Biocatalytic production of D-tagatose: A potential rare sugar with versatile applications. Jayamuthunagai J,Gautam P,Srisowmeya G,Chakravarthy M Critical reviews in food science and nutrition D-tagatose is a naturally existing rare monosaccharide having prebiotic properties. Minimal absorption, low metabolizing energy, and unique clinical properties are the characteristics of D-tagatose. D-tagatose gained international attention by matching the purpose of alternate sweeteners that is much needed for the control of diabetes among world population. Recent efforts in understanding tagatose bioconversion have generated essential information regarding its production and application. This article reviews the evolution of D-tagatose as an important rare sugar by appreciable improvements in production results and its significant applications resulted of its unique physical, chemical, biological, and clinical properties thus considering it an appropriate product for requisite improvements in technical viability. Based on current knowledge and technology projections, the commercialization of D-tagatose rare sugar as food additive is close to reality. 10.1080/10408398.2015.1126550
    Tagatose as a Potential Nutraceutical: Production, Properties, Biological Roles, and Applications. Roy Sohini,Chikkerur Jayaram,Roy Sudhir Chandra,Dhali Arindam,Kolte Atul Puroshtam,Sridhar Manpal,Samanta Ashis Kumar Journal of food science Nutraceuticals are gaining importance owing to their potential applications in numerous sectors including food and feed industries. Among the emerging nutraceuticals, d-tagatose occupies a significant niche because of its low calorific value, antidiabetic property and growth promoting effects on beneficial gut bacteria. As d-tagatose is present in minute quantities in naturally occurring food substances, it is produced mainly by chemical or biological means. Recently, attempts were made for bio-production of d-tagatose using l-arabinose isomerase enzyme to overcome the challenges of chemical process of production. Applications of d-tagatose for maintaining health and wellbeing are increasing due to growing consumer awareness and apprehension against modern therapeutic agents. This review outlines the current status on d-tagatose, particularly its production, properties, biological role, applications, and the future perspectives. 10.1111/1750-3841.14358
    Using galactitol dehydrogenase coupled with water-forming NADH oxidase for efficient enzymatic synthesis of L-tagatose. Su Wen-Bin,Li Fei-Long,Li Xue-Yong,Fan Xiao-Man,Liu Rui-Jiang,Zhang Ye-Wang New biotechnology L-Tagatose, a promising building block in the production of many value-added chemicals, is generally produced by chemical routes with a low yield, which may not meet the increasing demands. Synthesis of l-tagatose by enzymatic oxidation of d-galactitol has not been applied on an industrial scale because of the high cofactor costs and the lack of efficient cofactor regeneration methods. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly enzymatic method containing a galactitol dehydrogenase for d-galactitol oxidation and a water-forming NADH oxidase for regeneration of NAD was first designed and used for l-tagatose production. Supplied with only 3 mM NAD, subsequent reaction optimization facilitated the efficient transformation of 100 mM of d-galactitol into l-tagatose with a yield of 90.2 % after 12 h (obtained productivity: 7.61 mM.h). Compared with the current chemical and biocatalytic methods, the strategy developed avoids by-product formation and achieves the highest yield of l-tagatose with low costs. It is expected to become a cleaner and more promising route for industrial biosynthesis of l-tagatose. 10.1016/j.nbt.2021.01.003
    D-Tagatose Effectively Reduces the Number of Streptococcus mutans and Oral Bacteria in Healthy Adult Subjects: A Chewing Gum Pilot Study and Randomized Clinical Trial. Nagamine Yuichi,Hasibul Khaleque,Ogawa Takaaki,Tada Ayano,Kamitori Kazuyo,Hossain Akram,Yamaguchi Fuminori,Tokuda Masaaki,Kuwahara Tomomi,Miyake Minoru Acta medica Okayama We examined the effect of D-Tagatose on the growth of oral bacteria including Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Saliva collected from 10 healthy volunteers was plated on BHI medium (to culture total oral bacteria) and MBS medium (to culture S. mutans, specifically). Agar plates of BHI or MBS containing xylitol or D-Tagatose were cultured under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. We then counted the number of colonies. In BHI plates containing D-Tagatose, a complete and significant reduction of bacteria occurred under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In MSB medium, significant reduction of S. mutans was also observed. We then performed a doubleblind parallel randomized trial with 19 healthy volunteers. They chewed gum containing xylitol, D-Tagatose, or both for 4 weeks, and their saliva was collected weekly and plated on BHI and MSB media. These plates were cultured under anaerobic conditions. Total bacteria and S. mutans were not effectively reduced in either the D-Tagatose or xylitol gum group. However, S. mutans was significantly reduced in volunteers chewing gum containing both D-Tagatose and xylitol. Thus, D-Tagatose inhibited the growth of S. mutans and many types of oral bacteria, indicating that D-Tagatose intake may help prevent dental caries, periodontitis, and many oral diseases. 10.18926/AMO/60369
    High resolution and high throughput analytical methods for d-tagatose and process related impurities using capillary electrophoresis. Surapureddi Sri Rama Krishna,Ravindhranath Kunta,Kumar Ghantasala S Sameer,Chiliveri Prashanth,Sappidi Sreedhar Reddy Analytical biochemistry d-tagatose is a low calorie multifunctional rare ketohexose sugar with sweetness similar to that of sucrose and it has high potential benefits for food and pharmaceutical industries. It is found in traces in some fruits as a natural component. In view of its high demand as a substitute for sugar, mass production of d-tagatose through enzymatic conversion of Lactose to d-tagatose is adopted. The existing HPLC method has limitations with respect sensitivity and resolution in quantification and monitoring of d-tagatose in the presence of its process related impurities. In the present investigation a new robust, fast and green analytical technique has been developed based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the separation and quantification of d-tagatose in presence of other sugars: Lactose, d-glucose, d-galactose and d-talose. Optimum conditions are found to be: Back Ground Electrolyte (BGE): 36 mM of NaHPO and 130 mM of NaOH; pH: 12.6; voltage: +18 kV for high resolution and -18 kV for high throughput methods with direct UV-Detector at 265 nm. At these optimum conditions, good separation between the sugars is achieved in less than 20 min for high resolution and less than 4 min for high throughput methods. The developed methodology is validated as per ICHQ2R1 guide lines and successfully applied for monitoring d-tagatose during the enzymatic conversion of Lactose/d-galactose to d-tagatose and also to determine the unknown amounts of d-tagatose in crystallized samples and further, it is used in identifying the d-tagatose in fruits. 10.1016/j.ab.2020.113981
    The Constipation-Relieving Property of d-Tagatose by Modulating the Composition of Gut Microbiota. Liang Yu-Xuan,Wen Peng,Wang Yu,OuYang Dong-Mei,Wang Da,Chen Yu-Zhong,Song Ya,Deng Jie,Sun Yuan-Ming,Wang Hong International journal of molecular sciences d-tagatose, a monosaccharide as well as a dietary supplement, has been reported as having a wide range of applicability in the food industry, however, the prebiotic activity, anticonstipation effects, and related mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, using the loperamide-induced constipation Kunming mice as the animal model, the effects of d-tagatose for the prevention of constipation were evaluated by gastrointestinal transit experiment and defecation experiment. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism was clarified by evaluating the change of the biochemical indicators and analyzing 16S rRNA amplicon of gut microbiota among the different mice groups. The results showed that the gastrointestinal transit rate, fecal number, and weight in six hours were significantly enhanced after the administration of d-tagatose. In addition, d-tagatose significantly increased the serum levels of acetylcholine (Ach) and substance P (SP), whereas the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly decreased. Moreover, the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that the changes in the gut microbiota caused by constipation were restored by d-tagatose treatment. In conclusion, this study indicated that the administration of d-tagatose as a dietary supplement can effectively prevent and relieve constipation in Kunming mice, and it is a promising prebiotic candidate with constipation-relieving properties. 10.3390/ijms20225721
    Bioproduction of D-Tagatose from D-Galactose Using Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Patel Manisha J,Patel Arti T,Akhani Rekha,Dedania Samir,Patel Darshan H Applied biochemistry and biotechnology Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 phosphoglucose isomerase was purified as an active soluble form by a single-step purification using Ni-NTA chromatography that showed homogeneity on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass ∼62 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum isomerization activity with D-galactose were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. Generally, sugar phosphate isomerases show metal-independent activity but PA-PGI exhibited metal-dependent isomerization activity with aldosugars and optimally catalyzed the D-galactose isomerization in the presence of 1.0 mM MnCl2. The apparent Km and Vmax for D-galactose under standardized conditions were calculated to be 1029 mM (±31.30 with S.E.) and 5.95 U/mg (±0.9 with S.E.), respectively. Equilibrium reached after 180 min with production of 567.51 μM D-tagatose from 1000 mM of D-galactose. Though, the bioconversion ratio is low but it can be increased by immobilization and enzyme engineering. Although various L-arabinose isomerases have been characterized for bioproduction of D-tagatose, P. aeruginosa glucose phosphate isomerase is distinguished from the other L-arabinose isomerases by its optimal temperature (60 °C) for D-tagatose production being mesophilic bacteria, making it an alternate choice for bulk production. 10.1007/s12010-016-2026-7
    Towards efficient enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: purification and characterization of L-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus brevis. Du Mengge,Zhao Dongying,Cheng Sisi,Sun Di,Chen Ming,Gao Ziqing,Zhang Chunzhi Bioprocess and biosystems engineering L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) (EC 5. 3. 1. 4. L-AI) that mediates the isomerization of D-galactose to D-tagatose was isolated from Lactobacillus brevis (MF 465792), and was further purified and characterized. Pure enzyme with molecular weight of 60.1 kDa was successfully obtained after the purification using Native-PAGE gel extraction method, which was a monomer in solution. The L-AI was found to be stable at 45-75 °C, and at pH 7.0-9.0. Its optimum temperature and pH was determined as 65 °C and 7.0, respectively. Besides, we found that Ca, Cu, and Ba ions inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas the enzyme activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of Mg, Mn, or Co ions. The optimum concentration of Mn and Co was determined to be 1 mM. Furthermore, we characterized the kinetic parameters for L-AI and determined the K (129 mM) and the V (0.045 mM min) values. Notably, L. brevisL-AI exhibited a high bioconversion yield of 43% from D-galactose to D-tagatose under the optimal condition, and appeared to be a more efficient catalyst compared with other L-AIs from various organisms. 10.1007/s00449-018-2018-9
    Trienzymatic Complex System for Isomerization of Agar-Derived d-Galactose into d-Tagatose as a Low-Calorie Sweetener. Jeong Da Woon,Hyeon Jeong Eun,Shin Sang Kyu,Han Sung Ok Journal of agricultural and food chemistry d-Tagatose is a rare monosaccharide that is used in products in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. To facilitate biological conversion of d-tagatose, the agarolytic enzyme complexes based on the principle of the cellulosome structure were constructed through dockerin-cohesin interaction with the scaffoldin. The construction of agarolytic complexes composed of l-arabinose isomerase caused efficient isomerization activity on the agar-derived sugars. In a trienzymatic complex, the chimeric β-agarase (cAgaB) and anhydro-galactosidase (cAhgA) from could synergistically hydrolyze natural agar substrates and l-arabinose isomerase (LsAraA Doc) from 23K could convert d-galactose into d-tagatose. The trienzymatic complex increased the concentration of d-tagatose from the agar substrate to 4.2 g/L. Compared with the monomeric enzyme, the multimeric enzyme showed a 1.4-fold increase in tagatose production, good thermostability, and reusability. A residual activity of 75% remained, and 52% of conversion was noted after five recycles. These results indicated that the dockerin-fused chimeric enzymes on the scaffoldin successfully isomerized d-galactose into d-tagatose with synergistic activity. Thus, the results demonstrated the possibility of advancing efficient strategies for utilizing red algae as a biomass source to produce d-tagatose in the industrial food field that uses marine biomass as the feedstock. 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b07536
    Improved substrate specificity for D-galactose of L-arabinose isomerase for industrial application. Laksmi Fina Amreta,Arai Shigeki,Tsurumaru Hirohito,Nakamura Yoshitaka,Saksono Budi,Tokunaga Masao,Ishibashi Matsujiro Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics L-Arabinose isomerase isolated from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GSAI) was modified to improve its substrate specificity for D-galactose for the production of D-tagatose, a potential reduced-energy sweetener. Among the selected residues, mutation at residue 18 produced a mutant strain, H18T, which exhibited increased activity for D-galactose compared with the wild-type (WT) enzyme. Analysis of the substrate specificity of H18T showed a 45.4% improvement for D-galactose. Replacing histidine with threonine at residue 18 resulted in approximately 2.7-fold and 1.8-fold higher substrate binding and catalytic efficiency, respectively, for D-galactose. Further enhancement of the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of H18T for D-galactose by up to 2.7-fold and 4.3-fold, respectively, was achieved by adding borate during L-arabinose isomerase catalysis. Moreover, H18T showed thermostability and no destabilization was detected, which is promising for the industrial production of D-tagatose. 10.1016/j.bbapap.2018.09.002