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    The association between vascular access type and depressive symptoms in geriatric hemodialysis population. Keser Betul Nur,Kirman Ulku Nur,Kocaaslan Cemal,Aydin Ebuzer Vascular OBJECTIVES:A well-functioning vascular access is crucial for hemodialysis treatment, and arteriovenous fistula is the recommended vascular access type. Arteriovenous fistula is superior to other vascular access types in many aspects, but the effect of arteriovenous fistula on patients' psychiatric state is not well described yet. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is an association between vascular access type and depression scores. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was conducted at two hemodialysis centers. Geriatric Depression Scale-15 was administered to geriatric hemodialysis patients, using ≥5 score as the cut-off value for the presence of depressive symptoms. Descriptive tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson's Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman's rank correlation calculation, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed accordingly to analyze the data. RESULTS:Of 75 participants, 34 (45.3%) were female and the mean age was 73.4 ± 5.9 years (range: 65-92). The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the geriatric hemodialysis population was 53.3%. Central venous catheter, hypertension, and increased time on hemodialysis have been found to be risk factors for higher depression scores (aOR 10.505 (95% CI 1.435-76.900),  = 0.021; aOR 9.783 (95% CI 2.508-38.169),  = 0.001; aOR 1.019 (95% CI 1.003-1.035),  = 0.017, respectively). Among patients with arteriovenous fistula, those with hypertension had higher depression scores ( = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS:Geriatric hemodialysis patients were found to have depressive symptoms commonly, and central venous catheter, hypertension, and increased time on hemodialysis have been found to be risk factors for presence of depressive symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting that arteriovenous fistula is associated with lower depression scores and lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. 10.1177/1708538120905725
    Better Quality of Life of Peritoneal Dialysis compared to Hemodialysis over a Two-year Period after Dialysis Initiation. Jung Hee-Yeon,Jeon Yena,Park Yeongwoo,Kim Yon Su,Kang Shin-Wook,Yang Chul Woo,Kim Nam-Ho,Choi Ji-Young,Cho Jang-Hee,Park Sun-Hee,Kim Chan-Duck,Kim Yong-Lim Scientific reports This study aimed to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over time in patients initiating hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 989 incident patients starting HD or PD were included from a prospective nationwide cohort study. HRQOL was assessed 3, 12, and 24 months after the start of dialysis. The scores of questionnaires were adjusted for clinical and socioeconomic parameters. The adjusted three months scores of patients on PD showed better HRQOL in eight end-stage renal disease (ESRD), three physical component summary and one mental component summary domains compared with patients on HD. Both patients on HD and PD experienced significant decreases in different HRQOL domains over two years and the degree of changes in HRQOL over time was not different between dialysis modality. However, the scores of three (effects of kidney disease, burden of kidney disease, and dialysis staff encouragement, all P < 0.05) and two (sexual function and dialysis staff encouragement, all P < 0.05) ESRD domains were still higher in patients on PD compared with patients on HD at one and two years after initiation of dialysis, respectively. PD shows better HRQOL during the initial period after dialysis even after adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic characteristics, and the effect lasts up to two years. It was similar in terms of changes in HRQOL over time between HD and PD. 10.1038/s41598-019-46744-1
    ASCENDing to New Heights in Our Understanding of the Treatment of Depression Among Individuals Receiving Hemodialysis. Flythe Jennifer E Annals of internal medicine 10.7326/M19-0526
    Risk of major depression in patients with chronic renal failure on different treatment modalities: A matched-cohort and population-based study in Taiwan. Chen Shih-Feng,Wang I-Jen,Lang Hui-Chu Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis The influence of different treatment modalities on the risk of developing major depression in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. We aimed to explore the incidence of major depression among patients with CRF who were on different dialysis modalities, who had received renal transplantation (RT), and those who had not yet received any of the aforementioned renal replacement therapies. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using a national health insurance research database. This study investigated 89,336 study controls, 17,889 patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment, 3823 patients on hemodialysis (HD), 351 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 322 patients who had RT. We followed all individuals until the occurrence of major depression or the date of loss to follow-up. The PD group had the highest risk (hazard ratio [HR] 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-4.69), whereas the RT group had the lowest risk (HR 0.18; 95% CI 0.03-1.29) of developing major depression compared with the control group. Patients initiated on PD had a higher risk of developing major depression than patients initiated on HD (pairwise comparison: HR 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.46). Different treatment modalities are associated with different risks of developing major depression in patients with CRF. Among renal replacement therapies, patients who have had RT have the lowest risk of developing major depression. Patients who initiate renal therapy on PD may have a higher risk of major depression compared with patients who initiate renal therapy on HD. 10.1111/hdi.12334
    Depression and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients on haemodialysis: a multinational cohort study. Saglimbene Valeria,Palmer Suetonia,Scardapane Marco,Craig Jonathan C,Ruospo Marinella,Natale Patrizia,Gargano Letizia,Leal Miguel,Bednarek-Skublewska Anna,Dulawa Jan,Ecder Tevfik,Stroumza Paul,Marco Murgo Angelo,Schön Staffan,Wollheim Charlotta,Hegbrant Jörgen,Strippoli Giovanni F M Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association Background:Depression and early death are both common in adults with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Studies have shown an association between depression and total mortality, but the association between depression and cardiovascular death is less certain. Methods:We conducted a prospective multinational cohort study involving adults who were treated with long-term haemodialysis within a single dialysis network between April and November 2010. Depression was considered present when patients reported a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II score ≥14 at baseline. Sensitivity analyses considered a BDI II score ≥20 to identify moderate depression. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess adjusted hazards for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality at 12 months. Results:Three thousand and eighty-six participants in the network received the BDI II questionnaire, and 2278 (73%) provided complete responses to the survey questions. Among these, 1047 (46%) reported depression. During a mean follow-up of 11 (standard deviation: 2.5) months (2096 person-years), we recorded 175 deaths, of which 66 were attributable to cardiovascular causes. Depression (BDI score ≥14) was not associated with all-cause mortality [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.93–1.71)] or cardiovascular mortality [0.82 (0.50–1.34)]. When a higher BDI score (BDI score ≥20) was used to identify moderate depression, depression was associated with total mortality [1.40 (1.02–1.93)] but not cardiovascular mortality [1.05 (0.63–1.77)]. Conclusions:The association between depression and cardiovascular mortality in adults with kidney failure treated with haemodialysis is uncertain. Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and may only be a risk factor for premature death when at least of moderate severity. 10.1093/ndt/gfw016
    Anxiety and depressive disorders in dialysis patients: association to health-related quality of life and mortality. Preljevic Valjbona T,Østhus Tone Brit Hortemo,Os Ingrid,Sandvik Leiv,Opjordsmoen Stein,Nordhus Inger Hilde,Dammen Toril General hospital psychiatry OBJECTIVE:To examine the associations between depressive/anxiety disorders (DAs), perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mortality in dialysis patients. METHODS:Patients were assessed for depressive and DAs with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36), and the Beck Depression Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also applied. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were also collected. RESULTS:Patients with depressive disorders reported more impaired HRQOL on four of the eight subscales, while those with a depressive disorder comorbid with DA reported more impairment on all MOS SF-36 subscales compared to those without any psychiatric disorder. During the observation period, 50% of those with depression, 28% of those with anxiety and 33% of patients with DA disorder died. A survival analysis did not indicate that patients with depressive or DAs had a higher mortality than patients without such disorders. CONCLUSION:Dialysis patients with depressive disorders reported impaired HRQOL, whereas those with DAs did not. Patients with DA reported the most serious HRQOL impairment. No evidence was obtained to support the hypothesis that depressive and DAs contributed to compromised survival in dialysis patients. In patients with depression, DAs should also be assessed as they significantly contribute to impaired HRQOL. 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.05.006
    Screening for psychological distress using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS): Initial validation of structural validity in dialysis patients. Chilcot Joseph,Hudson Joanna L,Moss-Morris Rona,Carroll Amy,Game David,Simpson Anna,Hotopf Matthew General hospital psychiatry OBJECTIVE:To validate the factor structure of the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS)- which is a composite measure of depression and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), in a sample of haemodialysis patients. METHOD:Screening data (n=182) used to select entry into a feasibility study of an online cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention for distress in dialysis patients were analysed here. Structural validity of the PHQ-ADS was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), assessing alternative models including a bi-factor model. In the bi-factor model all items from the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 (16-items in total) were loaded onto a general distress factor. Respective items of the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were specified as subgroup factors. Omega-hierarchical was calculated to indicate the level of saturation of a multidimensional scale by a general factor. Construct validity was determined against the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. RESULTS:A bi-factor PHQ-ADS model had good fit to the data (chi-square=96.1, p=0.26, CFI=0.99; TLI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02). The general distress factor accounted for approximately 84% of the explained variance (omega-h=0.90). Distress scores were significantly higher in females compare with males. There was a significant association between distress and negative illness perceptions (r=0.58, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The PHQ-ADS appears to have good structural validity in haemodialysis patients and is sufficiently unidimensional to warrant the use of a total distress score. A full psychometric analysis of the PHQ-ADS in a larger sample of dialysis patients is warranted. 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2017.09.007
    Quality of Life and Physical Function in Older Patients on Dialysis: A Comparison of Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis with Hemodialysis. Iyasere Osasuyi U,Brown Edwina A,Johansson Lina,Huson Les,Smee Joanna,Maxwell Alexander P,Farrington Ken,Davenport Andrew Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:In-center hemodialysis (HD) is often the default dialysis modality for older patients. Few centers use assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD), which enables treatment at home. This observational study compared quality of life (QoL) and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and HD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:Patients on assisted PD who were >60 years old and on dialysis for >3 months were recruited and matched to patients on HD (needing hospital transport) by age, sex, diabetes, dialysis vintage, ethnicity, and index of deprivation. Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale. QoL assessments included Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form-12, Palliative Outcomes Symptom Scale (renal), Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, and Renal Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RTSQ). Physical function was evaluated by Barthel Score and timed up and go test. RESULTS:In total, 251 patients (129 PD and 122 HD) were recruited. In unadjusted analysis, patients on assisted PD had a higher prevalence of possible depression (HADS>8; PD=38.8%; HD=23.8%; P=0.05) and higher HADS depression score (median: PD=6; HD=5; P=0.05) but higher RTSQ scores (median: PD=55; HD=51; P<0.01). In a generalized linear regression model adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, dialysis vintage, and frailty, assisted PD continued to be associated with higher RTSQ scores (P=0.04) but not with other QoL measures. CONCLUSIONS:There are no differences in measures of QoL and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and comparable patients on HD, except for treatment satisfaction, which is higher in patients on PD. Assisted PD should be considered as an alternative to HD for older patients, allowing them to make their preferred choices. 10.2215/CJN.01050115
    Association of Malnutrition Inflammation Score With Anthropometric Parameters, Depression, and Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients. Gencer Feray,Yıldıran Hilal,Erten Yasemin Journal of the American College of Nutrition Hemodialysis patients may be at risk for malnutrition due to catabolic effects caused by dialysis, loss of amino acids, inadequate nutrient intake, acidosis, and inflammation. Malnutrition may have negative effects on quality of life, mortality, and disease prognosis. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between anthropometric parameters, depression, and quality of life with Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) on 55 patients aged between 18 and 65 years (36 males and 19 females) who have dialysis treatment for 3 days per week for at least 3 months due to end-stage renal disease. : Patients were evaluated with MIS, Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). In addition, anthropometric (body weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]) and body composition measurements of patients were taken, body mass index (BMI) values were calculated, and biochemical parameters (albumin, C-reactive protein [CRP], and total iron binding capacity [TIBC]) were analyzed. At the end of the study, 14.5% of the patients according to SGA, were classified as malnourished. There was a statistically significant positive correlation of BDI, duration of dialysis, and CRP with MIS. However, MIS had a statistically significant negative correlation with SWLS, body weight, and MUAC ( < 0.05). MIS is an effective screening tool for assessing malnutrition and quality of life in hemodialysis patients. However, there is a need for studies to identify cutoff points of MIS. 10.1080/07315724.2018.1550371
    Differential effects of age on quality of sleep and depression in patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. Lin Kuan-Yu,Lin Yi-Chun,Wang Hsiu-Ho Psychogeriatrics : the official journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society BACKGROUND:Poor quality of sleep and depression are common and highly associated with each other in patients on haemodialysis. We aimed to investigate whether they share common risk factors and how age may influence their development. METHODS:Cross-sectional observation study on 120 haemodialysis patients with quality of sleep and depression assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ), respectively. RESULTS:The prevalence of poor quality of sleep and depression was 92.5% and 43.3%, respectively. PSQI scores were associated with age, gender, education and monthly income while TDQ scores were associated with low serum creatinine and albumin levels. Elderly patients at ages older than 65 had the highest average PSQI score (12.26 ± 4.35) than the young group at age 20-44 (8.25 ± 4.39) (P = 0.028) but the average TDQ scores were similar across three age groups. The proportion of those who had high PSQI scores was significantly higher in the elderly group (54.4%, P = 0.017) and the 44-65-years group (51.9%, P = 0.028) than the young group (16.7%). The proportion of those who reported normal quality of sleep was much lower in the elderly group (0.0%) than the other two groups (25.0%, P < 0.001 and 11.7%, P < 0.01). The proportions of those who had different ranges of TDQ scores did not show such a pattern of strong age dependence. CONCLUSIONS:Poor quality of sleep in haemodialysis patients is associated with socio-economic factors while depression is more related to biochemistry indicators. A majority of older patients suffer very poor quality of sleep while depression appears equally severe and common across different age groups. 10.1111/psyg.12424
    The effects of vascular access types on the survival and quality of life and depression in the incident hemodialysis patients. Kim Do Hyoung,Park Ji In,Lee Jung Pyo,Kim Yong-Lim,Kang Shin-Wook,Yang Chul Woo,Kim Nam-Ho,Kim Yon Su,Lim Chun Soo Renal failure Although arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis (HD), the association between vascular access types and quality of life is not well-known. We investigated the relationships between HD vascular access types and all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the degree of depression in a large prospective cohort. A total of 1461 patients who newly initiated HD were included. The initial vascular access types were classified into AVF, arteriovenous graft (AVG), and central venous catheter (CVC). The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and HRQOL and depression. The secondary outcome was all-cause hospitalization. Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36) and Beck's depression inventory (BDI) scores were measured to assess HRQOL and depression. Among 1461 patients, we identified 314 patients who started HD via AVF, 76 via AVG, and 1071 via CVC. In the survival analysis, patients with AVF showed significantly better survival compared with patients with other accesses ( < .001). The AVF and AVG group had higher KDQOL-36 score and lower BDI score than CVC group at 3 months and 12 months after the initiation of HD. The frequency of hospitalization was higher in patients with AVG compared to those with AVF (AVF 0.7 vs. AVG 1.1 times per year) ( = .024). The patients with AVF had better survival rate and low hospitalization rate, and the patients with AVF or AVG showed both higher HRQOL and lower depression scores than those with CVC. 10.1080/0886022X.2019.1702558
    We Need to Talk about Depression and Dialysis: but What Questions Should We Ask, and Does Anyone Know the Answers? Hackett Maree L,Jardine Meg J Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 10.2215/CJN.13031216
    Thyroid Status, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients on Hemodialysis. Rhee Connie M,Chen Yanjun,You Amy S,Brunelli Steven M,Kovesdy Csaba P,Budoff Matthew J,Brent Gregory A,Kalantar-Zadeh Kamyar,Nguyen Danh V Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:In the general population, there is increasing recognition of the effect of thyroid function on patient-centered outcomes, including health-related quality of life and depression. Although hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients, it is unknown whether thyroid status is a risk factor for impaired health-related quality of life or mental health in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We examined the association of thyroid status, defined by serum thyrotropin, with health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms over time in a prospective cohort of 450 patients on hemodialysis from 17 outpatient dialysis facilities from May of 2013 to May of 2015 who underwent protocolized thyrotropin testing, Short-Form 36 surveys, and Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaires every 6 months. We examined the association of baseline and time-dependent thyrotropin categorized as tertiles and continuous variables with eight Short-Form 36 domains and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores using expanded case mix plus laboratory adjusted linear mixed effects models. RESULTS:In categorical analyses, the highest baseline thyrotropin tertile was associated with a five-point lower Short-Form 36 domain score for energy/fatigue (=0.04); the highest time-dependent tertile was associated with a five-point lower physical function score (=0.03; reference: lowest tertile). In continuous analyses, higher baseline serum thyrotropin levels (+1 mIU/L) were associated with lower role limitations due to physical health (=-1.3; =0.04), energy/fatigue (=-0.8; =0.03), and pain scores (=-1.4; =0.002), equivalent to five-, three-, and five-point lower scores, respectively, for every 1-SD higher thyrotropin. Higher time-dependent thyrotropin levels were associated with lower role limitations due to physical health scores (=-1.0; =0.03), equivalent to a three-point decline for every 1-SD higher thyrotropin. Baseline and time-dependent thyrotropin were not associated with Beck Depression Inventory-II scores. CONCLUSIONS:In patients on hemodialysis, higher serum thyrotropin levels are associated with impaired health-related quality of life across energy/fatigue, physical function, and pain domains. Studies are needed to determine if thyroid-modulating therapy improves the health-related quality of life of hemodialysis patients with thyroid dysfunction. 10.2215/CJN.13211216
    Prevalence and patterns of depression and anxiety in hemodialysis patients: a 12-month prospective study on incident and prevalent populations. Ng Hui Juan,Tan Wei Jie,Mooppil Nandakumar,Newman Stanton,Griva Konstadina British journal of health psychology OBJECTIVE:Depression is common in dialysis patients and has been shown to be associated with higher morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the course of symptoms over time. The current study set up to explore group and individual patterns of change in symptoms of anxiety and depression within the hemodialysis population and to identify socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological factors that may be associated with different trajectories of emotional distress. METHODS:A total of 159 hemodialysis patients (n = 42 incident and n = 117 prevalent) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and social support and symptoms subscales from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (Short Form) on two occasions 12 months apart. Clinical cut-offs were used to identify individual patterns of change in anxiety and depression symptoms across time, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were employed to establish potential correlates of these trajectories. RESULTS:Mean levels of anxiety and depression symptoms remained unchanged over 1 year with 44.7-54.1% of patients above cut-off at both baseline and follow-up. Individual-level analyses showed that the course of symptoms does not follow a single trajectory. While most patients had either persistent symptoms of distress (39.6% and 31.8% for depression and anxiety, respectively) or no/low symptoms of distress (32.1% and 36.9% for depression and anxiety, respectively), a total of 12.7-18.5% patients either had new-onset symptoms of depression/anxiety or symptoms diminishing over time. Patients with persisting or new-onset symptoms of depression or anxiety reported reduced perceived social support and quality of social interaction compared to the subgroups with low depressive/anxious symptoms. CONCLUSION:Different patterns of symptoms reflect heterogeneity in patients' emotional reactions and adjustment. More research is needed to identify patients at risk for emotional distress and to explore social support in the context of dialysis. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Depression and poor mental health are common in hemodialysis patients and are associated with higher risk of hospitalization and death. Course of depression in incident hemodialysis patients is variable, but evidence on prevalent patients and course of symptoms of anxiety is largely lacking. What does this study add? Anxiety and depression remain undifferentiated over time with most patients reporting persistently high or no symptoms of anxiety or depression. New-onset symptoms of anxiety or depression or recovery are less frequent. The lack of consistent associations between socio-demographic or clinical parameters with patterns of emotional distress makes early identification difficult. Regular screening as part of clinical care is hence essential. Persistently high or new-onset symptoms of anxiety and/or depression are associated with reduced perceived social support. More research is needed to explore the role of social resources in the context of dialysis. 10.1111/bjhp.12106
    Depressive Symptoms in Dialysis: Prevalence and Relationship with Uremia-Related Biochemical Parameters. Cirillo Luigi,Cutruzzulà Roberta,Somma Chiara,Gregori Marco,Cestone Giuseppe,Pizzarelli Chiara,Toccafondi Alessandro,Pizzarelli Francesco,Dattolo Pietro Claudio Blood purification BACKGROUND:Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in long-term dialysis patients and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Although there is a relevance of the issue in the dialysis setting, we still know little about possible relationships between depression and uraemia-related biochemical abnormalities. Our aims were to evaluate (1) the prevalence of depression in our haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) population using a validated and easy-to-implement screening tool and (2) the association between depression and the main uraemia-related clinical and biochemical parameter changes. METHODS:In this monocentric cross-sectional study, all patients of our centre with at least 3 months of dialysis were screened by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a self-administered depression-screening questionnaire validated in dialysis setting. The impact of depressive symptoms on daily life was also assessed. We then analysed relationships between the PHQ-9-derived depressive score, functional impairment score, demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. RESULTS:In our cohort of 145 patients, depressive symptoms were found in 69 patients (46%). Stratifying for severity, mild, moderate and severe grade accounted for 31, 13 and 2% respectively. Depressive symptoms affected 36% of patients on PD versus 52% of patients on HD. Moreover, the PD patients had significantly less functional impairment derived from depressive symptoms than the HD patients. Simple and multiple regression analysis identified serum phosphorus as the only uraemia-related laboratory parameter that was high statistically associated with depressive score. CONCLUSIONS:Using a reliable, simple and fast tool, we found that depressive symptoms affect almost half of dialysis patients, particularly so the HD cohort. Severity of depressive symptoms seems related to serum levels of phosphorus possibly because depression affects compliance to therapy. 10.1159/000491014
    Depression Symptoms in Haemodialysis Patients Predict All-Cause Mortality but Not Kidney Transplantation: A Cause-Specific Outcome Analysis. Chilcot Joseph,Guirguis Ayman,Friedli Karin,Almond Michael,Day Clara,Da Silva-Gane Maria,Davenport Andrew,Fineberg Naomi A,Spencer Benjamin,Wellsted David,Farrington Ken Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine Background:Depression is common in haemodialysis (HD) patients and associated with poor outcomes. Purpose:To evaluate whether depression symptoms predict survival and transplantation in a large sample of haemodialysis patients using cause-specific survival models. Methods:Survival data was collected between April 2013 and November 2015, as part of the screening phase of a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in HD patients. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Demographic and clinical data were collected via a self-report questionnaire and medical records. Competing risk survival analysis involved cause-specific and subdistribution hazard survival models. All models were adjusted for appropriate covariates including co-morbidity and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a subanalysis. Results:Of 707 cases available for analysis, there were 148 deaths. The mean survival time was 787.5 days. Cumulative survival at 12 months was 88.5%. During the study follow-up period, there were 92 transplants. The cumulative transplant event rate at 12 months was 7.8%. In separate adjusted models, depression symptoms predicted mortality (BDI-II HR = 1.03 95% CI 1.01, 1.04; PHQ-9 HR = 1.04 95% CI 1.01, 1.06). With respect to screening cut-off scores, a PHQ-9 ≥ 10 was associated with mortality (HR = 1.51 95% CI 1.01, 2.19) but not a BDI-II ≥ 16. Depression symptoms were not associated with time to transplantation in either cause-specific or subdistribution model. Conclusions:Consistent with past findings in HD patients, depression symptoms predicted survival but were not associated with kidney transplantation. Suitable treatments for depression need further evaluation, and their impact upon quality of life and clinical outcomes determined. Trial Registration Number:(ISRCTN06146268). 10.1007/s12160-017-9918-9
    Self-reported depression symptoms in haemodialysis patients: Bi-factor structures of two common measures and their association with clinical factors. Chilcot Joseph,Almond Michael K,Guirguis Ayman,Friedli Karin,Day Clara,Davenport Andrew,Wellsted David,Farrington Ken General hospital psychiatry OBJECTIVE:To validate the factor structure of two common self-report depression tools in a large sample of haemodialysis (HD) patients and to examine their demographic and clinical correlates, including urine output, history of depression and transplantation. METHODS:Factor structures of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Data was utilised from the screening phase (n = 709) of a placebo-controlled feasibility randomised control trial (RCT) of sertraline in HD patients with mild to moderate Major Depressive Disorder. Alternative factor models including bi-factor models for the BDI-II and PHQ-9 were evaluated. Coefficient omega and omega-hierarchical were calculated. RESULTS:For both measures, bi-factor measurement models had the overall best fit to the data, with dominant general depression factors. Omega-hierarchical for the general BDI-II and PHQ-9 factors was 0.94 and 0.88 respectively. Both general factors had high reliability (coefficient omega = 0.97 and 0.94 respectively) and explained over 85% of the explained common variance within their respective models. BDI-II and PHQ-9 general depression factors were negatively associated with age and urine output and positively with a history of depression, antidepressant use within the last 3 months and a history of failed transplantation. In adjusted regression models, age, urine output and a history of depression remained significant. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that both the BDI-II and PHQ-9 are sufficiently unidimensional to warrant the use of a total score. Younger age, lower urine output and a history of depression appear consistent correlates of depression severity among HD patients. 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.08.007
    The diagnostic utility of Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) as a screening tool for major depression in hemodialysis patients. Alsuwaida Abdulkareem,Alwahhabi Fahad Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia There is overwhelming evidence that individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are being seriously under diagnosed and under treated. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a good screening instrument for the detection of psychiatric disorders. However, the clinical significance of SRQ as a screening test for MDD in patients on hemodialysis (HD) has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the SRQ in detecting MDD in a cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance HD. Twenty-six patients on maintenance HD were randomly recruited and were asked to complete the SRQ. The participants were, in addition, interviewed by a psychiatrist, who had been blinded to the SRQ score. We examined the ability of SRQ to detect patients who were diagnosed to have MDD based on psychiatric assessment. Among the 26 patients assessed, four patients were diagnosed to have MDD based on current diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis showed that SRQ could predict patients with MDD with adjusted odds ratio of 1.9 (CI, 1.06- 3.42). Being a female was the most important variable for having a high SRQ (F=16.9, P=0.0004). The limitations of this study include a relatively small sample size and a high rate of somatic symptoms reported in the non-depressed population that limited the positive predictive value of the SRQ. Thus, although the SRQ has a high sensitivity, the positive predictive value of the SRQ is poor at low cut offs. In conclusion, our study suggests that an ideal screening tool in patients on HD should have minimal emphasis on the somatic symptoms of MDD. Until such a tool is available, clinical assessment remains the best screening tool for MDD.
    Association of depression and anxiety with reduced quality of life in patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease. Lee Y-J,Kim M S,Cho S,Kim S R International journal of clinical practice AIM:Although depression and anxiety are the most common psychological problems among dialysis patients, little is known about the association between depression, anxiety and quality of life (QOL) in patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety, and their association with QOL in patients with predialysis CKD. METHODS:Two hundred and eight predialysis patients (male 61.1%) with a mean age of 55.7 ± 13.7 years and an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were enrolled. Depression and anxiety were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Patients with anxiety and depression scores ≥ 8 were diagnosed with anxiety and depression disorders respectively. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess patient QOL. RESULTS:The prevalence of depression (47.1%) and anxiety (27.6%) did not differ across CKD stages. Depression correlated positively with age, employment, income, education, comorbidity index, haemoglobin level, albumin concentration and anxiety score, and negatively with all WHOQOL-BREF domain scores. Anxiety correlated significantly with QOL, but not with socioeconomic factors. In a multiple regression analysis, haemoglobin level, anxiety and QOL were independent factors associated with depression. In a linear regression analysis, depression and anxiety independently correlated with QOL after we adjusted for age, alcohol use, employment, income, education, haemoglobin level and albumin concentration. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with predialysis CKD have a high prevalence of depression and anxiety, which are associated with reduced QOL. Early detection of depression and anxiety and active interventions should be considered to improve the QOL of these patients. 10.1111/ijcp.12020
    Association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with adverse events in Dutch chronic kidney disease patients: a prospective cohort study. Loosman Wim L,Rottier Marcus A,Honig Adriaan,Siegert Carl E H BMC nephrology BACKGROUND:Depressive symptoms have been reported to be associated with adverse clinical outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. This association has not been examined in Europe. Anxiety and depressive symptoms often co-occur. However, as yet there are no data concerning a possible association of anxiety symptoms with adverse clinical outcome. We examined the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with adverse clinical outcome in Dutch CKD patients not on dialysis. METHODS:In this 3-year follow-up prospective cohort study, CKD patients not on dialysis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 35 ml/min/1.73 m(2) from an urban teaching hospital were selected. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratio's (HRs) with a composite event of death, initiation of dialysis, and hospitalization as outcome. HRs were adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and eGFR. RESULTS:Of 100 included CKD patients depressive and anxiety symptoms were present in 34 and 31 %, respectively. Adjusted HRs for the composite event for patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms were 2.0 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.5) and 1.6 (95 % CI 0.9-2.7), respectively. Twenty three patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms of whom adjusted HRs were 2.2 (95 % CI 1.2-4.0) for a composite event. CONCLUSIONS:Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common in patients with CKD in The Netherlands. Depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of poor clinical outcome. Anxiety symptoms show a trend for an increased risk of poor clinical outcome. There seems to be no additive effect of anxiety symptoms in addition to depressive symptoms with regard to poor clinical outcome. 10.1186/s12882-015-0149-7
    Sleep and emotional disturbance in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease. Tu Chao-Ying,Chou Yu-Hsiang,Lin Yu-Hsuan,Huang Wei-Lieh Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:Sleep disorder and depression are prevalent in patients on dialysis but less investigated in earlier-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, health anxiety, and sleep disturbance and explore the association between CKD stage, psychological symptoms and sleep quality. METHODS:We recruited 326 patients with CKD (stage 1-5) not on dialysis from the nephrology clinic. All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Chi-square tests were used to assess the difference in psychological symptoms between CKD stages. Multiple linear regression was employed to assess relationships among selected variables and sleep/emotional disturbance. RESULTS:Clinically significant depression, anxiety, health anxiety, and sleep disturbance were found in 3.1%, 3.1%, 18%, and 36.2% of the patients, respectively. BDI-II, BAI, HAQ, and PSQI scores did not significantly differ across CKD stages. In a multiple linear regression model that included psychological variables, BDI-II score had a statistically significant association with PSQI score (β = 0.418, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Depressive symptoms were associated with sleep quality of patients with earlier-stage CKD. However, there was no significant association between CKD stage and sleep disturbance or other psychological symptoms. 10.1016/j.jfma.2018.10.016
    The Association between Depression, Perceived Health Status, and Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease: An Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Nguyen Hoang Anh,Anderson Cheryl A M,Miracle Cynthia M,Rifkin Dena E Nephron BACKGROUND:Depression is the most common mental health disorder among those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with prevalence of 15-40%. However, the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and depression is more variable. We examined the associations of CKD with depression, perceived health status, and quality of life in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. METHODS:This study included 4,075 adults. Depression was defined as a condition when a Patient Health Questionnaire score was ≥10, or when there was reported antidepressant use. Reduced quality of life was defined by the number of days having poor mental and physical health, or feeling anxious. We calculated ORs for associations between CKD and depression and self-perceived health status, and used linear regression to examine associations between CKD and the number of days of poor health or anxiety. RESULTS:The prevalence of CKD was 7.0% and that of depression was 19.1%. Those with CKD were not more likely to be depressed versus those without CKD after multivariate adjustment. Although they were 2.2 times more likely to have fair/poor health status after adjusting for demographic characteristics, this was attenuated by adjustment for confounders. Those with CKD reported one more day of being inactive due to poor health in the past month (p < 0.05), after multivariate adjustment. No differences were found for self-reported anxiety. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that NHANES participants with CKD have more days of poor health but are not more likely to be depressed or anxious. This may reflect differences between clinical CKD populations and community-based samples. 10.1159/000455750