Depression Heterogeneity and Its Biological Underpinnings: Toward Immunometabolic Depression.
Milaneschi Yuri,Lamers Femke,Berk Michael,Penninx Brenda W J H
Epidemiological evidence indicates the presence of dysregulated homeostatic biological pathways in depressed patients, such as increased inflammation and disrupted energy-regulating neuroendocrine signaling (e.g., leptin, insulin). Alterations in these biological pathways may explain the considerable comorbidity between depression and cardiometabolic conditions (e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) and represent a promising target for intervention. This review describes how immunometabolic dysregulations vary as a function of depression heterogeneity by illustrating that such biological dysregulations map more consistently to atypical behavioral symptoms reflecting altered energy intake/expenditure balance (hyperphagia, weight gain, hypersomnia, fatigue, and leaden paralysis) and may moderate the antidepressant effects of standard or novel (e.g., anti-inflammatory) therapeutic approaches. These lines of evidence are integrated in a conceptual model of immunometabolic depression emerging from the clustering of immunometabolic biological dysregulations and specific behavioral symptoms. The review finally elicits questions to be answered by future research and describes how the immunometabolic depression dimension could be used to dissect the heterogeneity of depression and potentially to match subgroups of patients to specific treatments with higher likelihood of clinical success.
CRF receptor 1 regulates anxiety behavior via sensitization of 5-HT2 receptor signaling.
Magalhaes Ana C,Holmes Kevin D,Dale Lianne B,Comps-Agrar Laetitia,Lee Dennis,Yadav Prem N,Drysdale Linsay,Poulter Michael O,Roth Bryan L,Pin Jean-Philippe,Anisman Hymie,Ferguson Stephen S G
Stress and anxiety disorders are risk factors for depression and these behaviors are modulated by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and serotonin receptor (5-HT(2)R). However, the potential behavioral and cellular interaction between these two receptors is unclear. We found that pre-administration of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) into the prefrontal cortex of mice enhanced 5-HT(2)R-mediated anxiety behaviors in response to 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine. In both heterologous cell cultures and mouse cortical neurons, activation of CRFR1 also enhanced 5-HT(2) receptor-mediated inositol phosphate formation. CRFR1-mediated increases in 5-HT(2)R signaling were dependent on receptor internalization and receptor recycling via rapid recycling endosomes, resulting in increased expression of 5-HT(2)R on the cell surface. Sensitization of 5-HT(2)R signaling by CRFR1 required intact PDZ domain-binding motifs at the end of the C-terminal tails of both receptor types. These data suggest a mechanism by which CRF, a peptide known to be released by stress, enhances anxiety-related behavior via sensitization of 5-HT(2)R signaling.
Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders.
Mineka S,Watson D,Clark L A
Annual review of psychology
Research on relationships between anxiety and depression has proceeded at a rapid pace since the 1980s. The similarities and differences between these two conditions, as well as many of the important features of the comorbidity of these disorders, are well understood. The genotypic structure of anxiety and depression is also fairly well documented. Generalized anxiety and major depression share a common genetic diathesis, but the anxiety disorders themselves are genetically hetergeneous. Sophisticated phenotypic models have also emerged, with data converging on an integrative hierarchical model of mood and anxiety disorders in which each individual syndrome contains both a common and a unique component. Finally, considerable progress has been made in understanding cognitive aspects of these disorders. This work has focused on both the cognitive content of anxiety and depression and on the effects that anxiety and depression have on information processing for mood-congruent material.
Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents.
Brady E U,Kendall P C
Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents are reviewed, including differential diagnosis, assessment of symptoms, family history data, developmental features, and clinical correlates. Findings indicate that 15.9% to 61.9% of children identified as anxious or depressed have comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders and that measures of anxiety and depression are highly correlated. Family history data are inconclusive. Differences emerged among children with anxiety, depression, or both disorders. Anxious children were distinguishable from the other 2 groups in that they showed less depressive symptomatology and tended to be younger. The concurrently depressed and anxious group tended to be older and more symptomatic. In this group, the anxiety symptoms tended to predate the depressive symptoms. Findings are discussed in the context of a proposed developmental sequence.
Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.
Fine R,Zhang J,Stevens H E
Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that explores how this early developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders.
Treating the Developing versus Developed Brain: Translating Preclinical Mouse and Human Studies.
Casey B J,Glatt Charles E,Lee Francis S
Behaviors and underlying brain circuits show characteristic changes across the lifespan that produce sensitive windows of vulnerability and resilience to psychopathology. Understanding the developmental course of these changes may inform which treatments are best at what ages. Focusing on behavioral domains and neurobiological substrates conserved from mouse to human supports reciprocal hypothesis generation and testing that leverages the strengths of each system in understanding their development. Introducing human genetic variants into mice can further define effects of individual variation on normative development, how they contribute to risk and resilience for mental illness, and inform personalized treatment opportunities. This article emphasizes the period of adolescence, when there is a peak in the emergence of mental illness, anxiety disorders in particular. We present cross-species studies relating fear learning to anxiety across development and discuss how clinical treatments can be optimized for individuals and targeted to the biological states of the developing brain.
From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression.
Slavich George M,Irwin Michael R
Major life stressors, especially those involving interpersonal stress and social rejection, are among the strongest proximal risk factors for depression. In this review, we propose a biologically plausible, multilevel theory that describes neural, physiologic, molecular, and genomic mechanisms that link experiences of social-environmental stress with internal biological processes that drive depression pathogenesis. Central to this social signal transduction theory of depression is the hypothesis that experiences of social threat and adversity up-regulate components of the immune system involved in inflammation. The key mediators of this response, called proinflammatory cytokines, can in turn elicit profound changes in behavior, which include the initiation of depressive symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, fatigue, psychomotor retardation, and social-behavioral withdrawal. This highly conserved biological response to adversity is critical for survival during times of actual physical threat or injury. However, this response can also be activated by modern-day social, symbolic, or imagined threats, leading to an increasingly proinflammatory phenotype that may be a key phenomenon driving depression pathogenesis and recurrence, as well as the overlap of depression with several somatic conditions including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pain, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and neurodegeneration. Insights from this theory may thus shed light on several important questions including how depression develops, why it frequently recurs, why it is strongly predicted by early life stress, and why it often co-occurs with symptoms of anxiety and with certain physical disease conditions. This work may also suggest new opportunities for preventing and treating depression by targeting inflammation.
Psychopharmacology and Cardiovascular Disease.
Piña Ileana L,Di Palo Katherine E,Ventura Hector O
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
This review discusses common mental health disorders and their associations with cardiovascular disease risks. Commonly found mental health disorders include depression, anxiety, and personality types. The link between depression and cardiovascular disease mortality has been established. Depression is also common in patients with heart failure. In addition to discussing psychological disorders, a review of psychotropic drugs is also included. Drugs are described for therapy for depression and anxiety, as well as associations with cardiovascular drug-drug interactions. Drug-drug interactions are more common and potentially dangerous in elderly patients, in whom the conditions often coexist. The most common drug-drug interactions involve the P450 system of enzymes.
The BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism as a modifier of psychiatric disorder susceptibility: progress and controversy.
Notaras M,Hill R,van den Buuse M
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a primary role in neuronal development, differentiation and plasticity in both the developing and adult brain. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the proregion of BDNF, termed the Val66Met polymorphism, results in deficient subcellular translocation and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF, and has been associated with impaired neurocognitive function in healthy adults and in the incidence and clinical features of several psychiatric disorders. Research investigating the Val66Met polymorphism has increased markedly in the past decade, and a gap in integration exists between and within academic subfields interested in the effects of this variant. Here we comprehensively review the role and relevance of the Val66Met polymorphism in psychiatric disorders, with emphasis on suicidal behavior and anxiety, eating, mood and psychotic disorders. The cognitive and molecular neuroscience of the Val66Met polymorphism is also concisely reviewed to illustrate the effects of this genetic variant in healthy controls, and is complemented by a commentary on the behavioral neuroscience of BDNF and the Val66Met polymorphism where relevant to specific disorders. Lastly, a number of controversies and unresolved issues, including small effect sizes, sampling of allele inheritance but not genotype and putative ethnicity-specific effects of the Val66Met polymorphism, are also discussed to direct future research.
Epigenetic mechanisms of depression and antidepressant action.
Vialou Vincent,Feng Jian,Robison Alfred J,Nestler Eric J
Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
Epigenetic mechanisms, which control chromatin structure and function, mediate changes in gene expression that occur in response to diverse stimuli. Recent research has established that environmental events and behavioral experience induce epigenetic changes at particular gene loci and that these changes help shape neuronal plasticity and function and hence behavior. Some of these changes can be stable and can even persist for a lifetime. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that aberrations in chromatin remodeling and subsequent effects on gene expression within limbic brain regions contribute to the pathogenesis of depression and other stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety syndromes. Likewise, the gradually developing but persistent therapeutic effects of antidepressant medications may be achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic regulation of stress-related disorders and focuses on three distinct aspects of stress-induced epigenetic pathology: the effects of stress and antidepressant treatment during adulthood, the lifelong effects of early-life stress on subsequent stress vulnerability, and the possible transgenerational transmission of stress-induced abnormalities.
The link between multiple sclerosis and depression.
Feinstein Anthony,Magalhaes Sandra,Richard Jean-Francois,Audet Blair,Moore Craig
Nature reviews. Neurology
Depression--be it a formal diagnosis based on consensus clinical criteria, or a collection of symptoms revealed by a self-report rating scale--is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and adds substantially to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. This Review discusses the prevalence and epidemiology of depression in patients with MS, before covering aetiological factors, including genetics, brain pathology, immunological changes, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and psychosocial influences. Treatment options such as antidepressant drugs, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mindfulness-based therapy, exercise and electroconvulsive therapy are also reviewed in the context of MS-related depression. Frequent comorbid conditions, namely pain, fatigue, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction and alcohol use, are also summarized. The article then explores three key challenges facing researchers and clinicians: what is the optimal way to define depression in the context of diseases such as MS, in which the psychiatric and neurological symptoms overlap; how can current knowledge about the biological and psychological underpinnings of MS-related depression be used to boost the validity of this construct; and can intervention be made more effective through use of combination therapies with additive or synergistic effects, which might exceed the modest benefits derived from their individual components?
Neurobiological mechanisms of social anxiety disorder.
Mathew S J,Coplan J D,Gorman J M
The American journal of psychiatry
OBJECTIVE:The authors critically surveyed several preclinical and clinical neurobiological models of social anxiety disorder. METHOD:The authors reviewed the recent literature regarding three animal models of particular relevance to social anxiety. They then examined the recent literature concerning clinical neurobiological aspects of social anxiety disorder, including the developmental neurobiology of anxiety, the genetics of fear and social anxiety, and challenge and imaging studies. RESULTS:The available animal models are useful paradigms for understanding the features of social subordination stress, attachment behavior, and environmental rearing, but they incompletely account for the known neurobiology of human social anxiety disorder. The clinical neurobiology literature surveyed implicates specific neurotransmitter system abnormalities, most notably of the dopamine system, but largely ignores neurodevelopmental processes and the functional interactions between neurotransmitters. Both heritable factors and environmental stress factors appear to be responsible for the onset of social anxiety disorder. CONCLUSIONS:Social anxiety disorder should be conceptualized as a chronic neurodevelopmental illness that might represent a fully compensated state in adulthood. Future investigations from this perspective are discussed.
Routinely administered questionnaires for depression and anxiety: systematic review.
Gilbody S M,House A O,Sheldon T A
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
OBJECTIVES:To examine the effect of routinely administered psychiatric questionnaires on the recognition, management, and outcome of psychiatric disorders in non-psychiatric settings. DATA SOURCES:Embase, Medline, PsycLIT, Cinahl, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and hand searches of key journals. METHODS:A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of the administration and routine feedback of psychiatric screening and outcome questionnaires to clinicians in non-psychiatric settings. Narrative overview of key design features and end points, together with a random effects quantitative synthesis of comparable studies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Recognition of psychiatric disorders after feedback of questionnaire results; interventions for psychiatric disorders; and outcome of psychiatric disorders. RESULTS:Nine randomised studies were identified that examined the use of common psychiatric instruments in primary care and general hospital settings. Studies compared the effect of the administration of these instruments followed by the feedback of the results to clinicians, with administration with no feedback. Meta-analytic pooling was possible for four of these studies (2457 participants), which measured the effect of feedback on the recognition of depressive disorders. Routine administration and feedback of scores for all patients (irrespective of score) did not increase the overall rate of recognition of mental disorders such as anxiety and depression (relative risk of detection of depression by clinician after feedback 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.09). Two studies showed that routine administration followed by selective feedback for only high scorers increased the rate of recognition of depression (relative risk of detection of depression after feedback 2.64, 1.62 to 4.31). This increased recognition, however, did not translate into an increased rate of intervention. Overall, studies of routine administration of psychiatric measures did not show an effect on patient outcome. CONCLUSIONS:The routine measurement of outcome is a costly exercise. Little evidence shows that it is of benefit in improving psychosocial outcomes of those with psychiatric disorder managed in non-psychiatric settings.
Neurobiology of BDNF in fear memory, sensitivity to stress, and stress-related disorders.
Notaras Michael,van den Buuse Maarten
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely accepted for its involvement in resilience and antidepressant drug action, is a common genetic locus of risk for mental illnesses, and remains one of the most prominently studied molecules within psychiatry. Stress, which arguably remains the "lowest common denominator" risk factor for several mental illnesses, targets BDNF in disease-implicated brain regions and circuits. Altered stress-related responses have also been observed in animal models of BDNF deficiency in vivo, and BDNF is a common downstream intermediary for environmental factors that potentiate anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. However, BDNF's broad functionality has manifested a heterogeneous literature; likely reflecting that BDNF plays a hitherto under-recognized multifactorial role as both a regulator and target of stress hormone signaling within the brain. The role of BDNF in vulnerability to stress and stress-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a prominent example where inconsistent effects have emerged across numerous models, labs, and disciplines. In the current review we provide a contemporary update on the neurobiology of BDNF including new data from the behavioral neuroscience and neuropsychiatry literature on fear memory consolidation and extinction, stress, and PTSD. First we present an overview of recent advances in knowledge on the role of BDNF within the fear circuitry, as well as address mounting evidence whereby stress hormones interact with endogenous BDNF-TrkB signaling to alter brain homeostasis. Glucocorticoid signaling also acutely recruits BDNF to enhance the expression of fear memory. We then include observations that the functional common BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates stress susceptibility as well as stress-related and stress-inducible neuropsychiatric endophenotypes in both man and mouse. We conclude by proposing a BDNF stress-sensitivity hypothesis, which posits that disruption of endogenous BDNF activity by common factors (such as the BDNF Val66Met variant) potentiates sensitivity to stress and, by extension, vulnerability to stress-inducible illnesses. Thus, BDNF may induce plasticity to deleteriously promote the encoding of fear and trauma but, conversely, also enable adaptive plasticity during extinction learning to suppress PTSD-like fear responses. Ergo regulators of BDNF availability, such as the Val66Met polymorphism, may orchestrate sensitivity to stress, trauma, and risk of stress-induced disorders such as PTSD. Given an increasing interest in personalized psychiatry and clinically complex cases, this model provides a framework from which to experimentally disentangle the causal actions of BDNF in stress responses, which likely interact to potentiate, produce, and impair treatment of, stress-related psychiatric disorders.
The organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in depressive illness.
Gold P W
Stressors are imminent or perceived challenges to homeostasis. The stress response is an innate, stereotypic, adaptive response to stressors that has evolved in the service of restoring the nonstressed homeostatic set point. It is encoded in specific neuroanatomical sites that activate a specific repertoire of cognitive, behavioral and physiologic phenomena. Adaptive responses, though essential for survival, can become dysregulated and result in disease. A clear example is autoimmune disease. I postulate that depression, like autoimmunity, represents a dysregulated adaptive response: a stress response that has gone awry. The cardinal manifestation of the normal stress response is anxiety. Cognitive programs shift from complex associative operations to rapid retrieval of unconscious emotional memories acquired during prior threatening situations. These emerge automatically to promote survival. To prevent distraction during stressful situations, the capacity to seek and experience pleasure is reduced, food intake is diminished and sexual activity and sleep are held in abeyance. Monoamines, cytokines, glutamate, GABA and other central mediators have key roles in the normal stress response. Many central loci are involved. The subgenual prefrontal cortex restrains the amygdala, the corticotropin-releasing hormone/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (CRH/HPA) axis and the sympathomedullary system. The function of the subgenual prefrontal cortex is moderately diminished during normal stress to disinhibit these loci. This disinhibition promotes anxiety and physiological hyperarousal, while diminishing appetite and sleep. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is downregulated, diminishing cognitive regulation of anxiety. The nucleus accumbens is also downregulated, to reduce the propensity for distraction by pleasurable stimuli or the capacity to experience pleasure. Insulin resistance, inflammation and a prothrombotic state acutely emerge. These provide increased glucose for the brain and establish premonitory, proinflammatory and prothrombotic states in anticipation of either injury or hemorrhage during a threatening situation. Essential adaptive intracellular changes include increased neurogenesis, enhancement of neuroplasticity and deployment of a successful endoplasmic reticulum stress response. In melancholic depression, the activities of the central glutamate, norepinephrine and central cytokine systems are significantly and persistently increased. The subgenual prefrontal cortex is functionally impaired, and its size is reduced by as much as 40%. This leads to sustained anxiety and activations of the amygdala, CRH/HPA axis, the sympathomedullary system and their sequella, including early morning awakening and loss of appetite. The sustained activation of the amygdala, in turn, further activates stress system neuroendocrine and autonomic functions. The activity of the nucleus accumbens is further decreased and anhedonia emerges. Concomitantly, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity fall significantly. Antidepressants ameliorate many of these processes. The processes that lead to the behavioral and physiological manifestations of depressive illness produce a significant decrease in lifespan, and a doubling of the incidence of premature coronary artery disease. The incidences of premature diabetes and osteoporosis are also substantially increased. Six physiological processes that occur during stress and that are markedly increased in melancholia set into motion six different mechanisms to produce inflammation, as well as sustained insulin resistance and a prothrombotic state. Clinically, melancholic and atypical depression seem to be antithesis of one another. In melancholia, depressive systems are at their worst in the morning when arousal systems, such as the CRH/HPA axis and the noradrenergic systems, are at their maxima. In atypical depression, depressive symptoms are at their worst in the evening, when these arousal systems are at their minima. Melancholic patients experience anorexia and insomnia, whereas atypical patients experience hyperphagia and hypersomnia. Melancholia seems like an activation and persistence of the normal stress response, whereas atypical depression resembles a stress response that has been excessively inhibited. It is important that we stratify clinical studies of depressed patients to compare melancholic and atypical subtypes and establish their differential pathophysiology. Overall, it is important to note that many of the major mediators of the stress response and melancholic depression, such as the subgenual prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, the noradrenergic system and the CRH/HPA axis participate in multiple reinforcing positive feedback loops. This organization permits the establishment of the markedly exaggerated, persistent elevation of the stress response seen in melancholia. Given their pronounced interrelatedness, it may not matter where in this cascade the first abnormality arises. It will spread to the other loci and initiate each of their activations in a pernicious vicious cycle.
Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review.
Mirza Ilyas,Jenkins Rachel
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
OBJECTIVES:To assess the available evidence on the prevalence, aetiology, treatment, and prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan. DESIGN:Systematic review of published literature. STUDIES REVIEWED:20 studies, of which 17 gave prevalence estimates and 11 discussed risk factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders, risk factors, effects of treatment. RESULTS:Factors positively associated with anxiety and depressive disorders were female sex, middle age, low level of education, financial difficulty, being a housewife, and relationship problems. Arguments with husbands and relational problems with in-laws were positively associated in 3/11 studies. Those who had close confiding relationships were less likely to have anxiety and depressive disorders. Mean overall prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in the community population was 34% (range 29-66% for women and 10-33% for men). There were no rigorously controlled trials of treatments for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS:Available evidence suggests a major social cause for anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan. This evidence is limited because of methodological problems, so caution must be exercised in generalising this to the whole of the population of Pakistan.
Gender Dysphoria in Adults.
Zucker Kenneth J,Lawrence Anne A,Kreukels Baudewijntje P C
Annual review of clinical psychology
Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.
Craske Michelle G,Stein Murray B,Eley Thalia C,Milad Mohammed R,Holmes Andrew,Rapee Ronald M,Wittchen Hans-Ulrich
Nature reviews. Disease primers
Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.
Uncertainty and anticipation in anxiety: an integrated neurobiological and psychological perspective.
Grupe Dan W,Nitschke Jack B
Nature reviews. Neuroscience
Uncertainty about a possible future threat disrupts our ability to avoid it or to mitigate its negative impact and thus results in anxiety. Here, we focus the broad literature on the neurobiology of anxiety through the lens of uncertainty. We identify five processes that are essential for adaptive anticipatory responses to future threat uncertainty and propose that alterations in the neural instantiation of these processes result in maladaptive responses to uncertainty in pathological anxiety. This framework has the potential to advance the classification, diagnosis and treatment of clinical anxiety.
The Neurobiology of Postpartum Anxiety and Depression.
Pawluski Jodi L,Lonstein Joseph S,Fleming Alison S
Trends in neurosciences
Ten to twenty percent of postpartum women experience anxiety or depressive disorders, which can have detrimental effects on the mother, child, and family. Little is known about the neural correlates of these affective disorders when they occur in mothers, but they do have unique neural profiles during the postpartum period compared with when they occur at other times in a woman's life. Given that the neural systems affected by postpartum anxiety and depression overlap and interact with the systems involved in maternal caregiving behaviors, mother-infant interactions are highly susceptible to disruption. Thus, there is an intricate interplay among maternal mental health, the mother-infant relationship, and the neurobiological mechanisms mediating them that needs to be the focus of future study.
P2X7 Receptor: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Depression?
Deussing Jan M,Arzt Eduardo
Trends in molecular medicine
Depression is a prime contributor to global disease burden with 300 million affected patients worldwide. The persistent lack of progress with regards to pharmacotherapy stands in stark contrast to the pandemic magnitude of the disease. Alterations of inflammatory pathways in depressed patients, including altered circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, have been put forward as a potential pathophysiological mechanism. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role regulating the release of interleukin-1β and other cytokines. Comprehensive investigation of the P2X7R Gln460Arg missense mutation (rs2230912), which has been associated with major depression and bipolar disorder, has substantially contributed to validate P2X7R as a potential genetic risk factor. We propose that P2X7R is a putative target with good prospects for therapeutic intervention in depressive disorders.
Cognitive and attentional vulnerability to depression in youth: A review.
Kertz Sarah J,Petersen Devin R,Stevens Kimberly T
Clinical psychology review
Although depressive disorders are among the most common disorders in youth, highly efficacious treatments for childhood affective disorders are lacking. There is significant need to better understand the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of depression in youth so that treatments can be targeted at optimal mechanisms. The aim of the current paper was to synthesize research on cognitive and neurobiological factors associated with youth depression, guided by De Raedt and Koster's model (2010) for vulnerability to depression in adults. Consistent with model predictions, there is evidence that attentional impairments are greatest in the context of negative information, relative to positive or neutral information, and some evidence that attentional deficits are associated with rumination in depressed youth. However, we found little evidence for the model's assumption that attentional bias is an etiological and maintenance factor for depression. There are several other model predictions that require additional study as current data are lacking. Overall, De Raedt and Koster's (2010) integrative cognitive and biological framework has tremendous potential to move the field forward in understanding the development of depression in youth. Additional longitudinal studies incorporating measures across biological and cognitive levels of analysis are needed.
Mechanisms of Memory Disruption in Depression.
Dillon Daniel G,Pizzagalli Diego A
Trends in neurosciences
Depressed individuals typically show poor memory for positive events, potentiated memory for negative events, and impaired recollection. These phenomena are clinically important but poorly understood. Compelling links between stress and depression suggest promising candidate mechanisms. Stress can suppress hippocampal neurogenesis, inhibit dopamine neurons, and sensitize the amygdala. We argue that these phenomena may impair pattern separation, disrupt the encoding of positive experiences, and bias retrieval toward negative events, respectively, thus recapitulating core aspects of memory disruption in depression. Encouragingly, optogenetic reactivation of cells engaged during the encoding of positive memories rapidly reduces depressive behavior in preclinical models. Thus, many memory deficits in depression appear to be downstream consequences of chronic stress, and addressing memory disruption can have therapeutic value.
Linking unfolded protein response to inflammation and depression: potential pathologic and therapeutic implications.
Ii Timberlake Matthew,Dwivedi Yogesh
Depression is a devastating mental disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Inflammation has been shown to be a key factor involved in the underlying pathophysiology of depression and has been shown in a substantial proportion of cases of depression. Changes attributed with morphological deformities and immunomodulation in susceptible regions of the depressed brain raised the possibility of altered cellular homeostasis transduced by the intracellular stress response. How emotional stressors can lead to an inflamed brain that directly affects physiology and activity is yet to be fully understood. The unfolded protein response (UPR) has been shown to be active in both models of depression as well as in postmortem brain of depressed individuals. The UPR is the cellular response to stress which results in misfolded proteins. Interestingly, UPR activation is directly linked to both inflammatory cytokine production and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression. The TLRs are part of the innate immune response which typically reacts to "classic invasions" such as bacteria or viruses as well as trauma. TLRs have also been shown to be upregulated in depression, thus solidifying the connection between inflammation and depression. In this review, we aim to tie the UPR-TLR response and depression, and describe the implications of such an association. We also propose future directions for their role in treatment for depression.
Optogenetic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons enhances patience for future rewards.
Miyazaki Kayoko W,Miyazaki Katsuhiko,Tanaka Kenji F,Yamanaka Akihiro,Takahashi Aki,Tabuchi Sawako,Doya Kenji
Current biology : CB
Serotonin is a neuromodulator that is involved extensively in behavioral, affective, and cognitive functions in the brain. Previous recording studies of the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) revealed that the activation of putative serotonin neurons correlates with the levels of behavioral arousal , rhythmic motor outputs , salient sensory stimuli [3-6], reward, and conditioned cues [5-8]. The classic theory on serotonin states that it opposes dopamine and inhibits behaviors when aversive events are predicted [9-14]. However, the therapeutic effects of serotonin signal-enhancing medications have been difficult to reconcile with this theory [15, 16]. In contrast, a more recent theory states that serotonin facilitates long-term optimal behaviors and suppresses impulsive behaviors [17-21]. To test these theories, we developed optogenetic mice that selectively express channelrhodopsin in serotonin neurons and tested how the activation of serotonergic neurons in the DRN affects animal behavior during a delayed reward task. The activation of serotonin neurons reduced the premature cessation of waiting for conditioned cues and food rewards. In reward omission trials, serotonin neuron stimulation prolonged the time animals spent waiting. This effect was observed specifically when the animal was engaged in deciding whether to keep waiting and was not due to motor inhibition. Control experiments showed that the prolonged waiting times observed with optogenetic stimulation were not due to behavioral inhibition or the reinforcing effects of serotonergic activation. These results show, for the first time, that the timed activation of serotonin neurons during waiting promotes animals' patience to wait for a delayed reward.
How serotonin receptors regulate morphogenic signalling in neurons.
Wirth Alexander,Holst Katrin,Ponimaskin Evgeni
Progress in neurobiology
Serotonin (5-hydroxytrympamine or 5-HT) is one of the phylogenetically oldest neurotransmitters, and the serotonergic system is among the earliest developed neuronal systems. Serotonin is critically involved in regulating multiple physiological functions, acting via a heterogenic receptor family that includes G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels. Although serotonergic neurons comprise a widely distributed and complex network that targets nearly every brain structure, serotonin-mediated signalling is under strict temporal and spatial control. Imbalance in serotonergic signalling is implicated in many pathophysiological conditions, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and anxiety. In addition to its well-established role as a neurotransmitter, serotonin is involved in many aspects of neural development, including neurite outgrowth, somatic morphology regulation, growth cone motility, synaptogenesis, and control of dendritic spine shape and density. The morphogenic effects of serotonin are developmentally regulated, and serotonin availability during sensitive developmental stages can modulate the formation and functions of behaviourally relevant neuronal networks in adulthood. Here we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenic effects of serotonin elicited by its different receptors in neurons. We also discuss the role of serotonin receptor-mediated morphogenic signalling in the development and maintenance of pathophysiological conditions.
The potential of using blood circular RNA as liquid biopsy biomarker for human diseases.
Wen Guoxia,Zhou Tong,Gu Wanjun
Protein & cell
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel class of single-stranded RNAs with a closed loop structure. The majority of circRNAs are formed by a back-splicing process in pre-mRNA splicing. Their expression is dynamically regulated and shows spatiotemporal patterns among cell types, tissues and developmental stages. CircRNAs have important biological functions in many physiological processes, and their aberrant expression is implicated in many human diseases. Due to their high stability, circRNAs are becoming promising biomarkers in many human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and human cancers. In this review, we focus on the translational potential of using human blood circRNAs as liquid biopsy biomarkers for human diseases. We highlight their abundant expression, essential biological functions and significant correlations to human diseases in various components of peripheral blood, including whole blood, blood cells and extracellular vesicles. In addition, we summarize the current knowledge of blood circRNA biomarkers for disease diagnosis or prognosis.
Past, present, and future of circRNAs.
Patop Ines Lucia,Wüst Stas,Kadener Sebastian
The EMBO journal
Exonic circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently closed RNA molecules generated by a process named back-splicing. circRNAs are highly abundant in eukaryotes, and many of them are evolutionary conserved. In metazoans, circular RNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner, are highly stable, and accumulate with age in neural tissues. circRNA biogenesis can regulate the production of the linear RNA counterpart in cis as back-splicing competes with linear splicing. Recent reports also demonstrate functions for some circRNAs in trans: Certain circRNAs interact with microRNAs, some are translated, and circRNAs have been shown to regulate immune responses and behavior. Here, we review current knowledge about animal circRNAs and summarize new insights into potential circRNA functions, concepts of their origin, and possible future directions in the field.
Sex differences in anxiety and depression: role of testosterone.
McHenry Jenna,Carrier Nicole,Hull Elaine,Kabbaj Mohamed
Frontiers in neuroendocrinology
Compelling evidence exists for pervasive sex differences in pathological conditions, including anxiety and depressive disorders, with females more than twice as likely to be afflicted. Gonadal hormones may be a major factor in this disparity, given that women are more likely to experience mood disturbances during times of hormonal flux, and testosterone may have protective benefits against anxiety and depression. In this review we focus on the effects of testosterone in males and females, revealed in both human and animal studies. We also present possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying testosterone's mostly protective benefits, including the brain regions, neural circuits, and cellular and molecular pathways involved. While the precise underlying mechanisms remain unclear, both activational and organizational effects of testosterone appear to contribute to these effects. Future clinical studies are necessary in order to better understand when and how testosterone therapy may be effective in both sexes.