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    Variants in ANGPTL4 and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease. Morrison Alanna C,Fu Yi-Ping,O'Donnell Christopher J, The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMc1607380
    Association of Genetic Variants Related to Serum Calcium Levels With Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction. Larsson Susanna C,Burgess Stephen,Michaëlsson Karl JAMA Importance:Serum calcium has been associated with cardiovascular disease in observational studies and evidence from randomized clinical trials indicates that calcium supplementation, which raises serum calcium levels, may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, particularly myocardial infarction. Objective:To evaluate the potential causal association between genetic variants related to elevated serum calcium levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction using mendelian randomization. Design, Setting, and Participants:The analyses were performed using summary statistics obtained for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of serum calcium levels (N = up to 61 079 individuals) and from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis Plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics (CardiogramplusC4D) consortium's 1000 genomes-based genome-wide association meta-analysis (N = up to 184 305 individuals) that included cases (individuals with CAD and myocardial infarction) and noncases, with baseline data collected from 1948 and populations derived from across the globe. The association of each SNP with CAD and myocardial infarction was weighted by its association with serum calcium, and estimates were combined using an inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Exposures:Genetic risk score based on genetic variants related to elevated serum calcium levels. Main Outcomes and Measures:Co-primary outcomes were the odds of CAD and myocardial infarction. Results:Among the mendelian randomized analytic sample of 184 305 individuals (60 801 CAD cases [approximately 70% with myocardial infarction] and 123 504 noncases), the 6 SNPs related to serum calcium levels and without pleiotropic associations with potential confounders were estimated to explain about 0.8% of the variation in serum calcium levels. In the inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (combining the estimates of the 6 SNPs), the odds ratios per 0.5-mg/dL increase (about 1 SD) in genetically predicted serum calcium levels were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.08-1.45; P = .003) for CAD and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.05-1.46; P = .009) for myocardial infarction. Conclusions and Relevance:A genetic predisposition to higher serum calcium levels was associated with increased risk of CAD and myocardial infarction. Whether the risk of CAD associated with lifelong genetic exposure to increased serum calcium levels can be translated to a risk associated with short-term to medium-term calcium supplementation is unknown. 10.1001/jama.2017.8981
    Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation with Stable Coronary Disease. Marquis-Gravel Guillaume,Roe Matthew T The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMc1914049
    Complete Revascularization with Multivessel PCI for Myocardial Infarction. Mehta Shamir R,Wood David A,Storey Robert F,Mehran Roxana,Bainey Kevin R,Nguyen Helen,Meeks Brandi,Di Pasquale Giuseppe,López-Sendón Jose,Faxon David P,Mauri Laura,Rao Sunil V,Feldman Laurent,Steg P Gabriel,Avezum Álvaro,Sheth Tej,Pinilla-Echeverri Natalia,Moreno Raul,Campo Gianluca,Wrigley Benjamin,Kedev Sasko,Sutton Andrew,Oliver Richard,Rodés-Cabau Josep,Stanković Goran,Welsh Robert,Lavi Shahar,Cantor Warren J,Wang Jia,Nakamya Juliet,Bangdiwala Shrikant I,Cairns John A, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit lesion reduces the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction. Whether PCI of nonculprit lesions further reduces the risk of such events is unclear. METHODS:We randomly assigned patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease who had undergone successful culprit-lesion PCI to a strategy of either complete revascularization with PCI of angiographically significant nonculprit lesions or no further revascularization. Randomization was stratified according to the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (either during or after the index hospitalization). The first coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction; the second coprimary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:At a median follow-up of 3 years, the first coprimary outcome had occurred in 158 of the 2016 patients (7.8%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 213 of the 2025 patients (10.5%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.91; P = 0.004). The second coprimary outcome had occurred in 179 patients (8.9%) in the complete-revascularization group as compared with 339 patients (16.7%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.61; P<0.001). For both coprimary outcomes, the benefit of complete revascularization was consistently observed regardless of the intended timing of nonculprit-lesion PCI (P = 0.62 and P = 0.27 for interaction for the first and second coprimary outcomes, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease, complete revascularization was superior to culprit-lesion-only PCI in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction, as well as the risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; COMPLETE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01740479.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1907775
    Targeted therapy with a localised abluminal groove, low-dose sirolimus-eluting, biodegradable polymer coronary stent (TARGET All Comers): a multicentre, open-label, randomised non-inferiority trial. Lansky Alexandra,Wijns William,Xu Bo,Kelbæk Henning,van Royen Niels,Zheng Ming,Morel Marie-Angèle,Knaapen Paul,Slagboom Ton,Johnson Thomas W,Vlachojannis Georgios,Arkenbout Karin E,Holmvang Lene,Janssens Luc,Ochala Andrzej,Brugaletta Salvatore,Naber Christoph K,Anderson Richard,Rittger Harald,Berti Sergio,Barbato Emanuele,Toth Gabor G,Maillard Luc,Valina Christian,Buszman Paweł,Thiele Holger,Schächinger Volker,Baumbach Andreas, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:The FIREHAWK is a drug-eluting stent with a fully biodegradable sirolimus-containing polymer coating localised to recessed abluminal grooves on the stent surface. We investigated clinical outcomes with this targeted, low-dose, biodegradable polymer, sirolimus-eluting stent compared with XIENCE durable polymer, everolimus-eluting stents in an all-comers population. METHODS:The TARGET All Comers study was a prospective, multicentre, open-label randomised non-inferiority trial done at 21 centres in ten European countries. Patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic coronary artery disease and objective evidence of myocardial ischaemia who qualified for percutaneous coronary intervention were randomised 1:1 to undergo implantation of a FIREHAWK or XIENCE. Randomisation was web-based, with random block allocation and stratification by centre and ST elevation myocardial infarction. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but treating physicians and patients were not. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure at 12 months, a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation. The control event rate for XIENCE was assumed to be 7%, the non-inferiority margin was 3.5%, and the primary analysis was in the intention-to-treat population, censoring patients who did not have either an event before 365 days or contact beyond 365 days. Late lumen loss was the primary endpoint of an angiographic substudy designed to investigate the non-inferiority of the FIREHAWK compared with the XIENCE stent. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02520180. FINDINGS:From Dec 17, 2015, to Oct 14, 2016, 1653 patients were randomly assigned to implantation of the FIREHAWK (n=823) or XIENCE (n=830). 65 patients in the FIREHAWK group and 66 in the XIENCE group had insufficient follow-up data and were excluded from the analyses. At 12 months, target lesion failure occurred in 46 (6·1%) of 758 patients in the FIREHAWK group and in 45 (5·9%) of 764 patients in the XIENCE group (difference 0·2%, 90% CI -1·9 to 2·2, p=0·004, 95% CI -2·2 to 2·6, p=0·88). There were no differences in ischaemia-driven revascularisation or stent thrombosis rates at 12 months. 176 patients were included in the angiographic substudy, in which in-stent late lumen loss was 0·17 mm (SD 0·48) in the FIREHAWK group and 0·11 mm (0·52) in the XIENCE group (p=0·48), with an absolute difference of 0·05 mm (95% CI -0·09 to 0·18, p=0·024). INTERPRETATION:In a broad all-comers population of patients requiring stent implantation for myocardial ischaemia, the FIREHAWK was non-inferior to the XIENCE as assessed with the primary endpoint of target lesion failure at 12 months and in-stent late lumen loss at 13 months. The FIREHAWK is a safe and effective alternative stent to treat patients with ischaemic coronary artery disease in clinical practice. FUNDING:Shanghai Microport Medical. 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31649-0
    Guided de-escalation of antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (TROPICAL-ACS): a randomised, open-label, multicentre trial. Sibbing Dirk,Aradi Dániel,Jacobshagen Claudius,Gross Lisa,Trenk Dietmar,Geisler Tobias,Orban Martin,Hadamitzky Martin,Merkely Béla,Kiss Róbert Gábor,Komócsi András,Dézsi Csaba A,Holdt Lesca,Felix Stephan B,Parma Radoslaw,Klopotowski Mariusz,Schwinger Robert H G,Rieber Johannes,Huber Kurt,Neumann Franz-Josef,Koltowski Lukasz,Mehilli Julinda,Huczek Zenon,Massberg Steffen, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Current guidelines recommend potent platelet inhibition with prasugrel or ticagrelor for 12 months after an acute coronary syndrome managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the greatest anti-ischaemic benefit of potent antiplatelet drugs over the less potent clopidogrel occurs early, while most excess bleeding events arise during chronic treatment. Hence, a stage-adapted treatment with potent platelet inhibition in the acute phase and de-escalation to clopidogrel in the maintenance phase could be an alternative approach. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of early de-escalation of antiplatelet treatment from prasugrel to clopidogrel guided by platelet function testing (PFT). METHODS:In this investigator-initiated, randomised, open-label, assessor-blinded, multicentre trial (TROPICAL-ACS) done at 33 sites in Europe, patients were enrolled if they had biomarker-positive acute coronary syndrome with successful PCI and a planned duration of dual antiplatelet treatment of 12 months. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using an internet-based randomisation procedure with a computer-generated block randomisation with stratification across study sites to either standard treatment with prasugrel for 12 months (control group) or a step-down regimen (1 week prasugrel followed by 1 week clopidogrel and PFT-guided maintenance therapy with clopidogrel or prasugrel from day 14 after hospital discharge; guided de-escalation group). The assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was net clinical benefit (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or bleeding grade 2 or higher according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC]) criteria) 1 year after randomisation (non-inferiority hypothesis; margin of 30%). Analysis was intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01959451, and EudraCT, 2013-001636-22. FINDINGS:Between Dec 2, 2013, and May 20, 2016, 2610 patients were assigned to study groups; 1304 to the guided de-escalation group and 1306 to the control group. The primary endpoint occurred in 95 patients (7%) in the guided de-escalation group and in 118 patients (9%) in the control group (p=0·0004; hazard ratio [HR] 0·81 [95% CI 0·62-1·06], p=0·12). Despite early de-escalation, there was no increase in the combined risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke in the de-escalation group (32 patients [3%]) versus in the control group (42 patients [3%]; p=0·0115). There were 64 BARC 2 or higher bleeding events (5%) in the de-escalation group versus 79 events (6%) in the control group (HR 0·82 [95% CI 0·59-1·13]; p=0·23). INTERPRETATION:Guided de-escalation of antiplatelet treatment was non-inferior to standard treatment with prasugrel at 1 year after PCI in terms of net clinical benefit. Our trial shows that early de-escalation of antiplatelet treatment can be considered as an alternative approach in patients with acute coronary syndrome managed with PCI. FUNDING:Klinikum der Universität München, Roche Diagnostics, Eli Lilly, and Daiichi Sankyo. 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32155-4
    Early invasive versus non-invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (FRISC-II): 15 year follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. Wallentin Lars,Lindhagen Lars,Ärnström Elisabet,Husted Steen,Janzon Magnus,Johnsen Søren Paaske,Kontny Frederic,Kempf Tibor,Levin Lars-Åke,Lindahl Bertil,Stridsberg Mats,Ståhle Elisabeth,Venge Per,Wollert Kai C,Swahn Eva,Lagerqvist Bo, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:The FRISC-II trial was the first randomised trial to show a reduction in death or myocardial infarction with an early invasive versus a non-invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Here we provide a remaining lifetime perspective on the effects on all cardiovascular events during 15 years' follow-up. METHODS:The FRISC-II prospective, randomised, multicentre trial was done at 58 Scandinavian centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Between June 17, 1996, and Aug 28, 1998, we randomly assigned (1:1) 2457 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome to an early invasive treatment strategy, aiming for revascularisation within 7 days, or a non-invasive strategy, with invasive procedures at recurrent symptoms or severe exercise-induced ischaemia. Plasma for biomarker analyses was obtained at randomisation. For long-term outcomes, we linked data with national health-care registers. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or myocardial infarction. Outcomes were compared as the average postponement of the next event, including recurrent events, calculated as the area between mean cumulative count-of-events curves. Analyses were done by intention to treat. FINDINGS:At a minimum of 15 years' follow-up on Dec 31, 2014, data for survival status and death were available for 2421 (99%) of the initially recruited 2457 patients, and for other events after 2 years for 2182 (89%) patients. During follow-up, the invasive strategy postponed death or next myocardial infarction by a mean of 549 days (95% CI 204-888; p=0·0020) compared with the non-invasive strategy. This effect was larger in non-smokers (mean gain 809 days, 95% CI 402-1175; p=0·0182), patients with elevated troponin T (778 days, 357-1165; p=0·0241), and patients with high concentrations of growth differentiation factor-15 (1356 days, 507-1650; p=0·0210). The difference was mainly driven by postponement of new myocardial infarction, whereas the early difference in mortality alone was not sustained over time. The invasive strategy led to a mean of 1128 days (95% CI 830-1366) postponement of death or next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease, which was consistent in all subgroups (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION:During 15 years of follow-up, an early invasive treatment strategy postponed the occurrence of death or next myocardial infarction by an average of 18 months, and the next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease by 37 months, compared with a non-invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This remaining lifetime perspective supports that an early invasive treatment strategy should be the preferred option in most patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. FUNDING:Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, and Uppsala Clinical Research Center. 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31276-4
    Identification of patients and plaques vulnerable to future coronary events with near-infrared spectroscopy intravascular ultrasound imaging: a prospective, cohort study. Waksman Ron,Di Mario Carlo,Torguson Rebecca,Ali Ziad A,Singh Varinder,Skinner William H,Artis Andre K,Cate Tim Ten,Powers Eric,Kim Christopher,Regar Evelyn,Wong S Chiu,Lewis Stephen,Wykrzykowska Joanna,Dube Sandeep,Kazziha Samer,van der Ent Martin,Shah Priti,Craig Paige E,Zou Quan,Kolm Paul,Brewer H Bryan,Garcia-Garcia Hector M, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) intravascular ultrasound imaging can detect lipid-rich plaques (LRPs). LRPs are associated with acute coronary syndromes or myocardial infarction, which can result in revascularisation or cardiac death. In this study, we aimed to establish the relationship between LRPs detected by NIRS-intravascular ultrasound imaging at unstented sites and subsequent coronary events from new culprit lesions. METHODS:In this prospective, cohort study (LRP), patients from 44 medical centres were enrolled in Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Slovakia, UK, and the USA. Patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent cardiac catheterisation with possible ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention were eligible to be enrolled. Enrolled patients underwent scanning of non-culprit segments using NIRS-intravascular ultrasound imaging. The study had two hierarchal primary hypotheses, patient and plaque, each testing the association between maximum 4 mm Lipid Core Burden Index (maxLCBI) and non-culprit major adverse cardiovascular events (NC-MACE). Enrolled patients with large LRPs (≥250 maxLCBI) and a randomly selected half of patients with small LRPs (<250 maxLCBI) were followed up for 24 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02033694. FINDINGS:Between Feb 21, 2014, and March 30, 2016, 1563 patients were enrolled. NIRS-intravascular ultrasound device-related events were seen in six (0·4%) patients. 1271 patients (mean age 64 years, SD 10, 883 [69%] men, 388 [31%]women) with analysable maxLCBI were allocated to follow-up. The 2-year cumulative incidence of NC-MACE was 9% (n=103). Both hierarchical primary hypotheses were met. On a patient level, the unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for NC-MACE was 1·21 (95% CI 1·09-1·35; p=0·0004) for each 100-unit increase maxLCBI) and adjusted HR 1·18 (1·05-1·32; p=0·0043). In patients with a maxLCBI more than 400, the unadjusted HR for NC-MACE was 2·18 (1·48-3·22; p<0·0001) and adjusted HR was 1·89 (1·26-2·83; p=0·0021). At the plaque level, the unadjusted HR was 1·45 (1·30-1·60; p<0·0001) for each 100-unit increase in maxLCBI. For segments with a maxLCBI more than 400, the unadjusted HR for NC-MACE was 4·22 (2·39-7·45; p<0·0001) and adjusted HR was 3·39 (1·85-6·20; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION:NIRS imaging of non-obstructive territories in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation and possible percutaneous coronary intervention was safe and can aid in identifying patients and segments at higher risk for subsequent NC-MACE. NIRS-intravascular ultrasound imaging adds to the armamentarium as the first diagnostic tool able to detect vulnerable patients and plaques in clinical practice. FUNDING:Infraredx. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31794-5
    Drug-coated balloons for small coronary artery disease (BASKET-SMALL 2): an open-label randomised non-inferiority trial. Jeger Raban V,Farah Ahmed,Ohlow Marc-Alexander,Mangner Norman,Möbius-Winkler Sven,Leibundgut Gregor,Weilenmann Daniel,Wöhrle Jochen,Richter Stefan,Schreiber Matthias,Mahfoud Felix,Linke Axel,Stephan Frank-Peter,Mueller Christian,Rickenbacher Peter,Coslovsky Michael,Gilgen Nicole,Osswald Stefan,Kaiser Christoph,Scheller Bruno, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Drug-coated balloons (DCB) are a novel therapeutic strategy for small native coronary artery disease. However, their safety and efficacy is poorly defined in comparison with drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS:BASKET-SMALL 2 was a multicentre, open-label, randomised non-inferiority trial. 758 patients with de-novo lesions (<3 mm in diameter) in coronary vessels and an indication for percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive angioplasty with DCB versus implantation of a second-generation DES after successful predilatation via an interactive internet-based response system. Dual antiplatelet therapy was given according to current guidelines. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of DCB versus DES regarding major adverse cardiac events (MACE; ie, cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and target-vessel revascularisation) after 12 months. The non-inferiority margin was an absolute difference of 4% in MACE. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01574534. FINDINGS:Between April 10, 2012, and February 1, 2017, 382 patients were randomly assigned to the DCB group and 376 to DES group. Non-inferiority of DCB versus DES was shown because the 95% CI of the absolute difference in MACE in the per-protocol population was below the predefined margin (-3·83 to 3·93%, p=0·0217). After 12 months, the proportions of MACE were similar in both groups of the full-analysis population (MACE was 7·5% for the DCB group vs 7·3% for the DES group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·97 [95% CI 0·58-1·64], p=0·9180). There were five (1·3%) cardiac-related deaths in the DES group and 12 (3·1%) in the DCB group (full analysis population). Probable or definite stent thrombosis (three [0·8%] in the DCB group vs four [1·1%] in the DES group; HR 0·73 [0·16-3·26]) and major bleeding (four [1·1%] in the DCB group vs nine [2·4%] in the DES group; HR 0·45 [0·14-1·46]) were the most common adverse events. INTERPRETATION:In small native coronary artery disease, DCB was non-inferior to DES regarding MACE up to 12 months, with similar event rates for both treatment groups. FUNDING:Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Basel Cardiovascular Research Foundation, and B Braun Medical AG. 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31719-7
    Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease. Stone Gregg W,Sabik Joseph F,Serruys Patrick W,Simonton Charles A,Généreux Philippe,Puskas John,Kandzari David E,Morice Marie-Claude,Lembo Nicholas,Brown W Morris,Taggart David P,Banning Adrian,Merkely Béla,Horkay Ferenc,Boonstra Piet W,van Boven Ad J,Ungi Imre,Bogáts Gabor,Mansour Samer,Noiseux Nicolas,Sabaté Manel,Pomar José,Hickey Mark,Gershlick Anthony,Buszman Pawel,Bochenek Andrzej,Schampaert Erick,Pagé Pierre,Dressler Ovidiu,Kosmidou Ioanna,Mehran Roxana,Pocock Stuart J,Kappetein A Pieter, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. METHODS:We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years, and the trial was powered for noninferiority testing of the primary end point (noninferiority margin, 4.2 percentage points). Major secondary end points included the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days and the rate of a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years. Event rates were based on Kaplan-Meier estimates in time-to-first-event analyses. RESULTS:At 3 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 15.4% of the patients in the PCI group and in 14.7% of the patients in the CABG group (difference, 0.7 percentage points; upper 97.5% confidence limit, 4.0 percentage points; P=0.02 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.26; P=0.98 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days occurred in 4.9% of the patients in the PCI group and in 7.9% in the CABG group (P<0.001 for noninferiority, P=0.008 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years occurred in 23.1% of the patients in the PCI group and in 19.1% in the CABG group (P=0.01 for noninferiority, P=0.10 for superiority). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with left main coronary artery disease and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores by site assessment, PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was noninferior to CABG with respect to the rate of the composite end point of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EXCEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01205776 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1610227
    Association of Blood Pressure Classification in Korean Young Adults According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines With Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Events. Son Joung Sik,Choi Seulggie,Kim Kyuwoong,Kim Sung Min,Choi Daein,Lee Gyeongsil,Jeong Su-Min,Park Seong Yong,Kim Yeon-Yong,Yun Jae-Moon,Park Sang Min JAMA Importance:Among young adults, the association of the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) High Blood Pressure Clinical Practice Guidelines with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life is uncertain. Objective:To determine the association of blood pressure categories before age 40 years with risk of CVD later in life. Design, Setting, and Participants:This population-based cohort study from the Korean National Health Insurance Service consisted of 2 488 101 adults aged 20 through 39 years with blood pressure measurements taken twice from 2002 through 2005. Starting from January 1, 2006, participants were followed up until the date of CVD diagnosis, death, or December 31, 2015. Exposures:Participants were categorized by blood pressure readings: normal (systolic, <120 mm Hg; diastolic, <80 mm Hg), elevated (sytolic, 120-129 mm Hg; diastolic, <80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (systolic, 130-139 mm Hg; diastolic, 80-89 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (systolic, ≥140 mm Hg; diastolic, ≥90 mm Hg). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was CVD defined as 2 or more days of hospitalization due to CVD or death due to CVD. The secondary outcomes were coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Results:The study population consisted of 2 488 101 participants (median age, 31 years [interquartile range, 27-36 years], 789 870 women [31.7%]). A total of 44 813 CVD events were observed during a median follow-up duration of 10 years. Men with baseline stage 1 hypertension compared with those with normal blood pressure had higher risk of CVD (incidence, 215 vs 164 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 51 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 48-55]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.25 [95% CI, 1.21-1.28]), CHD (incidence, 134 vs 103 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 31 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 28-33]; adjusted HR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.19-1.27]), and stroke (incidence, 90 vs 67 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 23 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 21-26]; adjusted HR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36]). Women with baseline stage 1 hypertension compared with those with normal blood pressure had increased risk of CVD (incidence, 131 vs 91 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 40 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 35-45]; adjusted HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.21-1.34]), CHD (incidence, 56 vs 42 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 14 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 11-18]; adjusted HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.08-1.25]), and stroke (incidence, 79 vs 51 per 100 000 person-years; difference, 28 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 24-32]; adjusted HR [1.37, 95% CI, 1.29-1.46]). Results for state 2 hypertension were consistent. Conclusions and Relevance:Among Korean young adults, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension, compared with normal blood pressure, were associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease events. Young adults with hypertension, defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA criteria, may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. 10.1001/jama.2018.16501
    TMAO and Heart Disease: The New Red Meat Risk? Abbasi Jennifer JAMA 10.1001/jama.2019.3910
    Coronary Arteritis in IgG4-Related Disease. de la Fuente Jaime,Bird Jared The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMicm1809588
    Mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting for coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data. Head Stuart J,Milojevic Milan,Daemen Joost,Ahn Jung-Min,Boersma Eric,Christiansen Evald H,Domanski Michael J,Farkouh Michael E,Flather Marcus,Fuster Valentin,Hlatky Mark A,Holm Niels R,Hueb Whady A,Kamalesh Masoor,Kim Young-Hak,Mäkikallio Timo,Mohr Friedrich W,Papageorgiou Grigorios,Park Seung-Jung,Rodriguez Alfredo E,Sabik Joseph F,Stables Rodney H,Stone Gregg W,Serruys Patrick W,Kappetein Arie Pieter Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Numerous randomised trials have compared coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with coronary artery disease. However, no studies have been powered to detect a difference in mortality between the revascularisation strategies. METHODS:We did a systematic review up to July 19, 2017, to identify randomised clinical trials comparing CABG with PCI using stents. Eligible studies included patients with multivessel or left main coronary artery disease who did not present with acute myocardial infarction, did PCI with stents (bare-metal or drug-eluting), and had more than 1 year of follow-up for all-cause mortality. In a collaborative, pooled analysis of individual patient data from the identified trials, we estimated all-cause mortality up to 5 years using Kaplan-Meier analyses and compared PCI with CABG using a random-effects Cox proportional-hazards model stratified by trial. Consistency of treatment effect was explored in subgroup analyses, with subgroups defined according to baseline clinical and anatomical characteristics. FINDINGS:We included 11 randomised trials involving 11 518 patients selected by heart teams who were assigned to PCI (n=5753) or to CABG (n=5765). 976 patients died over a mean follow-up of 3·8 years (SD 1·4). Mean Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score was 26·0 (SD 9·5), with 1798 (22·1%) of 8138 patients having a SYNTAX score of 33 or higher. 5 year all-cause mortality was 11·2% after PCI and 9·2% after CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 1·20, 95% CI 1·06-1·37; p=0·0038). 5 year all-cause mortality was significantly different between the interventions in patients with multivessel disease (11·5% after PCI vs 8·9% after CABG; HR 1·28, 95% CI 1·09-1·49; p=0·0019), including in those with diabetes (15·5% vs 10·0%; 1·48, 1·19-1·84; p=0·0004), but not in those without diabetes (8·7% vs 8·0%; 1·08, 0·86-1·36; p=0·49). SYNTAX score had a significant effect on the difference between the interventions in multivessel disease. 5 year all-cause mortality was similar between the interventions in patients with left main disease (10·7% after PCI vs 10·5% after CABG; 1·07, 0·87-1·33; p=0·52), regardless of diabetes status and SYNTAX score. INTERPRETATION:CABG had a mortality benefit over PCI in patients with multivessel disease, particularly those with diabetes and higher coronary complexity. No benefit for CABG over PCI was seen in patients with left main disease. Longer follow-up is needed to better define mortality differences between the revascularisation strategies. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30423-9
    Cytokinesis, Beta-Blockers, and Congenital Heart Disease. Yutzey Katherine E The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMcibr1913824
    PCI or CABG for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease. Taggart David P,Gaudino Mario The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2000645
    Invasive or Conservative Strategy for Stable Coronary Disease. Dangas George,Roumeliotis Anastasios,Giustino Gennaro The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2024008
    Magnetic Resonance Perfusion or Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Disease. Nagel Eike,Greenwood John P,McCann Gerry P,Bettencourt Nuno,Shah Ajay M,Hussain Shazia T,Perera Divaka,Plein Sven,Bucciarelli-Ducci Chiara,Paul Matthias,Westwood Mark A,Marber Michael,Richter Wolf-Stefan,Puntmann Valentina O,Schwenke Carsten,Schulz-Menger Jeanette,Das Rajiv,Wong Joyce,Hausenloy Derek J,Steen Henning,Berry Colin, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:In patients with stable angina, two strategies are often used to guide revascularization: one involves myocardial-perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the other involves invasive angiography and measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Whether a cardiovascular MRI-based strategy is noninferior to an FFR-based strategy with respect to major adverse cardiac events has not been established. METHODS:We performed an unblinded, multicenter, clinical-effectiveness trial by randomly assigning 918 patients with typical angina and either two or more cardiovascular risk factors or a positive exercise treadmill test to a cardiovascular MRI-based strategy or an FFR-based strategy. Revascularization was recommended for patients in the cardiovascular-MRI group with ischemia in at least 6% of the myocardium or in the FFR group with an FFR of 0.8 or less. The composite primary outcome was death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization within 1 year. The noninferiority margin was a risk difference of 6 percentage points. RESULTS:A total of 184 of 454 patients (40.5%) in the cardiovascular-MRI group and 213 of 464 patients (45.9%) in the FFR group met criteria to recommend revascularization (P = 0.11). Fewer patients in the cardiovascular-MRI group than in the FFR group underwent index revascularization (162 [35.7%] vs. 209 [45.0%], P = 0.005). The primary outcome occurred in 15 of 421 patients (3.6%) in the cardiovascular-MRI group and 16 of 430 patients (3.7%) in the FFR group (risk difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -2.7 to 2.4), findings that met the noninferiority threshold. The percentage of patients free from angina at 12 months did not differ significantly between the two groups (49.2% in the cardiovascular-MRI group and 43.8% in the FFR group, P = 0.21). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with stable angina and risk factors for coronary artery disease, myocardial-perfusion cardiovascular MRI was associated with a lower incidence of coronary revascularization than FFR and was noninferior to FFR with respect to major adverse cardiac events. (Funded by the Guy's and St. Thomas' Biomedical Research Centre of the National Institute for Health Research and others; MR-INFORM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01236807.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1716734
    Managing Stable Ischemic Heart Disease. Antman Elliott M,Braunwald Eugene The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMe2000239
    Combination Antiplatelet and Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients With Coronary and Peripheral Artery Disease. Gurbel Paul A,Fox Keith A A,Tantry Udaya S,Ten Cate Hugo,Weitz Jeffrey I Circulation Antiplatelet therapy is the mainstay for the treatment of acute and chronic arterial disease involving the coronary and peripheral beds. However, questions remain about optimal antithrombotic therapy for long-term treatment of chronic vascular disease. The observation that dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel was associated with lower thrombotic event rates than acetylsalicylic acid monotherapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention changed the treatment paradigm. Moreover, the demonstration that more pharmacodynamically potent P2Y inhibitors than clopidogrel were associated with fewer thrombotic event occurrences further solidified the dual antiplatelet therapy approach. However, recurrent thrombotic events occur in ≈1 in 10 patients in the first year following an acute coronary syndrome event, despite treatment with the most potent P2Y inhibitors, a limitation that has stimulated interest in exploring the efficacy and safety of approaches using anticoagulants on top of antiplatelet therapy. These investigations have included treatment with very-low-dose oral anticoagulation, and even its replacement of acetylsalicylic acid in the presence of a P2Y inhibitor, in patients stabilized after an acute coronary syndrome event. Recent basic and translational studies have suggested noncanonical effects of coagulation factor inhibition that may further modulate clinical benefits. This in-depth review will discuss developments in our understanding of the roles that platelets and coagulation factors play in atherothrombosis and review the rationale and clinical evidence for combining antiplatelet and oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with coronary and peripheral artery disease. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033580
    Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation. Lemkes Jorrit S,Janssens Gladys N,van der Hoeven Nina W,Jewbali Lucia S D,Dubois Eric A,Meuwissen Martijn,Rijpstra Tom A,Bosker Hans A,Blans Michiel J,Bleeker Gabe B,Baak Rémon,Vlachojannis Georgios J,Eikemans Bob J W,van der Harst Pim,van der Horst Iwan C C,Voskuil Michiel,van der Heijden Joris J,Beishuizen Albertus,Stoel Martin,Camaro Cyril,van der Hoeven Hans,Henriques José P,Vlaar Alexander P J,Vink Maarten A,van den Bogaard Bas,Heestermans Ton A C M,de Ruijter Wouter,Delnoij Thijs S R,Crijns Harry J G M,Jessurun Gillian A J,Oemrawsingh Pranobe V,Gosselink Marcel T M,Plomp Koos,Magro Michael,Elbers Paul W G,van de Ven Peter M,Oudemans-van Straaten Heleen M,van Royen Niels The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain. METHODS:In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit. RESULTS:At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1816897
    2-year outcomes with the Absorb bioresorbable scaffold for treatment of coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of seven randomised trials with an individual patient data substudy. Ali Ziad A,Serruys Patrick W,Kimura Takeshi,Gao Runlin,Ellis Stephen G,Kereiakes Dean J,Onuma Yoshinobu,Simonton Charles,Zhang Zhen,Stone Gregg W Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) offer the potential to improve long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention after their complete bioresorption. Randomised trials have shown non-inferiority between BVS and metallic drug-eluting stents at 1 year in composite safety and effectiveness outcomes, although some increases in rates of target vessel-related myocardial infarction and device thrombosis were identified. Outcomes of BVS following the first year after implantation are unknown. We sought to ascertain whether BVS are as safe and effective as drug-eluting stents within 2 years after implantation and between 1 and 2 years. METHODS:We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials in which patients were randomly assigned to everolimus-eluting Absorb BVS or metallic everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and followed up for at least 2 years. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane database, TCTMD, ClinicalTrials.gov, Clinical Trial Results, CardioSource, and abstracts and presentations from major cardiovascular meetings up to April 1, 2017, to identify relevant studies. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the device-oriented composite endpoint (cardiac mortality, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation) and the primary safety outcome measure was definite or probable device thrombosis. Individual patient data from the four ABSORB trials were used for landmark and subgroup analysis and multivariable modelling. FINDINGS:We identified seven randomised trials in which 5583 patients were randomly assigned to Absorb BVS (n=3261) or metallic EES (n=2322) and followed up for 2 years. BVS had higher 2-year relative risks of the device-oriented composite endpoint than did EES (9·4% [304 of 3217] vs 7·4% [169 of 2299]; relative risk [RR] 1·29 [95% CI 1·08-1·56], p=0·0059). These differences were driven by increased rates of target vessel-related myocardial infarction (5·8% [187 of 3218] vs 3·2% [74 of 2299]; RR 1·68 [95% CI 1·29-2·19], p=0·0003) and ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation (5·3% [169 of 3217] vs 3·9% [90 of 2300]; 1·40 [1·09-1·80], p=0·0090) with BVS, with non-significant differences in cardiac mortality. The cumulative 2-year incidence of device thrombosis was higher with BVS than with EES (2·3% [73 of 3187] vs 0·7% [16 of 2281]; RR 3·35 [95% CI 1·96-5·72], p<0·0001). Landmark analysis between 1 and 2 years also showed higher rates of the device-oriented composite endpoint (3·3% [69 of 2100] vs 1·9% [23 of 1193]; RR 1·64 [95% CI 1·03-2·61], p=0·0376) and device thrombosis (0·5% [11 of 2085] vs none [0 of 1183], p<0·0001) in BVS-treated patients than in EES-treated patients. INTERPRETATION:BVS was associated with increased rates of composite device-oriented adverse events and device thrombosis cumulatively at 2 years and between 1 and 2 years of follow-up compared with EES. FUNDING:Abbott Vascular. 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31470-8
    Effects of Anacetrapib in Patients with Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease. ,Bowman Louise,Hopewell Jemma C,Chen Fang,Wallendszus Karl,Stevens William,Collins Rory,Wiviott Stephen D,Cannon Christopher P,Braunwald Eugene,Sammons Emily,Landray Martin J The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching placebo (15,224 patients). The primary outcome was the first major coronary event, a composite of coronary death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. RESULTS:During the median follow-up period of 4.1 years, the primary outcome occurred in significantly fewer patients in the anacetrapib group than in the placebo group (1640 of 15,225 patients [10.8%] vs. 1803 of 15,224 patients [11.8%]; rate ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 0.97; P=0.004). The relative difference in risk was similar across multiple prespecified subgroups. At the trial midpoint, the mean level of HDL cholesterol was higher by 43 mg per deciliter (1.12 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group than in the placebo group (a relative difference of 104%), and the mean level of non-HDL cholesterol was lower by 17 mg per deciliter (0.44 mmol per liter), a relative difference of -18%. There were no significant between-group differences in the risk of death, cancer, or other serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive statin therapy, the use of anacetrapib resulted in a lower incidence of major coronary events than the use of placebo. (Funded by Merck and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN48678192 ; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01252953 ; and EudraCT number, 2010-023467-18 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1706444
    Alirocumab and Cardiovascular Outcomes after Acute Coronary Syndrome. Schwartz Gregory G,Steg P Gabriel,Szarek Michael,Bhatt Deepak L,Bittner Vera A,Diaz Rafael,Edelberg Jay M,Goodman Shaun G,Hanotin Corinne,Harrington Robert A,Jukema J Wouter,Lecorps Guillaume,Mahaffey Kenneth W,Moryusef Angèle,Pordy Robert,Quintero Kirby,Roe Matthew T,Sasiela William J,Tamby Jean-François,Tricoci Pierluigi,White Harvey D,Zeiher Andreas M, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome are at high risk for recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. We sought to determine whether alirocumab, a human monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), would improve cardiovascular outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome in patients receiving high-intensity statin therapy. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 18,924 patients who had an acute coronary syndrome 1 to 12 months earlier, had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level of at least 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter), a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of at least 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter), or an apolipoprotein B level of at least 80 mg per deciliter, and were receiving statin therapy at a high-intensity dose or at the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were randomly assigned to receive alirocumab subcutaneously at a dose of 75 mg (9462 patients) or matching placebo (9462 patients) every 2 weeks. The dose of alirocumab was adjusted under blinded conditions to target an LDL cholesterol level of 25 to 50 mg per deciliter (0.6 to 1.3 mmol per liter). The primary end point was a composite of death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. RESULTS:The median duration of follow-up was 2.8 years. A composite primary end-point event occurred in 903 patients (9.5%) in the alirocumab group and in 1052 patients (11.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.93; P<0.001). A total of 334 patients (3.5%) in the alirocumab group and 392 patients (4.1%) in the placebo group died (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98). The absolute benefit of alirocumab with respect to the composite primary end point was greater among patients who had a baseline LDL cholesterol level of 100 mg or more per deciliter than among patients who had a lower baseline level. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups, with the exception of local injection-site reactions (3.8% in the alirocumab group vs. 2.1% in the placebo group). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients who had a previous acute coronary syndrome and who were receiving high-intensity statin therapy, the risk of recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events was lower among those who received alirocumab than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ODYSSEY OUTCOMES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01663402 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1801174
    Ticagrelor in patients with diabetes and stable coronary artery disease with a history of previous percutaneous coronary intervention (THEMIS-PCI): a phase 3, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Bhatt Deepak L,Steg Philippe Gabriel,Mehta Shamir R,Leiter Lawrence A,Simon Tabassome,Fox Kim,Held Claes,Andersson Marielle,Himmelmann Anders,Ridderstråle Wilhelm,Chen Jersey,Song Yang,Diaz Rafael,Goto Shinya,James Stefan K,Ray Kausik K,Parkhomenko Alexander N,Kosiborod Mikhail N,McGuire Darren K,Harrington Robert A, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes with previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), particularly those with previous stenting, are at high risk of ischaemic events. These patients are generally treated with aspirin. In this trial, we aimed to investigate if these patients would benefit from treatment with aspirin plus ticagrelor. METHODS:The Effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in diabEtes Mellitus patients Intervention Study (THEMIS) was a phase 3 randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, done in 1315 sites in 42 countries. Patients were eligible if 50 years or older, with type 2 diabetes, receiving anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for at least 6 months, with stable coronary artery disease, and one of three other mutually non-exclusive criteria: a history of previous PCI or of coronary artery bypass grafting, or documentation of angiographic stenosis of 50% or more in at least one coronary artery. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ticagrelor or placebo, by use of an interactive voice-response or web-response system. The THEMIS-PCI trial comprised a prespecified subgroup of patients with previous PCI. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (measured in the intention-to-treat population). FINDINGS:Between Feb 17, 2014, and May 24, 2016, 11 154 patients (58% of the overall THEMIS trial) with a history of previous PCI were enrolled in the THEMIS-PCI trial. Median follow-up was 3·3 years (IQR 2·8-3·8). In the previous PCI group, fewer patients receiving ticagrelor had a primary efficacy outcome event than in the placebo group (404 [7·3%] of 5558 vs 480 [8·6%] of 5596; HR 0·85 [95% CI 0·74-0·97], p=0·013). The same effect was not observed in patients without PCI (p=0·76, p=0·16). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular death was similar in both treatment groups (174 [3·1%] with ticagrelor vs 183 (3·3%) with placebo; HR 0·96 [95% CI 0·78-1·18], p=0·68), as well as all-cause death (282 [5·1%] vs 323 [5·8%]; 0·88 [0·75-1·03], p=0·11). TIMI major bleeding occurred in 111 (2·0%) of 5536 patients receiving ticagrelor and 62 (1·1%) of 5564 patients receiving placebo (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·48-2·76], p<0·0001), and fatal bleeding in 6 (0·1%) of 5536 patients with ticagrelor and 6 (0·1%) of 5564 with placebo (1·13 [0·36-3·50], p=0·83). Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 33 (0·6%) and 31 (0·6%) patients (1·21 [0·74-1·97], p=0·45). Ticagrelor improved net clinical benefit: 519/5558 (9·3%) versus 617/5596 (11·0%), HR=0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·95, p=0·005, in contrast to patients without PCI where it did not, p=0·012. Benefit was present irrespective of time from most recent PCI. INTERPRETATION:In patients with diabetes, stable coronary artery disease, and previous PCI, ticagrelor added to aspirin reduced cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, although with increased major bleeding. In that large, easily identified population, ticagrelor provided a favourable net clinical benefit (more than in patients without history of PCI). This effect shows that long-term therapy with ticagrelor in addition to aspirin should be considered in patients with diabetes and a history of PCI who have tolerated antiplatelet therapy, have high ischaemic risk, and low bleeding risk. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31887-2
    Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease: 10-year follow-up of the multicentre randomised controlled SYNTAX trial. Thuijs Daniel J F M,Kappetein A Pieter,Serruys Patrick W,Mohr Friedrich-Wilhelm,Morice Marie-Claude,Mack Michael J,Holmes David R,Curzen Nick,Davierwala Piroze,Noack Thilo,Milojevic Milan,Dawkins Keith D,da Costa Bruno R,Jüni Peter,Head Stuart J, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:The Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial was a non-inferiority trial that compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease, and reported results up to 5 years. We now report 10-year all-cause death results. METHODS:The SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) study is an investigator-driven extension of follow-up of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial done in 85 hospitals across 18 North American and European countries. Patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to the PCI group or CABG group. Patients with a history of PCI or CABG, acute myocardial infarction, or an indication for concomitant cardiac surgery were excluded. The primary endpoint of the SYNTAXES study was 10-year all-cause death, which was assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed according to the presence or absence of left main coronary artery disease and diabetes, and according to coronary complexity defined by core laboratory SYNTAX score tertiles. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03417050. FINDINGS:From March, 2005, to April, 2007, 1800 patients were randomly assigned to the PCI (n=903) or CABG (n=897) group. Vital status information at 10 years was complete for 841 (93%) patients in the PCI group and 848 (95%) patients in the CABG group. At 10 years, 248 (28%) patients had died after PCI and 212 (24%) after CABG (hazard ratio 1·19 [95% CI 0·99-1·43], p=0·066). Among patients with three-vessel disease, 153 (28%) of 546 had died after PCI versus 114 (21%) of 549 after CABG (hazard ratio 1·42 [95% CI 1·11-1·81]), and among patients with left main coronary artery disease, 95 (27%) of 357 had died after PCI versus 98 (28%) of 348 after CABG (0·92 [0·69-1·22], p=0·023). There was no treatment-by-subgroup interaction with diabetes (p=0·60) and no linear trend across SYNTAX score tertiles (p=0·20). INTERPRETATION:At 10 years, no significant difference existed in all-cause death between PCI using first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents and CABG. However, CABG provided a significant survival benefit in patients with three-vessel disease, but not in patients with left main coronary artery disease. FUNDING:German Foundation of Heart Research (SYNTAXES study, 5-10-year follow-up) and Boston Scientific Corporation (SYNTAX study, 0-5-year follow-up). 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31997-X
    Native T1 and ECV of Noninfarcted Myocardium and Outcome in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. Puntmann Valentina O,Carr-White Gerry,Jabbour Andrew,Yu Chung-Yao,Gebker Rolf,Kelle Sebastian,Rolf Andreas,Zitzmann Sabine,Peker Elif,D'Angelo Tommaso,Pathan Faraz,Elen ,Valbuena Silvia,Hinojar Rocio,Arendt Christophe,Narula Jagat,Herrmann Eva,Zeiher Andreas M,Nagel Eike, Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the major cause of cardiac morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite the advances in treatment with coronary revascularization and modern antiremodeling therapy. Risk stratification in CAD patients is primarily based on left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF), risk scores, and the presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The prognostic role of T1 mapping in noninfarcted myocardium in CAD patients has not yet been determined. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to examine prognostic significance of native T1 mapping of noninfarcted myocardium in patients with CAD. METHODS:A prospective, observational, multicenter longitudinal study of consecutive patients undergoing routine cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with T1 mapping and LGE. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (MACCE) (cardiac mortality, nonfatal acute coronary syndrome, stroke, and appropriate device discharge) are also reported. RESULTS:A total of 34 deaths and 71 MACCE (n = 665, males n = 424, median age [interquartile range] 57 [22] years; 64%; median follow-up period of 17 [11] months) were observed. Native T1 and extracellular volume were univariate predictors of outcome. Native T1 and LGE were stronger predictors of survival and MACCE compared with extracellular volume, LVEF, cardiac volumes, and clinical scores (p < 0.001). Native T1 of noninfarcted myocardium was the sole independent predictor of all-cause mortality (chi-square = 21.7; p < 0.001), which was accentuated in the absence of LGE or LVEF ≤35%. For MACCE, native T1 and LGE extent were joint independent predictors (chi-square = 25.6; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Characterization of noninfarcted myocardium by native T1 is an important predictor of outcome in CAD patients, over and above the traditional risk stratifiers. The current study's results provide a basis for a novel risk stratification model in CAD based on a complementary assessment of noninfarcted myocardium and post-infarction scar, by native T1 mapping and LGE, respectively. 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.12.020
    Hypoglycemia and Elevated Troponin in Patients With Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease. Rezende Paulo C,Everett Brendan M,Brooks Maria Mori,Vlachos Helen,Orchard Trevor J,Frye Robert L,Bhatt Deepak L,Hlatky Mark A Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:Diabetic medications can cause hypoglycemia, which may lead to myocardial damage. OBJECTIVES:This study sought to determine whether hypoglycemia is associated with higher levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hsTnT). METHODS:The BARI 2D (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes) trial randomized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease, and closely followed them for hypoglycemia over the first year. Hypoglycemia was classified by maximum severity and frequency. hsTnT was measured at baseline and 1 year, and analyzed using multivariable regression. RESULTS:Of 1,984 patients, follow-up hypoglycemia was absent in 1,026 (52%) patients, mild in 875 (44%), and severe in 83 (4%), and occurred less than weekly in 561 (28%) and greater than or equal to weekly in 397 (20%). hsTnT levels were associated with hypoglycemia: a median of 11.4 ng/l (interquartile range [IQR]: 8.1 to 17.3 ng/l) for none, 12.5 ng/l (IQR: 8.3 to 19.3 ng/l) for mild, and 13.7 ng/l (IQR: 9.9 to 24.9 ng/l) for severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.0001); and 12.5 ng/l (IQR: 8.3 to 18.1 ng/l) for less than weekly and 13.0 ng/l (IQR: 8.8 to 21.1 ng/l) for greater than or equal to weekly hypoglycemia (p = 0.0013). Severe hypoglycemia was associated with 34% higher 1-year hsTnT levels (p < 0.0001) in unadjusted analysis, 17% higher (p = 0.006) after adjustment for baseline factors unrelated to diabetes, and 6% higher (p = 0.23) after further adjustment for the duration and severity of diabetes. Hypoglycemia greater than or equal to weekly was associated with 14% higher hsTnT (p = 0.0003) in unadjusted analysis, 12% higher (p = 0.0002) after adjustment for baseline factors unrelated to diabetes, and 4% higher (p = 0.16) after adjustment for diabetes related factors. CONCLUSIONS:Hypoglycemia was associated with elevated hsTnT levels, but this may be due to more severe diabetes in patients who developed hypoglycemia, rather than the direct result of hypoglycemia. (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes [BARI2D]; NCT00006305). 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.07.067
    Coronary CT Angiography and 5-Year Risk of Myocardial Infarction. ,Newby David E,Adamson Philip D,Berry Colin,Boon Nicholas A,Dweck Marc R,Flather Marcus,Forbes John,Hunter Amanda,Lewis Stephanie,MacLean Scott,Mills Nicholas L,Norrie John,Roditi Giles,Shah Anoop S V,Timmis Adam D,van Beek Edwin J R,Williams Michelle C The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Although coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) improves diagnostic certainty in the assessment of patients with stable chest pain, its effect on 5-year clinical outcomes is unknown. METHODS:In an open-label, multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned 4146 patients with stable chest pain who had been referred to a cardiology clinic for evaluation to standard care plus CTA (2073 patients) or to standard care alone (2073 patients). Investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were assessed over 3 to 7 years of follow-up. The primary end point was death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years. RESULTS:The median duration of follow-up was 4.8 years, which yielded 20,254 patient-years of follow-up. The 5-year rate of the primary end point was lower in the CTA group than in the standard-care group (2.3% [48 patients] vs. 3.9% [81 patients]; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.84; P=0.004). Although the rates of invasive coronary angiography and coronary revascularization were higher in the CTA group than in the standard-care group in the first few months of follow-up, overall rates were similar at 5 years: invasive coronary angiography was performed in 491 patients in the CTA group and in 502 patients in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.13), and coronary revascularization was performed in 279 patients in the CTA group and in 267 in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.27). However, more preventive therapies were initiated in patients in the CTA group (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.65), as were more antianginal therapies (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.54). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of cardiovascular or noncardiovascular deaths or deaths from any cause. CONCLUSIONS:In this trial, the use of CTA in addition to standard care in patients with stable chest pain resulted in a significantly lower rate of death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years than standard care alone, without resulting in a significantly higher rate of coronary angiography or coronary revascularization. (Funded by the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office and others; SCOT-HEART ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149590 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1805971
    Rivaroxaban in Patients with Heart Failure, Sinus Rhythm, and Coronary Disease. Zannad Faiez,Anker Stefan D,Byra William M,Cleland John G F,Fu Min,Gheorghiade Mihai,Lam Carolyn S P,Mehra Mandeep R,Neaton James D,Nessel Christopher C,Spiro Theodore E,van Veldhuisen Dirk J,Greenberg Barry, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Heart failure is associated with activation of thrombin-related pathways, which predicts a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that treatment with rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, could reduce thrombin generation and improve outcomes for patients with worsening chronic heart failure and underlying coronary artery disease. METHODS:In this double-blind, randomized trial, 5022 patients who had chronic heart failure, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less, coronary artery disease, and elevated plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides and who did not have atrial fibrillation were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo in addition to standard care after treatment for an episode of worsening heart failure. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The principal safety outcome was fatal bleeding or bleeding into a critical space with a potential for causing permanent disability. RESULTS:Over a median follow-up period of 21.1 months, the primary end point occurred in 626 (25.0%) of 2507 patients assigned to rivaroxaban and in 658 (26.2%) of 2515 patients assigned to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.05; P=0.27). No significant difference in all-cause mortality was noted between the rivaroxaban group and the placebo group (21.8% and 22.1%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.10). The principal safety outcome occurred in 18 patients who took rivaroxaban and in 23 who took placebo (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.49; P=0.48). CONCLUSIONS:Rivaroxaban at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily was not associated with a significantly lower rate of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke than placebo among patients with worsening chronic heart failure, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, coronary artery disease, and no atrial fibrillation. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; COMMANDER HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01877915 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1808848
    Colchicine in Patients with Chronic Coronary Disease. Nidorf Stefan M,Fiolet Aernoud T L,Mosterd Arend,Eikelboom John W,Schut Astrid,Opstal Tjerk S J,The Salem H K,Xu Xiao-Fang,Ireland Mark A,Lenderink Timo,Latchem Donald,Hoogslag Pieter,Jerzewski Anastazia,Nierop Peter,Whelan Alan,Hendriks Randall,Swart Henk,Schaap Jeroen,Kuijper Aaf F M,van Hessen Maarten W J,Saklani Pradyot,Tan Isabel,Thompson Angus G,Morton Allison,Judkins Chris,Bax Willem A,Dirksen Maurits,Alings Marco,Hankey Graeme J,Budgeon Charley A,Tijssen Jan G P,Cornel Jan H,Thompson Peter L, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Evidence from a recent trial has shown that the antiinflammatory effects of colchicine reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction, but evidence of such a risk reduction in patients with chronic coronary disease is limited. METHODS:In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned patients with chronic coronary disease to receive 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily or matching placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous (nonprocedural) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. RESULTS:A total of 5522 patients underwent randomization; 2762 were assigned to the colchicine group and 2760 to the placebo group. The median duration of follow-up was 28.6 months. A primary end-point event occurred in 187 patients (6.8%) in the colchicine group and in 264 patients (9.6%) in the placebo group (incidence, 2.5 vs. 3.6 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.83; P<0.001). A key secondary end-point event occurred in 115 patients (4.2%) in the colchicine group and in 157 patients (5.7%) in the placebo group (incidence, 1.5 vs. 2.1 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92; P = 0.007). The incidence rates of spontaneous myocardial infarction or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization (composite end point), cardiovascular death or spontaneous myocardial infarction (composite end point), ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and spontaneous myocardial infarction were also significantly lower with colchicine than with placebo. The incidence of death from noncardiovascular causes was higher in the colchicine group than in the placebo group (incidence, 0.7 vs. 0.5 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.31). CONCLUSIONS:In a randomized trial involving patients with chronic coronary disease, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly lower among those who received 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily than among those who received placebo. (Funded by the National Health Medical Research Council of Australia and others; LoDoCo2 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000093684.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2021372
    Management of Coronary Disease in Patients with Advanced Kidney Disease. Ying Tracey,Gill John S,Chadban Steve The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2024023
    Management of Coronary Disease in Patients with Advanced Kidney Disease. Shetty Harish B,Shetty Anamay H The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2024023
    Pharmacological lipid-modification therapies for prevention of ischaemic heart disease: current and future options. Ray Kausik K,Corral Pablo,Morales Enrique,Nicholls Stephen J Lancet (London, England) Atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestation as ischaemic heart disease remains a considerable health burden. Given that many factors contribute to ischaemic heart disease, a multifactorial approach to prevention is recommended, starting with lifestyle advice, smoking cessation, and control of known cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure and lipids. Within the lipid profile, the principal target is lowering LDL cholesterol, firstly with lifestyle interventions and subsequently with pharmacological therapy. Statins are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatment. Some individuals might require further lowering of LDL cholesterol or be unable to tolerate statins. Additional therapies targeting different pathways in cholesterol metabolism are now available, ranging from small molecules taken orally, to injectable therapies. Examples include ezetimibe, which targets Niemann-Pick C1-like protein, and monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9. Phase 3 trials have also been completed for bempedoic acid (targeting ATP-citrate lyase) and inclisiran (an interference RNA-based therapeutic targeting hepatic PCSK9 synthesis). In addition to LDL cholesterol, mendelian randomisation studies support a causal role for lipoprotein(a) and triglycerides in ischaemic heart disease. In this Series paper, we appraise currently available and emerging therapies for lowering LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), and triglycerides for prevention of ischaemic heart disease. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31950-6
    The Evolving Story of Triglycerides and Coronary Heart Disease Risk. Navar Ann Marie JAMA 10.1001/jama.2018.20044
    Redevelopment and validation of the SYNTAX score II to individualise decision making between percutaneous and surgical revascularisation in patients with complex coronary artery disease: secondary analysis of the multicentre randomised controlled SYNTAXES trial with external cohort validation. Takahashi Kuniaki,Serruys Patrick W,Fuster Valentin,Farkouh Michael E,Spertus John A,Cohen David J,Park Seung-Jung,Park Duk-Woo,Ahn Jung-Min,Kappetein Arie Pieter,Head Stuart J,Thuijs Daniel Jfm,Onuma Yoshinobu,Kent David M,Steyerberg Ewout W,van Klaveren David, Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:Randomised controlled trials are considered the gold standard for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic interventions, and typically report the average treatment effect as a summary result. As the result of treatment can vary between patients, basing treatment decisions for individual patients on the overall average treatment effect could be suboptimal. We aimed to develop an individualised decision making tool to select an optimal revascularisation strategy in patients with complex coronary artery disease. METHODS:The SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) study is an investigator-driven extension follow-up of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial done in 85 hospitals across 18 North American and European countries between March, 2005, and April, 2007. Patients with de-novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) group or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) group. The SYNTAXES study ascertained 10-year all-cause deaths. We used Cox regression to develop a clinical prognostic index for predicting death over a 10-year period, which was combined, in a second stage, with assigned treatment (PCI or CABG) and two prespecified effect-modifiers, which were selected on the basis of previous evidence: disease type (three-vessel disease or left main coronary artery disease) and anatomical SYNTAX score. We used similar techniques to develop a model to predict the 5-year risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal stroke, or non-fatal myocardial infarction) in patients receiving PCI or CABG. We then assessed the ability of these models to predict the risk of death or a major adverse cardiovascular event, and their differences (ie, the estimated benefit of CABG versus PCI by calculating the absolute risk difference between the two strategies) by cross-validation with the SYNTAX trial (n=1800 participants) and external validation in the pooled population (n=3380 participants) of the FREEDOM, BEST, and PRECOMBAT trials. The concordance (C)-index was used to measure discriminative ability, and calibration plots were used to assess the degree of agreement between predictions and observations. FINDINGS:At cross-validation, the newly developed SYNTAX score II, termed SYNTAX score II 2020, showed a helpful discriminative ability in both treatment groups for predicting 10-year all-cause deaths (C-index=0·73 [95% CI 0·69-0·76] for PCI and 0·73 [0·69-0·76] for CABG) and 5-year major adverse cardiovascular events (C-index=0·65 [0·61-0·69] for PCI and C-index=0·71 [0·67-0·75] for CABG). At external validation, the SYNTAX score II 2020 showed helpful discrimination (C-index=0·67 [0·63-0·70] for PCI and C-index=0·62 [0·58-0·66] for CABG) and good calibration for predicting 5-year major adverse cardiovascular events. The estimated treatment benefit of CABG over PCI varied substantially among patients in the trial population, and the benefit predictions were well calibrated. INTERPRETATION:The SYNTAX score II 2020 for predicting 10-year deaths and 5-year major adverse cardiovascular events can help to identify individuals who will benefit from either CABG or PCI, thereby supporting heart teams, patients, and their families to select optimal revascularisation strategies. FUNDING:The German Heart Research Foundation and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32114-0
    Health-Status Outcomes with Invasive or Conservative Care in Coronary Disease. Spertus John A,Jones Philip G,Maron David J,O'Brien Sean M,Reynolds Harmony R,Rosenberg Yves,Stone Gregg W,Harrell Frank E,Boden William E,Weintraub William S,Baloch Khaula,Mavromatis Kreton,Diaz Ariel,Gosselin Gilbert,Newman Jonathan D,Mavromichalis Stavroula,Alexander Karen P,Cohen David J,Bangalore Sripal,Hochman Judith S,Mark Daniel B, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:In the ISCHEMIA trial, an invasive strategy with angiographic assessment and revascularization did not reduce clinical events among patients with stable ischemic heart disease and moderate or severe ischemia. A secondary objective of the trial was to assess angina-related health status among these patients. METHODS:We assessed angina-related symptoms, function, and quality of life with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) at randomization, at months 1.5, 3, and 6, and every 6 months thereafter in participants who had been randomly assigned to an invasive treatment strategy (2295 participants) or a conservative strategy (2322). Mixed-effects cumulative probability models within a Bayesian framework were used to estimate differences between the treatment groups. The primary outcome of this health-status analysis was the SAQ summary score (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better health status). All analyses were performed in the overall population and according to baseline angina frequency. RESULTS:At baseline, 35% of patients reported having no angina in the previous month. SAQ summary scores increased in both treatment groups, with increases at 3, 12, and 36 months that were 4.1 points (95% credible interval, 3.2 to 5.0), 4.2 points (95% credible interval, 3.3 to 5.1), and 2.9 points (95% credible interval, 2.2 to 3.7) higher with the invasive strategy than with the conservative strategy. Differences were larger among participants who had more frequent angina at baseline (8.5 vs. 0.1 points at 3 months and 5.3 vs. 1.2 points at 36 months among participants with daily or weekly angina as compared with no angina). CONCLUSIONS:In the overall trial population with moderate or severe ischemia, which included 35% of participants without angina at baseline, patients randomly assigned to the invasive strategy had greater improvement in angina-related health status than those assigned to the conservative strategy. The modest mean differences favoring the invasive strategy in the overall group reflected minimal differences among asymptomatic patients and larger differences among patients who had had angina at baseline. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ISCHEMIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01471522.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1916370
    Association Between Adherence to Fractional Flow Reserve Treatment Thresholds and Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. Sud Maneesh,Han Lu,Koh Maria,Austin Peter C,Farkouh Michael E,Ly Hung Q,Madan Mina,Natarajan Madhu K,So Derek Y,Wijeysundera Harindra C,Fang Jiming,Ko Dennis T JAMA Importance:Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an invasive measurement used to assess the potential of a coronary stenosis to induce myocardial ischemia and guide decisions for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is not known whether established FFR thresholds for PCI are adhered to in routine interventional practice and whether adherence to these thresholds is associated with better clinical outcomes. Objective:To assess the adherence to evidence-based FFR thresholds for PCI and its association with clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants:A retrospective, multicenter, population-based cohort study of adults with coronary artery disease undergoing single-vessel FFR assessment (excluding ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) from April 1, 2013, to March 31, 2018, in Ontario, Canada, and followed up until March 31, 2019, was conducted. Two separate cohorts were created based on FFR thresholds (≤0.80 as ischemic and >0.80 as nonischemic). Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to account for treatment selection bias. Exposures:PCI vs no PCI. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined by death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or urgent coronary revascularization. Results:There were 9106 patients (mean [SD] age, 65 [10.6] years; 35.3% female) who underwent single-vessel FFR measurement. Among 2693 patients with an ischemic FFR, 75.3% received PCI and 24.7% were treated only with medical therapy. In the ischemic FFR cohort, PCI was associated with a significantly lower rate and hazard of MACE at 5 years compared with no PCI (31.5% vs 39.1%; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.63-0.94]). Among 6413 patients with a nonischemic FFR, 12.6% received PCI and 87.4% were treated with medical therapy only. PCI was associated with a significantly higher rate and hazard of MACE at 5 years compared with no PCI (33.3% vs 24.4%; HR, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.14-1.65]) in this cohort. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with coronary artery disease who underwent single-vessel FFR measurement in routine clinical practice, performing PCI, compared with not performing PCI, was significantly associated with a lower rate of MACE for ischemic lesions and a higher rate of MACE for nonischemic lesions. These findings support the performance of PCI procedures according to evidence-based FFR thresholds. 10.1001/jama.2020.22708
    Antithrombotic Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation with Stable Coronary Disease. Yasuda Satoshi,Kaikita Koichi,Akao Masaharu,Ako Junya,Matoba Tetsuya,Nakamura Masato,Miyauchi Katsumi,Hagiwara Nobuhisa,Kimura Kazuo,Hirayama Atsushi,Matsui Kunihiko,Ogawa Hisao, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:There are limited data from randomized trials evaluating the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease. METHODS:In a multicenter, open-label trial conducted in Japan, we randomly assigned 2236 patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) more than 1 year earlier or who had angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease not requiring revascularization to receive monotherapy with rivaroxaban (a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant) or combination therapy with rivaroxaban plus a single antiplatelet agent. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause; this end point was analyzed for noninferiority with a noninferiority margin of 1.46. The primary safety end point was major bleeding, according to the criteria of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis; this end point was analyzed for superiority. RESULTS:The trial was stopped early because of increased mortality in the combination-therapy group. Rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy for the primary efficacy end point, with event rates of 4.14% and 5.75% per patient-year, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Rivaroxaban monotherapy was superior to combination therapy for the primary safety end point, with event rates of 1.62% and 2.76% per patient-year, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.89; P = 0.01 for superiority). CONCLUSIONS:As antithrombotic therapy, rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy for efficacy and superior for safety in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease. (Funded by the Japan Cardiovascular Research Foundation; AFIRE UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000016612; and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02642419.). 10.1056/NEJMoa1904143
    Association of Genetic Variants Related to Gluteofemoral vs Abdominal Fat Distribution With Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Disease, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Lotta Luca A,Wittemans Laura B L,Zuber Verena,Stewart Isobel D,Sharp Stephen J,Luan Jian'an,Day Felix R,Li Chen,Bowker Nicholas,Cai Lina,De Lucia Rolfe Emanuella,Khaw Kay-Tee,Perry John R B,O'Rahilly Stephen,Scott Robert A,Savage David B,Burgess Stephen,Wareham Nicholas J,Langenberg Claudia JAMA Importance:Body fat distribution, usually measured using waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), is an important contributor to cardiometabolic disease independent of body mass index (BMI). Whether mechanisms that increase WHR via lower gluteofemoral (hip) or via higher abdominal (waist) fat distribution affect cardiometabolic risk is unknown. Objective:To identify genetic variants associated with higher WHR specifically via lower gluteofemoral or higher abdominal fat distribution and estimate their association with cardiometabolic risk. Design, Setting, and Participants:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for WHR combined data from the UK Biobank cohort and summary statistics from previous GWAS (data collection: 2006-2018). Specific polygenic scores for higher WHR via lower gluteofemoral or via higher abdominal fat distribution were derived using WHR-associated genetic variants showing specific association with hip or waist circumference. Associations of polygenic scores with outcomes were estimated in 3 population-based cohorts, a case-cohort study, and summary statistics from 6 GWAS (data collection: 1991-2018). Exposures:More than 2.4 million common genetic variants (GWAS); polygenic scores for higher WHR (follow-up analyses). Main Outcomes and Measures:BMI-adjusted WHR and unadjusted WHR (GWAS); compartmental fat mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease risk (follow-up analyses). Results:Among 452 302 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry, the mean (SD) age was 57 (8) years and the mean (SD) WHR was 0.87 (0.09). In genome-wide analyses, 202 independent genetic variants were associated with higher BMI-adjusted WHR (n = 660 648) and unadjusted WHR (n = 663 598). In dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry analyses (n = 18 330), the hip- and waist-specific polygenic scores for higher WHR were specifically associated with lower gluteofemoral and higher abdominal fat, respectively. In follow-up analyses (n = 636 607), both polygenic scores were associated with higher blood pressure and triglyceride levels and higher risk of diabetes (waist-specific score: odds ratio [OR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.34-1.83], absolute risk increase per 1000 participant-years [ARI], 4.4 [95% CI, 2.7-6.5], P < .001; hip-specific score: OR, 2.54 [95% CI, 2.17-2.96], ARI, 12.0 [95% CI, 9.1-15.3], P < .001) and coronary disease (waist-specific score: OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.39-1.84], ARI, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5-3.3], P < .001; hip-specific score: OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.53-2.02], ARI, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.1-4.0], P < .001), per 1-SD increase in BMI-adjusted WHR. Conclusions and Relevance:Distinct genetic mechanisms may be linked to gluteofemoral and abdominal fat distribution that are the basis for the calculation of the WHR. These findings may improve risk assessment and treatment of diabetes and coronary disease. 10.1001/jama.2018.19329
    Association of Triglyceride-Lowering LPL Variants and LDL-C-Lowering LDLR Variants With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Ference Brian A,Kastelein John J P,Ray Kausik K,Ginsberg Henry N,Chapman M John,Packard Chris J,Laufs Ulrich,Oliver-Williams Clare,Wood Angela M,Butterworth Adam S,Di Angelantonio Emanuele,Danesh John,Nicholls Stephen J,Bhatt Deepak L,Sabatine Marc S,Catapano Alberico L JAMA Importance:Triglycerides and cholesterol are both carried in plasma by apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoprotein particles. It is unknown whether lowering plasma triglyceride levels reduces the risk of cardiovascular events to the same extent as lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Objective:To compare the association of triglyceride-lowering variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene and LDL-C-lowering variants in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR) with the risk of cardiovascular disease per unit change in ApoB. Design, Setting, and Participants:Mendelian randomization analyses evaluating the associations of genetic scores composed of triglyceride-lowering variants in the LPL gene and LDL-C-lowering variants in the LDLR gene, respectively, with the risk of cardiovascular events among participants enrolled in 63 cohort or case-control studies conducted in North America or Europe between 1948 and 2017. Exposures:Differences in plasma triglyceride, LDL-C, and ApoB levels associated with the LPL and LDLR genetic scores. Main Outcomes and Measures:Odds ratio (OR) for coronary heart disease (CHD)-defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization-per 10-mg/dL lower concentration of ApoB-containing lipoproteins. Results:A total of 654 783 participants, including 91 129 cases of CHD, were included (mean age, 62.7 years; 51.4% women). For each 10-mg/dL lower level of ApoB-containing lipoproteins, the LPL score was associated with 69.9-mg/dL (95% CI, 68.1-71.6; P = 7.1 × 10-1363) lower triglyceride levels and 0.7-mg/dL (95% CI, 0.03-1.4; P = .04) higher LDL-C levels; while the LDLR score was associated with 14.2-mg/dL (95% CI, 13.6-14.8; P = 1.4 × 10-465) lower LDL-C and 1.9-mg/dL (95% CI, 0.1-3.9; P = .04) lower triglyceride levels. Despite these differences in associated lipid levels, the LPL and LDLR scores were associated with similar lower risk of CHD per 10-mg/dL lower level of ApoB-containing lipoproteins (OR, 0.771 [95% CI, 0.741-0.802], P = 3.9 × 10-38 and OR, 0.773 [95% CI, 0.747-0.801], P = 1.1 × 10-46, respectively). In multivariable mendelian randomization analyses, the associations between triglyceride and LDL-C levels with the risk of CHD became null after adjusting for differences in ApoB (triglycerides: OR, 1.014 [95% CI, 0.965-1.065], P = .19; LDL-C: OR, 1.010 [95% CI, 0.967-1.055], P = .19; ApoB: OR, 0.761 [95% CI, 0.723-0.798], P = 7.51 × 10-20). Conclusions and Relevance:Triglyceride-lowering LPL variants and LDL-C-lowering LDLR variants were associated with similar lower risk of CHD per unit difference in ApoB. Therefore, the clinical benefit of lowering triglyceride and LDL-C levels may be proportional to the absolute change in ApoB. 10.1001/jama.2018.20045
    Protein-Truncating Variants at the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease. Nomura Akihiro,Won Hong-Hee,Khera Amit V,Takeuchi Fumihiko,Ito Kaoru,McCarthy Shane,Emdin Connor A,Klarin Derek,Natarajan Pradeep,Zekavat Seyedeh M,Gupta Namrata,Peloso Gina M,Borecki Ingrid B,Teslovich Tanya M,Asselta Rosanna,Duga Stefano,Merlini Piera A,Correa Adolfo,Kessler Thorsten,Wilson James G,Bown Matthew J,Hall Alistair S,Braund Peter S,Carey David J,Murray Michael F,Kirchner H Lester,Leader Joseph B,Lavage Daniel R,Manus J Neil,Hartze Dustin N,Samani Nilesh J,Schunkert Heribert,Marrugat Jaume,Elosua Roberto,McPherson Ruth,Farrall Martin,Watkins Hugh,Juang Jyh-Ming J,Hsiung Chao A,Lin Shih-Yi,Wang Jun-Sing,Tada Hayato,Kawashiri Masa-Aki,Inazu Akihiro,Yamagishi Masakazu,Katsuya Tomohiro,Nakashima Eitaro,Nakatochi Masahiro,Yamamoto Ken,Yokota Mitsuhiro,Momozawa Yukihide,Rotter Jerome I,Lander Eric S,Rader Daniel J,Danesh John,Ardissino Diego,Gabriel Stacey,Willer Cristen J,Abecasis Goncalo R,Saleheen Danish,Kubo Michiaki,Kato Norihiro,Ida Chen Yii-Der,Dewey Frederick E,Kathiresan Sekar Circulation research RATIONALE:Therapies that inhibit CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) have failed to demonstrate a reduction in risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Human DNA sequence variants that truncate the gene may provide insight into the efficacy of CETP inhibition. OBJECTIVE:To test whether protein-truncating variants (PTVs) at the gene were associated with plasma lipid levels and CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS:We sequenced the exons of the gene in 58 469 participants from 12 case-control studies (18 817 CHD cases, 39 652 CHD-free controls). We defined PTV as those that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift frame. We also genotyped 1 Japanese-specific PTV in 27561 participants from 3 case-control studies (14 286 CHD cases, 13 275 CHD-free controls). We tested association of PTV carrier status with both plasma lipids and CHD. Among 58 469 participants with gene-sequencing data available, average age was 51.5 years and 43% were women; 1 in 975 participants carried a PTV at the gene. Compared with noncarriers, carriers of PTV at had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (effect size, 22.6 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 18-27; <1.0×10), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-12.2 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -23 to -0.98; =0.033), and lower triglycerides (-6.3%; 95% confidence interval, -12 to -0.22; =0.043). PTV carrier status was associated with reduced risk for CHD (summary odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.90; =5.1×10). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with noncarriers, carriers of PTV at displayed higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lower triglycerides, and lower risk for CHD. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.311145
    D-Dimer Predicts Long-Term Cause-Specific Mortality, Cardiovascular Events, and Cancer in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease: LIPID Study. Simes John,Robledo Kristy P,White Harvey D,Espinoza David,Stewart Ralph A,Sullivan David R,Zeller Tanja,Hague Wendy,Nestel Paul J,Glasziou Paul P,Keech Anthony C,Elliott John,Blankenberg Stefan,Tonkin Andrew M, Circulation BACKGROUND:D-dimer, a degradation product of cross-linked fibrin, is a marker for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. Moderately elevated levels of D-dimer are associated with the risk of venous and arterial events in patients with vascular disease. We assessed the role of D-dimer levels in predicting long-term vascular outcomes, cause-specific mortality, and new cancers in the LIPID trial (Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease) in the context of other risk factors. METHODS:LIPID randomized patients to placebo or pravastatin 40 mg/d 5 to 38 months after myocardial infarction or unstable angina. D-dimer levels were measured at baseline and at 1 year. Median follow-up was 6.0 years during the trial and 16 years in total. RESULTS:Baseline D-dimer levels for 7863 patients were grouped by quartile (≤112, 112-173, 173-273, >273 ng/mL). Higher levels were associated with older age, female sex, history of hypertension, poor renal function, and elevated levels of B-natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and sensitive troponin I (each P<0.001). During the first 6 years, after adjustment for up to 30 additional risk factors, higher D-dimer was associated with a significantly increased risk of a major coronary event (quartile 4 versus 1: hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.74), major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event (HR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.71) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.31-7.03; each P<0.001). During the 16 years overall, higher D-dimer was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.59), CVD mortality (HR, 1.61), cancer mortality (HR, 1.54), and non-CVD noncancer mortality (HR, 1.57; each P<0.001), remaining significant for deaths resulting from each cause occurring beyond 10 years of follow-up (each P≤0.01). Higher D-dimer also independently predicted an increase in cancer incidence (HR, 1.16; P=0.02).The D-dimer level increased the net reclassification index for all-cause mortality by 4.0 and venous thromboembolism by 13.6. CONCLUSIONS:D-dimer levels predict long-term risk of arterial and venous events, CVD mortality, and non-CVD noncancer mortality independent of other risk factors. D-dimer is also a significant predictor of cancer incidence and mortality. These results support an association of D-dimer with fatal events across multiple diseases and demonstrate that this link extends beyond 10 years' follow-up. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029901
    Blood Leukocyte DNA Methylation Predicts Risk of Future Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease. Agha Golareh,Mendelson Michael M,Ward-Caviness Cavin K,Joehanes Roby,Huan TianXiao,Gondalia Rahul,Salfati Elias,Brody Jennifer A,Fiorito Giovanni,Bressler Jan,Chen Brian H,Ligthart Symen,Guarrera Simonetta,Colicino Elena,Just Allan C,Wahl Simone,Gieger Christian,Vandiver Amy R,Tanaka Toshiko,Hernandez Dena G,Pilling Luke C,Singleton Andrew B,Sacerdote Carlotta,Krogh Vittorio,Panico Salvatore,Tumino Rosario,Li Yun,Zhang Guosheng,Stewart James D,Floyd James S,Wiggins Kerri L,Rotter Jerome I,Multhaup Michael,Bakulski Kelly,Horvath Steven,Tsao Philip S,Absher Devin M,Vokonas Pantel,Hirschhorn Joel,Fallin M Daniele,Liu Chunyu,Bandinelli Stefania,Boerwinkle Eric,Dehghan Abbas,Schwartz Joel D,Psaty Bruce M,Feinberg Andrew P,Hou Lifang,Ferrucci Luigi,Sotoodehnia Nona,Matullo Giuseppe,Peters Annette,Fornage Myriam,Assimes Themistocles L,Whitsel Eric A,Levy Daniel,Baccarelli Andrea A Circulation BACKGROUND:DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS:Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS:Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION:Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.039357
    Triglyceride and HDL-C Dyslipidemia and Risks of Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic Stroke by Glycemic Dysregulation Status: The Strong Heart Study. Lee Jennifer S,Chang Po-Yin,Zhang Ying,Kizer Jorge R,Best Lyle G,Howard Barbara V Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:High triglyceride (TG) levels and low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is unclear whether this relationship depends on glycemic dysregulation, sex, or LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) level. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We studied 3,216 participants (40% men, 41% with diabetes) who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline in a community-based, prospective cohort of American Indians (median follow-up 17.7 years). Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for incident ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in relation to combined TG and HDL-C status, where a fasting TG level ≥150 mg/dL was "high" and a fasting HDL-C level <40 mg/dL for men (<50 mg/dL for women) was "low." Models included age, sex, BMI, smoking, diabetes, fasting LDL-C level, antihypertensive medications, physical activity, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS:Participants with high TG and low HDL levels had a 1.32-fold greater HR (95% CI 1.06-1.64) for CHD than those with normal TG and normal HDL levels. It was observed in participants with diabetes, but not in those without diabetes, that high TG plus low HDL levels were associated with a 1.54-fold greater HR (95% CI 1.15-2.06) for CHD ( value for interaction = 0.003) and a 2.13-fold greater HR (95% CI 1.06-4.29) for stroke ( value for interaction = 0.060). High TG and low HDL level was associated with CHD risk in participants with an LDL-C level of ≥130 mg/dL, but this was not observed in those participants with lower LDL-C levels. Sex did not appear to modify these associations. CONCLUSIONS:Adults with both high TG and low HDL-C, particularly those with diabetes, have increased risks of incident CHD and stroke. In particular, those with an LDL-C level ≥130 mg/dL may have an increased risk of incident stroke. 10.2337/dc16-1958
    Infections, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. Pothineni Naga Venkata K,Subramany Swathi,Kuriakose Kevin,Shirazi Lily F,Romeo Francesco,Shah Prediman K,Mehta Jawahar L European heart journal Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Pathophysiological similarities between chronic infections and atherosclerosis triggered interest in a clinical association between these conditions. Various infectious microbes have been linked to atherosclerotic vascular disease in epidemiological studies. However, this association failed to satisfy the Koch's postulates of causation with multiple clinical trials demonstrating inefficacy of anti-infective therapies in mitigating atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Identification of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and experience with vaccination against various infectious agents has ushered a new avenue of efforts in the development of an anti-atherosclerotic vaccine. Studies in animal models have identified various innate and adaptive immune pathways in atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the patho-biological link between chronic infections and atherosclerosis, evaluate existing evidence of animal and human trials on the association between infections and cardiovascular disease and introduce the concept of an anti-atherosclerotic vaccine. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx362