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    The dynamics of vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus spp. flora in subsequent trimesters of pregnancy in healthy Polish women, assessed using the Sanger sequencing method. Dobrut Anna,Gosiewski Tomasz,Pabian Wojciech,Bodaszewska-Lubas Malgorzata,Ochonska Dorota,Bulanda Małgorzata,Brzychczy-Wloch Monika BMC pregnancy and childbirth BACKGROUND:Lactobacilli play an important role in maintaining vaginal health and protection against bacterial infections in the genital tract. The aim of this study is to show the dynamics of changes of the vaginal and rectal Lactobacillus flora during pregnancy by using the Sanger sequencing method. METHOD:The study included 31 healthy pregnant women without clinical signs of genitourinary infections. The material was taken in the three trimesters of pregnancy by vaginal and rectal swabs and grown on the MRS agar quantitatively to estimate the number of Lactobacillus spp. [CFU/ml]. Afterwards, 3 to 8 morphologically different lactobacilli colonies were taken for identification. Bacterial species identification was performed by 16 s rDNA sequence fragment analyses using the Sanger method. RESULTS:Among the patients tested, the most common species colonizing the vagina in the first trimester were: L. crispatus 29%, L. gasseri 19.4% and L. rhamnosus 16.1%, in the second trimester: L. crispatus 51.6%, L. gasseri 25.8%, L. rhamnosus 19.4% and L. amylovorus 16.1%, and in the third trimester the most common Lactobacillus species were: L. crispatus 25.8%, L. gasseri 25.8% and L. johnsonii 19.4%. In rectal species, the number decreased in the second and third trimesters in comparison to the first trimester (p = 0.003). An analysis of rectal dynamics showed that in the first trimester, the most common species were: L. johnsonii 19.4%, and L. plantarum 9.7%, in the second trimester: L. crispatus 9.7% and L. mucosae 6.5%, and in the third trimester: L. casei 9.7% and L. rhamnosus 9.7%. Individual dynamics of the Lactobacillus species composition showed variability, characterized by continuous, intermittent, or periodic colonization. The patients examined were mostly colonized by three Lactobacillus species in vagina (32.3%), whereas for the rectum, one Lactobacillus species during the whole pregnancy duration was common (32.3%). CONCLUSION:This study showed that in the examined group of healthy, pregnant Polish women, the vaginal Lactobacillus flora, both qualitative and quantitative, was stable during the three subsequent trimesters. In contrast, the number of rectal Lactobacillus species dramatically decreased after the first trimester. 10.1186/s12884-018-1987-7
    Relationship of U1 cell HIV-stimulatory activity to bacterial vaginosis and HIV genital tract virus load. Zariffard M Reza,Sha Beverly E,Wang Qiong J,Chen Hua Y,Bremer James,Cohen Mardge H,Spear Gregory T AIDS research and human retroviruses Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with HIV sexual transmission and increased levels of genital tract HIV RNA. We postulated that BV induces the appearance of substances in the genital tract that stimulate HIV expression locally. To test this, we measured HIV RNA levels in genital mucosal fluid from women with or without BV (defined by Nugent score) and compared them with the ability of those fluids to stimulate HIV expression in the chronically HIV-infected monocytic line U1. The U1 activity was significantly higher in women with BV (median = 1320 pg/ml p24) than in women with normal flora (median = 103 pg/ml p24, p = 0.0001). However, levels of the U1 activity were not significantly associated with levels in the genital tract of HIV RNA. Levels of the U1 activity were also not associated with levels of Gardnerella vaginalis or Mycoplasma hominis in genital fluids, suggesting these bacteria were not the source of the activity. Thus, while these data show a strong association of U1 stimulatory activity with BV, no influence of the U1 activity on genital tract HIV expression was observed. 10.1089/aid.2005.21.945
    Presence and distribution of yeasts in the reproductive tract in healthy female horses. Azarvandi A,Khosravi A R,Shokri H,Talebkhan Garoussi M,Gharahgouzlou F,Vahedi G,Sharifzadeh A Equine veterinary journal BACKGROUND:Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts, and on the skin and other mucosa in mammals. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify yeast flora in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. STUDY DESIGN:Longitudinal study. METHODS:A total of 453 samples were collected using double-guarded swabs from the vestibule, clitoral fossa and vagina in 151 horses. All samples were cultured on Sabouraud 4% dextrose agar and incubated at 35°C for 7-10 days. Isolates were identified according to their morphological characteristics and biochemical profiles. RESULTS:Yeast colonies were isolated from 60 (39.7%) of the 151 horses. The isolated yeasts belonged to nine genera, and included Candida spp. (53.2%), Cryptococcus spp. (12.2%), Saccharomyces spp. (10.5%), Geotrichum spp. (8.0%), Rhodotorula spp. (7.1%), Malassezia spp. (3.7%), Trichosporon spp. (2.6%), Kluyveromyces spp. (2.6%) and Sporothrix spp. (0.2%). Candida krusei (43.1%) was the most frequent Candida species isolated. There was a significant difference in prevalence between C. krusei and other Candida species (P<0.05). The vestibule contained more yeast isolates (48.0%) than the vagina (18.3%). The isolation of yeast colonies from multiparous females (76.8%) was significantly higher than from maiden mares (P<0.05). MAIN LIMITATIONS:The study was limited by the difficulty of distinguishing between normal flora and potential pathogens. CONCLUSIONS:Candida spp., in particular C. krusei, represent important flora resident in the caudal reproductive tract in healthy female horses. This is particularly important in contexts that require the initiation of empirical treatment prior to the completion of culture results. 10.1111/evj.12657
    Bacterial flora of the low male genital tract in patients consulting for infertility. Virecoulon F,Wallet F,Fruchart-Flamenbaum A,Rigot J-M,Peers M-C,Mitchell V,Courcol R J Andrologia The physiological aerobic bacterial flora of the low male genital tract was determined. This prospective study was performed on 600 semen specimens collected from 543 asymptomatic males consulting for infertility. Semen cultures were sterile in 28.8%, with a polymicrobial flora and/or absence or low titres of Ureaplasma urealyticum in 49.3%, and with one or two aerobic and facultative bacteria > or =1 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1) and/or U. urealyticum with titres > or =10(4) CCU ml(-1) (colour changing units) in 21.8%. In standard aerobic cultures, Gardnerella vaginalis was the most commonly isolated species (26.1%), followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (15.7%) and Streptococcus anginosus (14.2%). Ureaplasma urealyticum was absent in 84.5% of semen samples, but when recovered, high (> or =10(4) CCU ml(-1)) and low titres (< or =10(3) CCU ml(-1)) were counted in 7.2% and 8.3% respectively. Of 48 patients, the follow-up of semen cultures showed marked variations in time. This study shows that (i) there was no relationship between the bacterial flora and the leucocytospermia; (ii) low titres of U. urealyticum in semen were not associated with a disturbance of the ecosystem; (iii) the critical threshold for U. urealyticum should be raised to > or =10(4) CFU ml(-1) and (iv) a positive semen culture should be repeated before any treatment. 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2005.00673.x
    Intravaginal clindamycin to reduce preterm birth in women with abnormal genital tract flora. Lamont Ronald F,Duncan Sheila L B,Mandal Debashis,Bassett Paul Obstetrics and gynecology OBJECTIVE:To assess the ability of clindamycin vaginal cream to reduce the incidence of preterm birth in women with abnormal genital tract flora in the second trimester of pregnancy. METHODS:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, tricenter study. A total of 409 women with abnormal genital tract flora on Gram stain of vaginal secretions at 13-20 weeks' gestation were randomized to receive a 3-day course of clindamycin vaginal cream or placebo. Those women who still had abnormal vaginal flora 3 weeks later received a 7-day course of the original study drug (ie, either clindamycin vaginal cream or placebo as per original randomization). The primary outcome measure was the incidence of preterm birth. RESULTS:There was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of preterm birth in the clindamycin vaginal cream group (4%) compared with placebo (10%) (P <.03). Significantly more babies born preterm (63%) required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit compared with term infants (4%) (P <.001). CONCLUSION:A 2% clindamycin vaginal cream, when compared with placebo administered to women with abnormal genital tract flora before 20 weeks' gestation, can reduce the incidence of preterm birth by 60% and hence the need for neonatal intensive care.
    Bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of male donkeys (Equus asinus). Carleton Carla L,Donahue J Michael,Marteniuk Judith V,Sells Stephen F,Timoney Peter J Animal reproduction science This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of a population of healthy male donkeys in the state of Michigan, USA. The aim was to identify and determine the frequency of occurrence of these microorganisms using seven different isolation media and standard microbiological procedures. The sites (urethral fossa [fossa glandis], dorsal diverticulum of the urethral sinus, distal urethra, and penile surface) in the distal reproductive tract were cultured and each isolated microorganism identified. Ten different genera of gram-positive bacteria, eight different genera of gram-negative bacteria, and two genera of fungi were isolated from the external genitalia of the 43 donkeys in this study. All 43 donkeys yielded gram-positive bacteria (2-8 species) from all four sites sampled. Arcanobacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured from 16 (37.2%) of the 43 donkeys, with Acinetobacterlwoffii (16.3%), Oligella urethralis (11.6%), and Taylorellaasinigenitalis (9.3%), the most frequently isolated. Fungi were cultured from only 5 (11.6%) of the 43 donkeys, with Rhizopus spp. isolated from 3 (7.0%) and Cladosporium spp. from 2 (4.7%) individuals. The testes and epididymides collected from 40 donkeys at time of castration were culture negative. Few differences were found in the bacterial flora between prepubertal and mature intact and castrated donkeys. Of notable interest was the scarcity of known equine pathogens across the population tested and isolation of T. asinigenitalis from normal donkeys, especially prepubertal individuals and previously castrated males. 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.12.002
    [FEATURES MICROECOLOGY GENITAL TRACT IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE WITH BENIGN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY]. Koblosh N D Likars'ka sprava In the article we may see the results of microbiological investigation of secretion from genital tracts in women with the benign pathology of uterus cervix. The outcomes specify the disorders of microecology of genital tracts in these women following the proliferation of conditionally pathogenic flora, the increase of viral infection and the increase in the frequency of diagnostic of sexually transmitted infections.
    Olegusella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract of a patient with bacterial vaginosis. Diop Khoudia,Diop Awa,Bretelle Florence,Cadoret Frédéric,Michelle Caroline,Richez Magali,Cocallemen Jean-François,Raoult Didier,Fournier Pierre-Edouard,Fenollar Florence Anaerobe Strain KHD7, a Gram-stain-positive rod-shaped, non-sporulating, strictly anaerobic bacterium, was isolated from the vaginal swab of a woman with bacterial vaginosis. We studied its phenotypic characteristics and sequenced its complete genome. The major fatty acids were C16:0 (44%), C18:2n6 (22%), and C18:1n9 (14%). The 1,806,744 bp long genome exhibited 49.24% G+C content; 1549 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes. Strain KHD7 exhibited a 93.5% 16S rRNA similarity with Olsenella uli, the phylogenetically closest species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. Therefore, strain KHD7 is sufficiently distinct to represent a new genus, for which we propose the name Olegusella massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is KHD7. 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.02.012
    Genital Tract Infections in an Isolated Community: 100 Women of the Príncipe Island. Vieira-Baptista Pedro,Grinceviciene Svitrigaile,Bellen Gert,Sousa Carlos,Saldanha Conceição,Broeck Davy Vanden,Bogers John-Paul,Donders Gilbert Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology Objective:To characterize the vaginal microbiome and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the women of Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe). Methods:Cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive women, invited for a free appointment and cervical cancer screening. A vaginal slide (wet mount microscopy) and a cervical sample (ThinPrep®) (Pap test, high risk [HR-HPV], . [NG], . [TV], and . [CT]) were obtained. Results:TV, NG, CT, and HIV were found in 8.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 2.0%, respectively, and were more prevalent in younger women. HR-HPV was positive in 36.7%; 2 were positive for HPV18, but none for HPV16. Coinfection of HPV with other STIs was 8.3%. Prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) was 82.5%, mostly bacterial vaginosis (BV) 54.6%, and moderate/severe aerobic vaginitis (msAV) 25.8%. HR-HPV was not related to BV ( = 0.67). The association of abnormal Pap test with msAV was not significant ( = 0.08). Conclusion:The prevalence of NG, CT, TV, and HR-HPV was according to expected, while that of HR-AVF was higher. The surprisingly low prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 must be considered in the design of programs for prevention and vaccination; this setting can be useful as a model for postvaccination scenarios. 10.1155/2017/3058569
    Bacterial species present in the lower male genital tract: a five-year retrospective study. De Francesco Maria Antonia,Negrini Riccardo,Ravizzola Giuseppe,Galli Paola,Manca Nino The European journal of contraception & reproductive health care : the official journal of the European Society of Contraception OBJECTIVES:To identify bacterial species present in the lower genital tract of males and to investigate the relationship with semen quality. METHODS:The microscopic analyses and cultures of 696 semen specimens, collected over five years from males investigated for subfertility, were retrospectively assessed. RESULTS:Semen cultures were sterile in 48%; they showed a polymicrobial flora (more than two bacterial species) in 30%, and were positive (>1 × 10(3) colony forming units/ml) in 22% of the cases. Gardnerella vaginalis was the most frequently isolated bacterium, followed by Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp. Ureaplasma urealyticum was recovered from 13 of 147 samples (9%). Of patients with bacteriospermia 42% had leukospermia (>10(6) leukocytes/ml of semen). Bacteriospermia and leukospermia did not correlate with each other although a positive correlation was found between the presence of leukocytes and G. vaginalis isolation. Semen parameters were correlated with the bacterial species isolated most frequently. In comparison with controls, sperm concentration, motility and morphology were mostly deteriorated in the presence of G. vaginalis and U. urealyticum. CONCLUSIONS:Positive seminal fluid cultures must be interpreted with caution, taking into account both raised colony counts of single isolates and leukocyte concentration in the semen. Thus the common misdiagnosis of genital tract infection, based on the presence of seminal bacteria, and unnecessary treatment with antibiotics may be avoided. 10.3109/13625187.2010.533219
    Bacterial flora of the female genital tract: function and immune regulation. Witkin Steven S,Linhares Iara Moreno,Giraldo Paulo Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology The use of non-culture gene amplification techniques has improved our understanding of the composition of the vaginal bacterial ecosystem. In most healthy women in the reproductive period the predominant vaginal bacteria are one or more of the following species of Lactobacillus: L. crispatus, L. iners and L. gasseri. However, in other apparently healthy women lactobacilli may be deficient or absent, being replaced by other lactic-acid-producing bacteria: Atopobium, Megasphaera and/or Leptotrichia species. Infection and/or proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in the vagina is suppressed by lactic acid production, bacteria-generated antimicrobial products, and the local activities of the innate and cell-mediated immune systems. Vaginal epithelial cells produce a range of compounds with antimicrobial activities. These cells also possess membrane-bound Toll-like receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Recognition leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine production and antigen-specific immunity. Local production of IgG and IgA antibodies can also be initiated in the endocervix and vagina in response to infection. 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2006.12.004
    Comparative Study on the Vaginal Flora and Incidence of Asymptomatic Vaginosis among Healthy Women and in Women with Infertility Problems of Reproductive Age. Babu Geethavani,Singaravelu Balamuru Ganvelu,Srikumar R,Reddy Sreenivasalu V,Kokan Afraa Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR INTRODUCTION:The normal vaginal flora is highly complex, dominated by lactobacilli of doderlein that plays a vital role in maintaining the women's health and inhibits other pathogenic microorganisms. Fluctuation in local environment or exposure to any exogenous and endogenous sources changes the vaginal flora over a period of time. Disruption of the vaginal ecosystem changes the microflora of the healthy vagina, altering the pH and predisposing to lower reproductive tract infections. The change in the microflora of the female genital tract by pathogenic organisms may ascend from vagina to upper genital tract and may cause infertility. Although several studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in infertile population. The role of vaginal microbiome in infertility is not clear and need to be explored further. AIM:To compare the vaginal flora and analyse the incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of six months at Sri Lakshmi Narayana Medical College and Hospital Puducherry, India. A total of 200 high vaginal swabs were collected from Group 1 which included 84 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles without any gynaecological disorder and from Group 2, 116 women with infertility problems attending fertility clinic within the age group of 18 to 45 years. All swabs were subjected to routine aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Saline wet mount was performed for the detection of clue cells and , 10% KOH was performed for demonstration of budding yeast cells and pseudo hyphae, Gram's staining to determine the presence of yeast cells, leucocytes and bacterial morphotypes. The smear was also graded using Nugent scoring system. RESULTS:The vaginal flora of Group 1 was dominated by (40, 27.8 %) followed by (22, 15.3 %), (16, 11.1%), Coagulase negative spp. (12, 8.3%). Whereas in Group 2, the most dominant flora was spp. (30, 26.5 %), (26, 23%) followed by Gram negative bacilli such as (16, 14.1 %). The percentage of Lactobacillus in Group 2 women with infertility problems was relatively low (4, 3.5%). Asymptomatic vaginosis was present in 32 (27.6 %) of Group 2 women compared to Group 1 women were only 6 (7.1%) had asymptomatic vaginosis. CONCLUSION:Women with infertility problems showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic vaginosis and abundance of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) associated bacteria compared to healthy women. Hence, this study recommends the screening of vaginal flora as a routine for all women, especially in women undergoing infertility treatment and also suggests the importance of vaginal culture and sensitivity in routine practice. 10.7860/JCDR/2017/28296.10417
    Coinfection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus and Lower Genital Tract Pathogens in the Development of High-Grade Cervical Lesions. Zhong Hui,Tong Yao,Lin Haifeng,Mao Xiaodan,Dong Binhua,Wu Zhihui,Chen Huiyu,Sun Pengming The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale Purpose:This study investigated the infection status and relationship between other common lower genital tract infectious pathogens and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in the high-grade cervical lesions. Methods:Overall, 882 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, of which 339 patients (≥HSIL group) were confirmed with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while 543 patients (≤LSIL group) were diagnosed with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) or normal cervical pathology diagnosis. Cervical swab specimens were tested for HPV, pathogenic bacteria (PB), (UU), (MH), (CT) in both groups. Results:The infection rates of HR-HPV, PB, UU (at high density), and CT were higher in the ≥HSIL group than in the ≤LSIL group ( < 0.001); however, higher infection rates with MH were not observed ( > 0.05). PB, UU, and CT were associated with HR-HPV infection ( < 0.001). The PB and UU infection rates in the ≥HSIL group were significantly different from those in the ≤LSIL group, regardless of whether there was an HR-HPV infection at the same time ( < 0.05). However, this was not the case for the CT ( > 0.05). Furthermore, 259 pathogenic bacterial strains were detected in 882 cases. The difference in the distribution of pathogenic bacterial flora in the different grades of cervical lesions had no statistical significance, which was prioritized over ( > 0.05). Conclusion:PB, UU, and CT infection is associated with susceptibility to HR-HPV, HR-HPV coinfection with these pathogens might increase the risk of high-grade cervical lesions, and PB and UU might be independent risk factors for cervical lesions. 10.1155/2020/7640758
    Bacterial Vaginosis and Subclinical Markers of Genital Tract Inflammation and Mucosal Immunity. Thurman Andrea Ries,Kimble Thomas,Herold Betsy,Mesquita Pedro M M,Fichorova Raina N,Dawood Hassan Y,Fashemi Titilayo,Chandra Neelima,Rabe Lorna,Cunningham Tina D,Anderson Sharon,Schwartz Jill,Doncel Gustavo AIDS research and human retroviruses Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been linked to an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission in observational studies, but the underlying biological mechanisms are unknown. We measured biomarkers of subclinical vaginal inflammation, endogenous antimicrobial activity, and vaginal flora in women with BV and repeated sampling 1 week and 1 month after completion of metronidazole therapy. We also compared this cohort of women with BV to a healthy control cohort without BV. A longitudinal, open label study of 33 women with a Nugent score of 4 or higher was conducted. All women had genital swabs, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, and cervicovaginal biopsies obtained at enrollment and received 7 days of metronidazole treatment. Repeat sampling was performed approximately 1 week and 1 month after completion of therapy. Participant's baseline samples were compared to a healthy, racially matched control group (n=13) without BV. The CVL from women with resolved BV (Nugent 0-3) had significantly higher anti-HIV activity, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and growth-related oncogene alpha (GRO-α) levels and their ectocervical tissues had significantly more CD8 cells in the epithelium. Women with persistent BV after treatment had significantly higher levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the CVL. At study entry, participants had significantly greater numbers of CCR5(+) immune cells and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio in ectocervical tissues prior to metronidazole treatment, compared to a racially matched cohort of women with a Nugent score of 0-3. These data indicate that BV is associated with changes in select soluble immune mediators, an increase in HIV target cells, and a reduction in endogenous antimicrobial activity, which may contribute to the increased risk of HIV acquisition. 10.1089/aid.2015.0006
    Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study. Alcaide Maria L,Strbo Natasa,Romero Laura,Jones Deborah L,Rodriguez Violeta J,Arheart Kristopher,Martinez Octavio,Bolivar Hector,Podack Eckhard R,Fischl Margaret A PloS one Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to HIV. 10.1371/journal.pone.0153045
    Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effects of and on the Adhesion of Seven Common Lower Genital Tract Infection-Causing Pathogens to Vaginal Epithelial Cells. He Yuanhui,Niu Xiaoxi,Wang Ben,Na Risu,Xiao Bingbing,Yang Huixia Frontiers in medicine colonization is important to maintain urogenital flora stability and prevent pathogenic infection. Different species have distinct properties and effects on the urogenital flora. To select probiotics that colonize the vagina and provide protection against pathogenic infection, we evaluated the adhesion of five strains and their inhibitory effects on the adhesion of pathogens to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs). (1) adhesion experiments: VK2/E6E7 and primary VECs were used to evaluate the adhesion of two and three strains. The adhesion of these five strains was compared. (2) Adhesion inhibition experiments: The inhibitory effects of the five strains on the adhesion of pathogens (, and ) were evaluated by adhesion exclusion, displacement, and competition experiments. (1) adhesion was stronger in the primary VECs than in the VK2/E6E7 VECs ( < 0.05). The adhesion of the three strains was stronger than that of the two strains ( < 0.05). 4# showed the strongest adhesion. (2) The exclusion, displacement, and competition experiments showed that all five strains significantly inhibited the adhesion of the seven pathogenic strains to the VECs ( < 0.05). The displacement effect was stronger than the exclusion and competition effects of each strain. (3) The results of the exclusion, displacement, and competition experiments indicated that 1# showed the strongest adhesion inhibition of and . 3# showed the strongest adhesion inhibition of , whereas 4# showed the strongest adhesion inhibition of , and . The source of the VECs might not affect the selection of the most adhesive strain. showed stronger VEC adhesion than . The degree of antagonism of the strains toward the different pathogens varied. This result provides incentives for personalized clinical treatment. 10.3389/fmed.2020.00284
    The vaginal microbiome: new information about genital tract flora using molecular based techniques. Lamont R F,Sobel J D,Akins R A,Hassan S S,Chaiworapongsa T,Kusanovic J P,Romero R BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Vaginal microbiome studies provide information that may change the way we define vaginal flora. Normal flora appears dominated by one or two species of Lactobacillus. Significant numbers of healthy women lack appreciable numbers of vaginal lactobacilli. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not a single entity, but instead consists of different bacterial communities or profiles of greater microbial diversity than is evident from cultivation-dependent studies. BV should be considered a syndrome of variable composition that results in different symptoms, phenotypical outcomes, and responses to different antibiotic regimens. This information may help to elucidate the link between BV and infection-related adverse outcomes of pregnancy. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02840.x
    Analysis of the Vaginal Microecological Status and Genital Tract Infection Characteristics of 751 Pregnant Women. Yu Fan,Tang Yuan-Ting,Hu Zheng-Qiang,Lin Xiao-Neng Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in vaginal microecological factors and genital tract infections among pregnant women of different ages. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 751 pregnant women from West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, China, from January 2015 to April 2017. After gram staining, the vaginal microecological factors of these cases were observed, including vaginal cleanliness, lactobacillus number, bacterial density, flora diversity, dominant bacteria, pH, clue cells, Candida species, and Trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in bacterial density, flora diversity, vaginal cleanliness, or lactobacillus number among pregnant women of different age groups. Of the 32.62% of pregnant women who had genital tract infections, the incidence of bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans infection, non-albicans Candida infection, and T. vaginalis infection were 20.91%, 14.91%, 4.26%, and 1.73%, respectively. The amalgamative incidence of bacterial vaginosis was 9.19%. The incidence of non-albicans Candida infection in the optimum reproductive age group was higher than in the older age group (P=0.0433). The incidence of T. vaginalis infection in the younger age group was higher than in the optimum reproductive age group and higher than in the older age group (P=0.0010 and P=0.0041). CONCLUSIONS The microecological status of pregnant women was basically the same as that of normal women. The most frequent genital tract infection was bacterial vaginosis. While bacterial vaginosis is amalgamative with vulvovaginal candidiasis and T. vaginalis infection, there was no significant difference in vaginal microecological observations among pregnant women in different age groups except that the non-albicans Candida infection incidence in the optimum reproductive age group and the T. vaginalis infection incidence in the younger age group was higher than in the other groups. 10.12659/MSM.909051
    Genital tract colonization with Ureaplasma spp. and its association with abnormal vaginal flora. Vancutsem Ellen,Faron Gilles,Foulon Walter,Naessens Anne Journal of medical microbiology 10.1099/jmm.0.000071
    A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection. Lorenzen Emma,Follmann Frank,Jungersen Gregers,Agerholm Jørgen S Veterinary research Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. 10.1186/s13567-015-0241-9
    Comparative analysis of virulence factors & biotypes of isolated from the genital tract of women with & without bacterial vaginosis. Nisha Kumari,Antony Beena,Udayalaxmi Jeppu The Indian journal of medical research Background & objectives:: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) involves the presence of a thick vaginal multispecies biofilm, where Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant species. The reason for an increase in the number of G. vaginalis which are usually present as normal flora of the female genital tract in cases of BV, is not known. Hence, the objective of the present study was to compare the biotypes and virulence factors of G. vaginalis isolated from the genital tract of women with and without BV. Methods:: High vaginal swabs collected from 811 women of reproductive age were cultured. G. vaginalis isolates were biotyped and tested for adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm formation, agglutination of human red blood cells (RBCs), protease production, phospholipase production and surface hydrophobicity. Results:: Of the isolates from women with BV, 83.3 per cent (60/72) showed good adherence, 78.4 per cent (58/74) produced biofilm, 82.9 per cent (63/76) produced phospholipase, 67.1 per cent (51/76) produced protease, 77.3 per cent (58/75) were positive for surface hydrophobicity and 61.6 per cent (45/73) were positive for haemagglutination of human RBC. In case of G. vaginalis from non-BV women, 25 per cent (15/60) isolates showed good adherence, 18.4 per cent (9/49) biofilm production, 35 per cent (21/60) phospholipase, 36.6 per cent (22/60) protease, 41.7 per cent (25/60) surface hydrophobicity and 10.1 per cent (6/59) agglutination of human RBCs. Maximum number of isolates belonged to biotypes 6, 2 and 3. Biotype 3 was more associated with non-BV rather than BV; biotype 6, 2 and 1 were more associated with cases of BV. Maximum virulence factors were expressed by biotypes 6, 2 and 1. Interpretation & conclusions:: Virulence factors were more expressed by G. vaginalis isolates obtained from women with BV rather than from non-BV. Biotypes 6, 2 and 1 were more associated with cases of BV and expressed maximum virulence factors. 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1674_16
    Bacteria detected in the genital tract, semen or pre-ejaculatory fluid of Swedish stallions from 2007 to 2017. Al-Kass Ziyad,Eriksson Erik,Bagge Elisabeth,Wallgren Margareta,Morrell Jane Margaret Acta veterinaria Scandinavica BACKGROUND:Although artificial insemination (AI) was developed as a means of controlling disease transmission, pathogens can still be transmitted to females in semen used for AI. In addition, bacteria can cause deterioration in sperm quality during storage. Semen becomes contaminated by the male's normal bacterial flora as it passes out of the reproductive tract but potential pathogens may also contaminate the semen. Therefore, semen samples from stallions to be used for AI are tested before the breeding season to minimize transmission of pathogens to inseminated mares. In Sweden, semen samples are tested at the National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala (SVA). For the present study, a retrospective analysis was made of potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated from samples submitted to the SVA from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS:In our study, Taylorella equigenitalis was found infrequently (53 out of 25,512 samples), representing 11 out of 2308 stallions. If T. equigenitalis was detected, the stallions were treated with antibiotics and re-tested later in the same year. Klebsiella pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most commonly found potential pathogens, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also isolated occasionally. There were considerable differences in the number of species isolated each year. CONCLUSIONS:Potential pathogens were identified in relatively few of the samples submitted to SVA during this period, with T. equigenitalis not being identified since 2015. Of the other potential pathogens, K. pneumoniae and beta haemolytic streptococci were the most common. The information is relevant for determining guidelines on the testing and treatment of stallions before breeding. 10.1186/s13028-019-0459-z