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    Use of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates in decontamination of feed contaminated by fungi and micotoxins. Kołacz R,Dobrzański Z,Kulok M Polish journal of veterinary sciences The contamination of feed with micotoxin has been a serious problem in animal nutrition. Many existing methods of decontamination are not satisfying due to the toxicological safety and health quality of the fodder materials. It stimulates the scientists to search for the new methods. The use of sorbents in the form of natural and synthetic aluminosilicates is a promising direction. The efficacy of aluminosilicates towards aflatoxins has been proved. However, their influence on other micotoxins is not that obvious. According to the last investigations, the use of aluminosilicates in nutrition does not cause any side effects and widespread pathological effects are observed only when dosage is incorrect. Regarding the analyses that were published, it can be supposed that the addition of several different aluminosilicates is a sufficient protection against mycotoxicoses.
    Evaluation of the ability of a feed additive to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxins in turkey poults. Diaz G J,Cortés A,Botero L British poultry science 1. A study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective effect of a feed additive containing aluminosilicate and phytogenic substances against the adverse effects of aflatoxins in turkey poults. 2. Dietary treatments (6) were given to turkey poults from d 1 to d 42 of age. From d 1 to 21 the dietary treatments were as follows: 1, negative control, no aflatoxins or feed additive added; 2, feed additive control, 1 kg/t feed additive, no aflatoxins; 3, 250 ppb (microg/kg) aflatoxins, no feed additive; 4, 250 ppb aflatoxins + 1 kg/t feed additive; 5, 500 ppb aflatoxins, no feed additive; and 6, 500 ppb aflatoxins + 1 kg/t feed additive. From d 22 to 42, the dietary concentration of the feed additive was increased from 1 to 2 kg/t in all treatment groups receiving the feed additive (2, 4 and 6), while keeping constant the dietary concentrations of aflatoxins. 3. Aflatoxins at 250 ppb did not cause adverse effects on performance but affected certain toxicopathological parameters. At 500 ppb, adverse effects on performance and several toxicological parameters were observed. 4. Some of the adverse affects were partially or completely overcome by supplementation with the feed additive, including amelioration of the performance parameters, suppression of mortality and correction of the immunological alterations induced by the exposure to the aflatoxins. 10.1080/00071660902774566
    Effect of three mycotoxin adsorbents on growth performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Liu Y L,Meng G Q,Wang H R,Zhu H L,Hou Y Q,Wang W J,Ding B Y British poultry science 1. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of an esterified glucomannan (EGM), a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and a compound mycotoxin adsorbent (CMA) on performance, nutrient retention and meat quality in broilers fed on mould-contaminated feed. Mould-contaminated diets were prepared by replacing half of the non-contaminated maize in the basal diets with mould-contaminated maize, which contained 450·6 µg/kg of aflatoxin B1, 68·4 µg/kg of ochratoxin A and 320·5 µg/kg of T-2 toxin. 2. The mould-contaminated diet significantly decreased body weight gain (BWG) between 10 and 21 d, feed intake (FI) between 35 and 42 d, the apparent retention of crude lipid and phosphorus, and the lightness (L*) value of breast and thigh muscle. It also significantly increased the redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) value in breast muscle and the b* value in thigh muscle. 3. The addition of 0·2% HSCAS significantly increased FI between 35 and 42 d and the apparent retention of phosphorus. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly improved BWG from 10 to 21 d, and increased FI from 35 to 42 d and from 10 to 42 d. CMA also significantly increased the apparent retention of crude lipid, crude protein, ash and phosphorus. All three mycotoxin-adsorbent treatments significantly improved the L* values of breast and thigh muscle when compared with the mould-contaminated group. Supplementation with 0·1% CMA in the contaminated diet significantly decreased b* value and improved tenderness in thigh muscle. 0·05% EGM significantly decreased b* value of thigh muscle compared to mould-contaminated group. 4. The results indicated that mycotoxins in contaminated feed retard growth, nutrient retention and meat quality, whereas the addition of 0·05% EGM, 0·2% HSCAS or 0·1% CMA prevents the adverse effects of mycotoxins to varying extents, with 0·1% CMA being the most effective adsorbent treatment. 10.1080/00071668.2011.559453
    Zeolite food supplementation reduces abundance of enterobacteria. Prasai Tanka P,Walsh Kerry B,Bhattarai Surya P,Midmore David J,Van Thi T H,Moore Robert J,Stanley Dragana Microbiological research According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotics are rapidly losing potency in every country of the world. Poultry are currently perceived as a major source of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for new and natural ways to control pathogens in poultry and humans alike. Porous, cation rich, aluminosilicate minerals, zeolites can be used as a feed additive in poultry rations, demonstrating multiple productivity benefits. Next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA marker gene was used to phylogenetically characterize the fecal microbiota and thus investigate the ability and dose dependency of zeolite in terms of anti-pathogenic effects. A natural zeolite was used as a feed additive in laying hens at 1, 2, and 4% w/w for a 23 week period. At the end of this period cloacal swabs were collected to sample faecal microbial communities. A significant reduction in carriage of bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria, especially in members of the pathogen-rich family Enterobacteriaceae, was noted across all three concentrations of zeolite. Zeolite supplementation of feed resulted in a reduction in the carriage of a number of poultry pathogens without disturbing beneficial bacteria. This effect was, in some phylotypes, correlated with the zeolite concentration. This result is relevant to zeolite feeding in other animal production systems, and for human pathogenesis. 10.1016/j.micres.2016.11.006
    Determination of serum aflatoxin B-lysine to evaluate the efficacy of an aflatoxin-adsorbing feed additive in pigs fed an aflatoxin B-contaminated diet. Di Gregorio Mayra Carraro,Jager Alessandra Vincenzi,Souto Pollyana Cristina Maggio Castro,Costa Aline Alves,Rottinghaus George Edwin,Passarelli Danielle,Budiño Fabio Enrique Lemos,Corassin Carlos Humberto,Oliveira Carlos Augusto Fernandes Mycotoxin research In this study, serum aflatoxin B (AFB)-lysine was determined in order to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) in pigs fed AFB. Twenty-four 49-day-old crossbred barrows were maintained in individual cages and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with six animals assigned to each of four dietary treatments for 21 days as follows: (A) basal diet (BD), (B) BD supplemented with 0.5 % HSCAS, (C) BD supplemented with 1.1 mg/kg AFB, and (D) BD supplemented with 0.5 % HSCAS and 1.1 mg/kg AFB. HSCAS was able to alleviate the toxic effects of AFB on pigs and reduce (P < 0.05) the levels of serum AFB-lysine. Cumulative reductions of adduct yield values, calculated through the equation [(pg AFB-lysine/mg albumin) / (μg AFB/kg body weight)], were 53.0, 62.8, and 72.1 after 7, 14, and 21 days of oral exposure, respectively. AFB-lysine has potential as an AFB-specific biomarker for diagnostic purposes and for evaluating the efficacy of chemoprotective interventions in pigs. 10.1007/s12550-016-0267-5
    Potential adverse effects on animal health and performance caused by the addition of mineral adsorbents to feeds to reduce mycotoxin exposure. Elliott Christopher T,Connolly Lisa,Kolawole Oluwatobi Mycotoxin research The contamination of feed with mycotoxins is a continuing feed quality and safety issue, leading to significant losses in livestock production and potential human health risks. Consequently, various methods have been developed to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in feed; however, feed supplementation with clay minerals or mineral adsorbents is the most prominent approach widely practiced by farmers and the feed industry. Due to a negatively charged and high surface area, pore volume, swelling ability, and high cation exchange capacity, mineral adsorbents including bentonite, zeolite, montmorillonite, and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate can bind or adsorb mycotoxins to their interlayer spaces, external surface, and edges. Several studies have shown these substances to be partly or fully effective in counteracting toxic effects of mycotoxins in farm animals fed contaminated diets and thus are extensively used in livestock production to reduce the risk of mycotoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a considerable number of studies have indicated that these agents may also cause undesirable effects in farm animals. The current work aims to review published reports regarding adverse effects that may arise in farm animals (with a focus on pig and poultry) and potential interaction with veterinary substances and nutrients in feeds, when mineral adsorbents are utilized as a technological feed additive. Furthermore, results of in vitro toxicity studies of both natural and modified mineral adsorbents on different cell lines are reported. Supplementation of mycotoxin-contaminated feed with mineral adsorbents must be carefully considered by farmers and feed industry. 10.1007/s12550-019-00375-7
    Capability of different non-nutritive feed additives on improving productive and physiological traits of broiler chicks fed diets with or without aflatoxin during the first 3 weeks of life. Attia Y A,Allakany H F,Abd Al-Hamid A E,Al-Saffar A A,Hassan R A,Mohamed N A Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition An experiment was conducted to determine whether some non-nutritive feed additives (NNFA) could block the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and physiological parameters of Cobb broilers throughout the period from 1 to 21 day of age. There were eight treatments consisting of two levels of AF at 0 and 200 ppb and four NNFA within each AF level. These additives included mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) at 2 g/kg diet, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) at 2 g/kg diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lac) at 2 g/kg diet. At 21 day of age, five chickens of each treatment were slaughtered to study dressing percentage and relative weight of inner organs and glands. AF had a significant negative effect on body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake, while impairing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Aflatoxin significantly increased percentage liver, lymphocyte (%), monocyte (%), serum triglyceride level, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), concentrations while decreasing dressing percentage, intestinal percentage, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophil (%), heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum protein and serum albumin. Aflatoxin adversely affected the morphology of the liver, bursa and the thymus. There was a significant interaction between AF and NNFA on the relative weights of liver, heart and intestine. Lac completely blocked the negative effects of AF on the percentage liver and the heart and partially on the intestine. In conclusion, Lac was most effective in reversing the adverse effects of AF on growth and FCR and on the percentage, functions and morphology of the liver. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate also improved the economic traits of broilers but was less effective than Lac and more effective than MOS. 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01317.x
    Effect of deoxynivalenol on the porcine acquired immune response and potential remediation by a novel modified HSCAS adsorbent. Zhang Lei,Ma Rui,Zhu Meng-Xiang,Zhang Ni-Ya,Liu Xiao-Li,Wang You-Wei,Qin Tao,Zheng Liang-Yi,Liu Qiang,Zhang Wan-Po,Karrow Niel Alexander,Sun Lv-Hui Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association The objective of this study was to determine the immunotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in weaning piglets, and potential efficacy of a modified hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce DON toxicity. Four groups of 21-day-old male piglets (n = 7/group) were fed a control diet or diet containing 1.0 or 3.0 mg DON/kg, or 3.0 mg DON/kg plus 0.05% modified HSCAS for 4 weeks. Compared to the control, the DON diets decreased serum porcine circovirus antibody titer and the dermal hypersensitivity response to OVA at day 21 or 28. DON also induced focal necrosis and proliferation of cortical lymphocytes and apoptosis and increased the total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione, protein carbonyl concentrations in thymus. DON increased thymus mRNA, protein and (or) enzyme levels, cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) and apoptosis-related genes (Caspase-3), while hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) decreased. Intriguingly, the modified HSCAS alleviated the DON-induced changes on serum antibody titer, and thymic histopathology, apoptosis, redox status, inflammation and apoptosis signaling. In conclusion, these findings help to explain the toxic effects and mechanisms of DON and demonstrated the modified HSCAS adsorbent could be used to reduce the toxicity of DON in weaning piglets. 10.1016/j.fct.2020.111187
    Effect of sodium bentonite or hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on growth performance and tibia mineral concentrations in broiler chicks fed nutrient-deficient diets. Southern L L,Ward T L,Bidner T D,Hebert L G Poultry science An experiment was conducted to determine whether sodium bentonite (NaB) or hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCA) would affect growth performance and tibia mineral concentrations in chicks fed nutrient-deficient diets. Two identical trials were conducted; each using 240 5- to 19-d-old broiler chicks (4 replicates of 5 chicks each) in a completely random design. A factorial arrangement of treatments consisted of four types of nutrient deficiencies [nutritionally complete basal (C), macromineral-deficient (-MM), trace mineral- and vitamin-deficient (-TMV), and crude protein-deficient (-CP)], and three types of additive (none, .5% NaB, and .5% HSCA). The -MM and -TMV diets reduced (P < .01), gain, feed intake, and gain:feed. The -CP diet decreased (P < .01) gain and gain:feed but did not affect (P > .10) feed intake. Sodium bentonite increased feed intake (P < .01) of all diets; resulting in an increase in gain (P < .09). Sodium bentonite increased gain:feed in chicks fed the -MM diet but did not affect gain:feed in chicks fed the C, -TMV, or -CP diets (NaBx-MM interaction, P < .02). The -MM and -TMV diets decreased (P < .01) tibia ash, but the -CP diet increased (P < .01) tibia ash. The -MM diet decreased (P < .01) tibia Ca but increased (P < .01) tibia P. Neither NaB nor HSCA affected percentage of tibia ash, Ca, or P. Tibia Zn and Mn concentrations were increased (P < .01) by the -MM diet and decreased (P < .01) by the -TMV diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 10.3382/ps.0730848
    Effect of sodium aluminosilicate on phosphorus utilization by chicks and laying hens. Moshtaghian J,Parsons C M,Leeper R W,Harrison P C,Koelkebeck K W Poultry science Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of sodium aluminosilicate (SAS) on performance of chicks and laying hens fed diets varying in nonphytate P (NPP), phytate, and fiber content. In two chick growth experiments a corn and soybean meal diet and a phytate and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet were used. These diets contained .1% NPP and 1.1% Ca and were fortified with 0, .05, or .10% P from KH2PO4 and 0 or .5% SAS. A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Sodium aluminosilicate supplementation significantly (P less than .05) depressed growth of chicks fed the corn and soybean meal diets containing 0 or .05% supplemental AP. Sodium aluminosilicate addition decreased (P less than .05) tibia ash and total tibia P (tibia weight x P concentration) in both chick experiments, with the effect being greater for chicks fed the corn and soybean meal diet. In the laying hen experiment, birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets containing NPP levels of .1, .45, or 1.8% and SAS levels of 0 or 1.0%. Egg production and egg yield were depressed (P less than .05) by feeding diets containing .1 or 1.8% NPP, and egg specific gravity was decreased (P less than .05) by feeding 1.8% NPP. Addition of SAS to the .1% NPP diet caused a large reduction (P less than .05) in egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency, whereas SAS supplementation of the 1.8% NPP diet had no significant effect. Sodium aluminosilicate supplementation increased (P less than .05) egg specific gravity for hens fed the .1 and 1.8% NPP diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 10.3382/ps.0700955
    Effects of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-Bind) on mycotoxicosis in young broiler chickens. Kubena L F,Harvey R B,Bailey R H,Buckley S A,Rottinghaus G E Poultry science Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-Bind) sorbent to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins (AF) or T-2 toxin in male broiler chickens from day of hatch to 21 d of age. In Experiment 1, the sorbent was added at 0.250 or 0.375% to diets containing AF at 5 or T-2 toxin at 8 mg/kg of diet. When compared with controls, AF reduced BW gain by 27% and T-2 toxin reduced BW gain by 17%. The addition of the sorbent at 0.250 or 0.375%, in the absence of added mycotoxins, did not alter the performance of the chicks. The sorbent reduced the toxic effects of 5 mg AF/kg of diet on BW gain by 43% but did not significantly diminish the toxic effects of 8 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet. The decreased efficiency of feed utilization and the increased relative organ weights caused by AF were significantly diminished to differing degrees by the sorbent. Oral lesions caused by T-2 toxin were not affected by the sorbent. In Experiment 2, the sorbent was added at 0.80% to a diet containing 8 mg T-2 toxin/kg of diet. The sorbent did not diminish the toxic effects of T-2 toxin when added at 0.80% of the diet. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent can provide protection against the toxicity of AF, but not T-2 toxin, in young broiler chicks. 10.1093/ps/77.10.1502
    Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Ledoux D R,Rottinghaus G E,Bermudez A J,Alonso-Debolt M Poultry science In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (Improved Milbond-TX, IMTX) to alleviate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) B1 in chicks. In vitro results indicated that IMTX was able to bind 100% of AFB1 at pH 3 to 9. In the in vivo study, five pen replicates of six chicks were assigned to each of four dietary treatments, which included: 1) basal diet containing neither IMTX nor AFB1 (control); 2) basal diet supplemented with 1% IMTX; 3) basal diet supplemented with 4 mg AFB1/kg diet; and 4) basal diet supplemented with 1% IMTX and 4 mg AFB1/kg diet. The addition of IMTX to chick diets at a level of 1% did not negatively affect chick performance, organ weights, or serum chemistry, or cause pathological changes. Improved Milbond-TX completely prevented the reduced performance, changes in organ weights, serum chemistry changes, and gross pathology observed in chicks fed AFB1. The IMTX dramatically reduced the incidence and severity of the hepatic histopathology changes associated with aflatoxicosis and completely prevented the renal lesions of aflatoxicosis. These results indicated that IMTX was effective in preventing the toxic effects of AF that may be present in poultry rations at levels up to 4 mg/kg feed. 10.1093/ps/78.2.204
    Dietary hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate reduction of aflatoxin M1 residue in dairy goat milk and effects on milk production and components. Smith E E,Phillips T D,Ellis J A,Harvey R B,Kubena L F,Thompson J,Newton G Journal of animal science Lactating dairy goats were exposed to aflatoxin (100 and 200 ppb) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate at 1, 2, and 4% in two separate experiments. Naturally occurring low levels of aflatoxin M1 (.009 ppb) were found in the milk of the control diet, whereas there were no detectable levels of aflatoxin M1 in the milk of diets containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in both experiments. In Exp. 1, no treatment-related differences in clinical behavior or significant difference in the feed intake, milk production, or milk component analyses were observed with 200 ppb of aflatoxin and 4% hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. However, 4% hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate was responsible for an 86.9% reduction of aflatoxin M1 residue in the milk of diary goats. In Exp. 2, the combination of 1% hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and aflatoxin at 100 ppb resulted in an overall reduction of aflatoxin M1 residue by 51.9%, which represented a mean change of aflatoxin M1 from .553 to .266 ppb of aflatoxin M1 in the milk. The diet that contained 2% hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and 100 ppb of aflatoxin further reduced aflatoxin residue by a mean change from .553 to .098 of ppb aflatoxin M1, which represents an 82.2% reduction of aflatoxin M1 residue in the milk. Analysis of the data by time indicated that there were no statistical differences between days of sampling. Information regarding the ability of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to prevent or reduce the level of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk is critically needed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 10.2527/1994.723677x
    The protective effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate against haematological, biochemical and pathological changes induced by Zearalenone in mice. Abbès Samir,Ouanes Zouhour,ben Salah-Abbès Jalila,Houas Zohra,Oueslati Ridha,Bacha Hassen,Othman Omar Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added alone or simultaneously with a toxic Zearalenone (ZEN) dose to balb/c mice and was evaluated for its ability to restore damages induced by ZEN. The latter is a mycotoxin produced by fusarium genera; it is mainly known to induce several toxic effects such as hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity and nephrotoxicity on animals and humans. The experimental approach consisted of eight treatments of six mice each by 400 mg/kg bw or 5 g/kg bw of HSCAS. Two experimental groups have received respectively ZEN alone at 40 (8% of LD50) and at 500 mg/kg bw (LD50). Two other groups have received ZEN at 40 or 500 mg/kg bw combined respectively with HSCAS at 400 mg/kg bw and 5 g/kg bw. The control groups received water or olive oil. Forty-eight hours after treatment, blood samples were collected for haematological and serum biochemical parameters measurements. ZEN treatment significantly increased hematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells: lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and the most of biochemical serum parameters; it significantly reduced platelets and induced degenerative changes in the hepatic and renal tissues; while, the mixture of HSCAS with ZEN induced a reestablishment of haematological parameters, levels of serum biochemical enzyme activities and histological pictures of both liver and kidney. It also prevented general toxicity of ZEN. This was observed by the shift of LD50 for this toxin. Thus, our data strongly suggested that deleterious effects of ZEN could be overcome or, at least, significantly were diminished by HSCAS. Moreover, this sorbent by itself did not show any toxic effects. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.01.016
    The efficacy of a modified aluminosilicate as a detoxifying agent in Fusarium toxin contaminated maize containing diets for piglets. Döll S,Gericke S,Dänicke S,Raila J,Ueberschär K-H,Valenta H,Schnurrbusch U,Schweigert F J,Flachowsky G Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition Two feeding experiments with female weaned piglets were carried out applying a complete two by two factorial design to investigate the effects of the dietary inclusion of 500 g/kg Fusarium toxin contaminated maize (8.6 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON); 1.2 mg/kg zearalenone (ZON)) and of 4 g/kg aluminosilicate (AS) as a detoxifying agent. The resulting four diets were fed ad libitum to a total of 80 piglets (20 piglets per group, allotted to a total of 20 pens) covering a live weight range of 10.5 +/- 1.3 to 27.5 +/- 4.4 kg in experiment 1, and to a total of 48 piglets (12 piglets per group, allotted to 12 pens) covering a live weight range of 9.7 +/- 1.8 to 21.4 +/- 4.8 kg in experiment 2. The animals of experiment 1 were slaughtered on days 34-36 of feeding the experimental diets. The mycotoxin analyses revealed that the control maize also contained considerable concentrations of Fusarium toxins, but the differences in DON and ZON concentrations between control and contaminated diets were sufficiently high to demonstrate both dose-related toxin effects. Voluntary feed intake and live weight gain of the animals were significantly reduced by the inclusion of Fusarium toxin contaminated maize into the diets in both experiments, while a significantly decreased feed to gain ratio was found in experiment 1. Furthermore, the relative weight of the uterus, stomach and heart of the animals fed the contaminated maize containing diets were significantly increased. Serum albumin concentrations and the activity of GLDH were significantly reduced by the inclusion of the contaminated maize. The addition of AS to the Fusarium toxin contaminated diets did not prevent or alleviate any of the mentioned effects. Moreover, the feed intake tended to be decreased by this supplementation in both experiments, while a significantly decreased feed to gain ratio was indicated for this factor in experiment one as well. The serum concentration of albumin and the activities of ASAT and gammaGT were significantly increased if AS was present in the diets while serum concentration of cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol were decreased significantly or in tendency, respectively. The concentrations of retinol and retinyl esters in liver and serum were not altered by the treatments. The analysed concentrations of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolites in the bile fluid clearly indicated the differences in dietary ZON concentrations and showed that AS was ineffective in preventing the absorption of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tract. Also, serum concentrations of DON reflected the DON intake prior to sampling. However, there were no differences between groups fed diets with or without AS which also suggests the inefficacy of the tested AS in preventing the DON absorption. The present investigations failed to demonstrate a detoxifying capacity of the tested additive and emphasize the general necessity for a critical verification of detoxifying agents in vivo. 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00527.x
    The effects of ochratoxin/aluminosilicate interaction on the tissues and humoral immune response of broilers. Santin Elizabeth,Paulillo Antonio C,Maiorka Paulo C,Alessi Antonio C,Krabbe Everton L,Maiorka Alex Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, on the histology of the bursa of Fabricius, liver and kidneys, and on the humoral immune response of broilers vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus. The exposure of birds to 2 p.p.m. ochratoxin, in the presence or absence of aluminosilicate, reduced their humoral immune response and the number of mitotic cells in the bursa. The relative weight of the livers of the birds exposed to this toxin was increased and, microscopically, there was hepatocyte vacuolation and megalocytosis with accompanying hyperplasia of the biliary epithelium. The kidneys showed hypertrophy of the renal proximal tubular epithelium, with thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Aluminosilicate did not ameliorate the deleterious effects of the ochratoxin. 10.1080/03079450120106642
    Efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Gowda N K S,Ledoux D R,Rottinghaus G E,Bermudez A J,Chen Y C Poultry science A 3-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (TMP), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS; Improved Milbond-TX, IMTX, an adsorbent, Milwhite Inc., Houston, TX) to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) in broiler chicks. Four pen replicates of 5 chicks each were assigned to each of 7 dietary treatments, which included the basal diet not containing TMP, HSCAS, or AFB(1) (control); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% food grade TMP that contained 1.48% total curcuminoids (74 mg/kg); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% TMP and 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS and 1.0 mg/kgAFB(1); and basal diet supplemented with 0.5% TMP, 0.5% HSCAS, and 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1). The addition of TMP to the AFB(1) diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved the weight gain of chicks, and the addition of HSCAS to the AFB(1) diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved feed intake and weight gain, and reduced relative liver weight. The addition of TMP or HSCAS and TMP with HSCAS ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB(1) on some of the serum chemistry parameters (total protein, albumin, cholesterol, calcium). Further, decreased antioxidant functions in terms of level of peroxides, superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidant concentration in liver homogenate due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of TMP, HSCAS, or both. The reduction in the severity of hepatic microscopic lesions due to supplementation of the AFB(1) diet with TMP and HSCAS demonstrated the protective action of the antioxidant and adsorbent used in the present study. 10.3382/ps.2007-00313
    Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate for reduction of aflatoxin in quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Sehu A,Ergün L,Cakir S,Ergün E,Cantekin Z,Sahin T,Essiz D,Sareyyüpoğlu B,Gürel Y,Yiğit Y DTW. Deutsche tierarztliche Wochenschrift The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and various processing parameters of quails and to determine the preventive efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). One hundred and eighty 1-d-old quails of both sexes were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups with 5 replicates and 45 birds following weighing. The experimental design consisted of four dietary treatments: 1) control with 0 mg AF/kg of diet and 0% HSCAS; 2) 0.5% HSCAS; 3) 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet; 4) 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet plus 0.5% HSCAS. The chicks were housed in electrically heated battery cages and exposed to light for 24 h from hatching to 3 weeks of age. Quails consumed the diets and water ad libitum. Body weight (BW) was significantly (p < 0.001) increased by addition of HSCAS to AF diet. The lowest BW gains in groups received AF alone was observed at all periods. The reduction in BW gain caused by 2.5 mg AF/kg of diet was significantly (p < 0.001) diminished by the addition of 0.5% HSCAS to the diet. The addition of HSCAS to the AF diet significantly (p < 0.001) protected against decrease of feed intake at all periods with exception of the first period. None of the treatments altered significantly the feed conversion ratio (FCR). The relative weights of the liver, kidney and spleen were increased in the chickens consuming the AF alone diet. However, light microscopic examination demonstrated the addition of HSCAS to quail feed to partially decrease fat deposition caused by the toxin, and besides, electron microscopic examination of indicated a reorganization in the endoplasmic reticulum and increase in the number of ribosomes and polisomes. Furthermore, the decrease in the antibody titre induced by Newcastle vaccine, due to aflatoxins, was relatively prevented. No significant differences were observed for serum total protein, total cholesterol and glucose levels. The results of indicate that HSCAS is effective in preventing the deleterious effects of AF.
    Comparison of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and yeast cell wall on counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Zhao J,Shirley R B,Dibner J D,Uraizee F,Officer M,Kitchell M,Vazquez-Anon M,Knight C D Poultry science The objective of this research was to determine the efficacy of 2 types of adsorbents [hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS) vs. a combination of clay and yeast cell wall] in preventing aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 275 one-day-old birds were randomly divided into 11 treatments, with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The 11 treatments included 3 diets without any adsorbent containing either 0, 1, or 2 mg/kg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) plus 8 additional treatments employing 2 dietary levels of AFB1 (1 or 2 mg/kg), 2 different adsorbents [Solis (SO) and MTB-100 (MTB)], and 2 different levels of each absorbent (0.1 and 0.2%) in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Solis is a mixture of different HSCAS and MTB is a combination of clay and yeast cell wall. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the 21-d study period. Body weight gain and feed intake were depressed and relative liver weight was increased in chicks fed AFB1 compared with the positive control (P<0.05). Severe liver damage was observed in chicks fed 2 mg/kg of AFB1 with lesions consistent with aflatoxicosis, including fatty liver and vacuolar degeneration. Serum glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca, P, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were reduced by AFB1 (P<0.05). The addition of either SO or MTB ameliorated the negative effects of 1 mg/kg of AFB1 on growth performance and liver damage (P<0.05). However, supplemental MTB failed to diminish the negative effects of 2 mg/kg of AFB1, whereas SO was more effective compared with MTB at 2 mg/kg of AFB1 (P<0.05). These data indicate that the HSCAS product effectively ameliorated the negative effect of AFB1 on growth performance and liver damage, whereas the yeast cell wall product was less effective especially at the higher AFB1 concentration. 10.3382/ps.2009-00608
    Assessment of the multi-mycotoxin-binding efficacy of a carbon/aluminosilicate-based product in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Avantaggiato Giuseppina,Havenaar Robert,Visconti Angelo Journal of agricultural and food chemistry A laboratory model, set to simulate the in vivo conditions of the porcine gastrointestinal tract, was used to study the small intestinal absorption of several mycotoxins and the effectiveness of Standard Q/FIS (a carbon/aluminosilicate-based product) in reducing mycotoxin absorption when added to multitoxin-contaminated diets. Mycotoxins were quickly absorbed in the proximal part of the small intestine at levels of 105 and 89% for fumonisins B1 and B2, respectively, 87% for ochratoxin A, 74% for deoxynivalenol, 44% for aflatoxin B1, and 25% for zearalenone. Addition of Standard Q/FIS to the diet (up to 2%, w/w) significantly reduced mycotoxin absorption, in a dose-dependent manner, up to 88% for aflatoxin B1, 44% for zearalenone, and 29% for the fumonisins and ochratoxin. Standard Q/FIS was ineffective in reducing deoxynivalenol uptake. These findings suggest that Standard Q/FIS can be used as a multitoxin adsorbent material to prevent the individual and combined adverse effects of mycotoxins in animals. 10.1021/jf0702803
    In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to bind and reduce aflatoxin residues in tissues of broiler chicks fed aflatoxin B1. Neeff D V,Ledoux D R,Rottinghaus G E,Bermudez A J,Dakovic A,Murarolli R A,Oliveira C A F Poultry science The aim of this study was to determine the binding capacity of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), and the efficacy of the HSCAS to reduce the concentrations of residual AFB(1) and its metabolites in the liver and kidney of broilers fed AFB(1). One hundred 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 708) were maintained in chick batteries and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A completely randomized design was used with 5 replicate pens of 5 chicks assigned to each of 4 dietary treatments from hatch to 21 d. Dietary treatments included the following: A) basal diet (BD), with no HSCAS or AFB(1), B) BD supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS only, C) BD supplemented with 2.5 mg of AFB(1)/kg of feed, and D) BD supplemented with 2.5 mg of AFB(1)/kg of feed and 0.5% HSCAS. On d 21, 5 chicks from each treatment were anesthetized with carbon dioxide, killed by cervical dislocation, and samples of liver and kidney were collected for analysis of AFB(1) residues. The percentage of AFB(1) bound for each concentration of adsorbent (100, 10, 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.05 mg/10 mL) was 100, 91.1, 81.8, 75.4, 40.1, and 8.8%, respectively. Concentrations of aflatoxin residues (AFB(1), aflatoxicol, aflatoxins B(2) and G(1)) were lower (P < 0.05) in livers and kidneys of birds fed AFB(1) plus HSCAS (diet D), when compared with birds fed AFB(1) alone (diet C). However, histopathology data from the in vivo study indicated that HSCAS did not prevent lesions associated with aflatoxicosis. The decrease in the bioavailability of AFB(1) caused by the HSCAS reduced aflatoxin residues in liver and kidney, but not enough to completely prevent the toxic effects of AFB(1) in broilers. 10.3382/ps.2012-02510
    Dietary aluminosilicate supplement enhances immune activity in mice and reinforces clearance of porcine circovirus type 2 in experimentally infected pigs. Jung Bock-Gie,Toan Nguyen Tat,Cho Sun-Ju,Ko Jae-hyung,Jung Yeon-Kwon,Lee Bong-Joo Veterinary microbiology Aluminosilicate is the major component of clay minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and clinoptilolite. The minerals possess a number of beneficial activities, especially in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate immune enhancing effects of dietary aluminosilicate supplement (DAS) in mice, and to demonstrate clearance effects of DAS against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of an antibiotic substitute for use in pigs. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phagocytic activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, serum antibody production level and spleen B cell ratio were significantly increased in the DAS groups of mice compared with the control group (each feeding group had three replications with 5 mice each). The results indicated that general immune activity including cellular and humoral immunity could be enhanced by DAS in mice. In experimentally PCV2-infected pigs, the load of viral genome in nasal swab, serum and lung of the DAS group of pigs was significantly decreased compared with the control group at 28 days post-infection (each group three pigs). Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that pigs in the DAS group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with the control group, indicating that DAS reinforces clearance of PCV2 in experimentally infected pigs. This may relate to general immune enhancing effects of DAS in mice. Therefore DAS will help the health of animal, especially in swine. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.11.009
    Removal of aflatoxin B from contaminated peanut oils using magnetic attapulgite. Ji Junmin,Xie Wenlei Food chemistry The efficient magnetic adsorbent (FeO@ATP) was prepared by precipitation through the dispersion of FeO nanoparticles on the natural attapulgite (ATP) and then tested as an adsorbent for aflatoxin B (AFB) removal from contaminated oils. The adsorbent characterization results revealed that the FeO were incorporated into the ATP, affording the FeO@ATP composite. This magnetic composite displayed a good ability to eliminate AFB from contaminated oils with a removal efficiency of 86.82% using a 0.3% dosage. The FeO@ATP possessed paramagnetic character with a saturation magnetization of 50.86 emu/g, enabling its easy separation from the medium using an external magnet. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model and fitted the Freundlich isotherm well. Moreover, the thermodynamic studies showed that AFB adsorption onto FeO@ATP was exothermic and spontaneous. The novelty of this study lies in the fabrication of magnetic composite adsorbents for AFB elimination from oils. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128072