Food allergy: A review and update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and management. Sicherer Scott H,Sampson Hugh A The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology This review provides general information to serve as a primer for those embarking on understanding food allergy and also details advances and updates in epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment that have occurred over the 4 years since our last comprehensive review. Although firm prevalence data are lacking, there is a strong impression that food allergy has increased, and rates as high as approximately 10% have been documented. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors are being elucidated increasingly, creating potential for improved prevention and treatment strategies targeted to those at risk. Insights on pathophysiology reveal a complex interplay of the epithelial barrier, mucosal and systemic immune response, route of exposure, and microbiome among other influences resulting in allergy or tolerance. The diagnosis of food allergy is largely reliant on medical history, tests for sensitization, and oral food challenges, but emerging use of component-resolved diagnostics is improving diagnostic accuracy. Additional novel diagnostics, such as basophil activation tests, determination of epitope binding, DNA methylation signatures, and bioinformatics approaches, will further change the landscape. A number of prevention strategies are under investigation, but early introduction of peanut has been advised as a public health measure based on existing data. Management remains largely based on allergen avoidance, but a panoply of promising treatment strategies are in phase 2 and 3 studies, providing immense hope that better treatment will be imminently and widely available, whereas numerous additional promising treatments are in the preclinical and clinical pipeline. 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.11.003
    IgE-Mediated Food Allergy. Anvari Sara,Miller Jennifer,Yeh Chih-Yin,Davis Carla M Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology Food allergies are defined as adverse immune responses to food proteins that result in typical clinical symptoms involving the dermatologic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and/or neurologic systems. IgE-mediated food-allergic disease differs from non-IgE-mediated disease because the pathophysiology results from activation of the immune system, causing a T helper 2 response which results in IgE binding to Fε receptors on effector cells like mast cells and basophils. The activation of these cells causes release of histamine and other preformed mediators, and rapid symptom onset, in contrast with non-IgE-mediated food allergy which is more delayed in onset. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy requires a history of classic clinical symptoms and evidence of food-specific IgE by either skin-prick or serum-specific IgE testing. Symptoms of IgE-mediated food allergies range from mild to severe. The severity of symptoms is not predicted by the level of specific IgE or skin test wheal size, but the likelihood of symptom onset is directly related. Diagnosis is excluded when a patient can ingest the suspected food without clinical symptoms and may require an in-office oral food challenge if testing for food-specific IgE by serum or skin testing is negative or low. Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of the clinical manifestation of IgE-mediated food allergy, and injectable epinephrine is the first-line treatment. Management of food allergies requires strict avoidance measures, counseling of the family about constant vigilance, and prompt treatment of allergic reactions with emergency medications. Guidelines have changed recently to include early introduction of peanuts at 4-6 months of life. Early introduction is recommended to prevent the development of peanut allergy. Future treatments for IgE-mediated food allergy evaluated in clinical trials include epicutaneous, sublingual, and oral immunotherapy. 10.1007/s12016-018-8710-3
    Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017. Ebisawa Motohiro,Ito Komei,Fujisawa Takao, Allergology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients consume causative foods in any way and as early as possible. 10.1016/j.alit.2017.02.001
    How to diagnose food allergy. Sato Sakura,Yanagida Noriyuki,Ebisawa Motohiro Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To assess the recent studies that focus on specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) testing and basophil activation test (BAT) for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergies. RECENT FINDINGS:The sIgE to allergen extract or component can predict reactivity to food. The cutoff value based on the positive predictive value (PPV) of sIgE can be considered whenever deciding whether oral food challenge (OFC) is required to diagnose hen's egg, cow's milk, wheat, peanut, and cashew nut allergy. However, PPV varies depending on the patients' background, OFC methodology, challenge foods, and assay methodology. Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) has been used for food allergy diagnosis. Ovomucoid and omega-5 gliadin are good diagnostic markers for heated egg and wheat allergy. More recently, CRD of peanut, tree nuts, and seed have been investigated. Ara h 2 showed the best diagnostic accuracy for peanut allergy; other storage proteins, such as Jug r 1 for walnut, Ana o 3 for cashew nut, Ses i 1 for sesame, and Fag e 3 for buckwheat, are also better markers than allergen extracts. Some studies suggested that BAT has superior specificity than skin prick test and sIgE testing. SUMMARY:The sIgE testing and BAT can improve diagnostic accuracy. CRD provides additional information that can help determine whether OFCs should be performed to diagnose food allergy. 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000441
    Road map for the clinical application of the basophil activation test in food allergy. Santos A F,Shreffler W G Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology The diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy based solely on the clinical history and the documentation of specific IgE to whole allergen extract or single allergens is often ambiguous, requiring oral food challenges (OFCs), with the attendant risk and inconvenience to the patient, to confirm the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a considerable proportion of patients assessed in allergy clinics. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as having superior specificity and comparable sensitivity to diagnose food allergy, when compared with skin prick test and specific IgE. BAT, therefore, may reduce the number of OFC required for accurate diagnosis, particularly positive OFC. BAT can also be used to monitor resolution of food allergy and the clinical response to immunomodulatory treatments. Given the practicalities involved in the performance of BAT, we propose that it can be applied for selected cases where the history, skin prick test and/or specific IgE are not definitive for the diagnosis of food allergy. In the cases that the BAT is positive, food allergy is sufficiently confirmed without OFC; in the cases that BAT is negative or the patient has non-responder basophils, OFC may still be indicated. However, broad clinical application of BAT demands further standardization of the laboratory procedure and of the flow cytometry data analyses, as well as clinical validation of BAT as a diagnostic test for multiple target allergens and confirmation of its feasibility and cost-effectiveness in multiple settings. 10.1111/cea.12964
    Molecular diagnostics improves diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergy and food allergy with economic optimization and cost saving. Peveri S,Pattini S,Costantino M T,Incorvaia C,Montagni M,Roncallo C,Villalta D,Savi E Allergologia et immunopathologia BACKGROUND:Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) allows to precisely identify the sensitization to specific molecules of a given allergenic source, resulting in an important improvement in clinical management, particularly of polysensitized subjects. This will end in the correct prescription of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for respiratory allergy and in adequate avoidance diets or prescription of self-injectable adrenaline in food allergy. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this multicenter, real life study is to evaluate the percentage change of the diagnostic-therapeutic choice in polysensitized patients with respiratory allergy and in patients with food allergy, after using CRD compared to a first level diagnosis, along with an economic analysis of the patient's overall management according to the two different approaches. METHODS:An overall number of 462 polysensitized patients, as suggested by skin prick tests (SPT), and with clinical symptoms related to a respiratory (275 pts) or food (187 pts) allergy, were recruited. All patients underwent CRD for specific IgE against food or inhalant recombinant molecules, which were chosen according to medical history and positivity to SPT. The first diagnostic-therapeutic hypothesis, based only on medical history and SPT, was recorded for each patient while the final diagnostic-therapeutic choice was based on the results from CRD. The rate of change of the diagnostic-therapeutic choice from the first hypothesis to the final choice was statistically evaluated. The economic impact of CRD on the overall management of the allergic patients was analyzed to evaluate whether the increase in the diagnostic costs would be compensated and eventually exceeded by savings coming from the improved diagnostic-therapeutic appropriateness. RESULTS:An approximate 50% change (k index 0.54) in the prescription of AIT for respiratory allergy as well as a change in the prescription of self-injectable adrenaline (k index 0.56) was measured; an overall saving of financial resources along with a higher diagnostic-therapeutic appropriateness was also detected. CONCLUSION:There is moderate agreement concerning prescription of AIT and self-injectable adrenaline before and after performing CRD: this highlights the usefulness of CRD, at least in polysensitized patients, in indicating the risk assessment and therefore the correct therapy of respiratory and food allergy, which results in a cost-saving approach. 10.1016/j.aller.2018.05.008
    Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy. Oriel Roxanne Carbonell,Wang Julie Pediatric clinics of North America Food allergy is an immune-mediated disease and must be differentiated from other adverse effects related to food that are non-immune mediated. Symptoms of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergy can range from mild to severe, and life-threatening anaphylaxis may occur. Current recommended strategies for diagnosis include the use of skin prick tests, allergen-specific serum IgE, and/or oral food challenges. Management entails allergen avoidance and appropriate treatment of allergic reactions should accidental ingestions occur. Treatment approaches under investigation include immunotherapy as well as biologics and novel vaccines. Attention has also recently focused on implementing strategies for prevention of food allergy. 10.1016/j.pcl.2019.06.002
    Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-Mediated Food Allergy in Children: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Prevention, and Management. Barni Simona,Liccioli Giulia,Sarti Lucrezia,Giovannini Mattia,Novembre Elio,Mori Francesca Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) A food allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitive reaction to food, which consists in the appearance of allergic symptoms; it can vary from common urticaria to even fatal anaphylaxis. The prevalence of food allergies has been increasing in the past twenty years and it represents a major public health problem in industrialized countries. The mechanism that leads to food allergies is the lack of immunologic and clinical tolerance to food allergens. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergies is based on the combined use of a detailed medical history, in-vivo, and in-vitro research of specific IgE, the elimination diet, and the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. The only currently available treatment for allergies is the strict elimination diet. This type of attitude, which we could define as "passive", does not overcome the risk of accidental reactions due to involuntary intake of the culprit food. For food allergy management, an "active" approach is urgently needed, such as specific allergen immunotherapy, which is currently under development and only used for research purposes. This article aims to give an updated review of IgE-mediated food allergies in pediatric populations in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and management. 10.3390/medicina56030111