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    Characterization of intestinal microbiota in alcoholic patients with and without alcoholic hepatitis or chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Ciocan Dragos,Rebours Vinciane,Voican Cosmin Sebastian,Wrzosek Laura,Puchois Virginie,Cassard Anne-Marie,Perlemuter Gabriel Scientific reports Excessive alcohol consumption leads to severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH) or chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (CAP) only in a subset of patients. We aimed to characterize the intestinal microbiota profiles of alcoholic patients according to the presence and nature of the complications observed: sAH or CAP. Eighty two alcoholic patients were included according to their complications: CAP (N = 24), sAH (N = 13) or no complications (alcoholic controls, AC, N = 45). We analyzed the intestinal microbiota by high-throughput sequencing. Bacterial diversity was lower in patients with CAP, who had a global intestinal microbiota composition different from that of AC. The intestinal microbiota composition of these two groups differed for 17 genera, eight of which were more frequent in patients with CAP (e.g. Klebsiella, Enterococcus and Sphingomonas). There was no significant difference in bacterial diversity between the sAH and CAP groups. However, 16 taxa were more frequent in sAH patients, and 10 were more frequent in CAP patients. After adjustment for confounding factors sAH patients were found to have higher levels of Haemophilus. For alcoholic patients, specific intestinal microbiota signatures are associated with different complications. Patients with CAP and sAH also display specific dysbiosis relative to AC. 10.1038/s41598-018-23146-3
    The Gut Microbiome in Pancreatic Disease. Akshintala Venkata S,Talukdar Rupjyoti,Singh Vikesh K,Goggins Michael Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association The gut microbiome increasingly is recognized for its role in human health and disease. Initial evidence has indicated that gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with several pancreatic diseases. Although it is not known if these associations are causative, gut dysbiosis is hypothesized to mediate chronic proinflammatory changes in the pancreas. Further mechanistic and epidemiologic studies of the microbiome are needed. Ultimately, targeted modulation of the microbiota could have therapeutic value. 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.08.045
    Altered intestinal microbiota in patients with chronic pancreatitis: implications in diabetes and metabolic abnormalities. Jandhyala Sai Manasa,Madhulika A,Deepika G,Rao G Venkat,Reddy D Nageshwar,Subramanyam Chivukula,Sasikala Mitnala,Talukdar Rupjyoti Scientific reports Intestinal dysbiosis and its functional implications in chronic pancreatitis (CP) have not been elaborately studied. We evaluated the taxonomic and functional alterations in intestinal microbiota in 30 well-characterised patients with CP (16 without, 14 with diabetes) and 10 healthy controls. The patients with CP and diabetes had significantly longer disease duration and greater degree of malnutrition. There was increase in plasma endotoxin concentrations from controls to CP non-diabetics to CP diabetics. We observed significant differences in richness and alpha diversity between the groups. We also observed increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio in CP patients without and with diabetes. There was reduction in abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus bromii from controls to CP non-diabetics to CP diabetics. On the other hand, there was increase in LPS (endotoxin) synthetic pathways (KEGG orthology) in the groups. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance correlated negatively with plasma endotoxin and glycemic status; while plasma endotoxin correlated positively with blood glucose and negatively with plasma insulin. Our results have important implications for future studies exploring mechanistic insights on secondary diabetes in CP. 10.1038/srep43640
    High-mobility group box-1 inhibition stabilizes intestinal permeability through tight junctions in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Huang Luqiao,Zhang Dianliang,Han Wenli,Guo Chunbao Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.] BACKGROUND:In acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), bacterial translocation (BT) from the gastrointestinal tract is the essential pathogenesis in the development of septic complications. Although high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is associated with BT and organ dysfunction in ANP, the mechanism of HMGB1 in the intestinal barrier dysfunction and BT has not been well addressed. In this study, we intend to address the role of HMGB1 in ANP involving BT and intestinal barrier dysfunction. METHODS:Experimental ANP was achieved in male Sprague-Dawley rats through a retrograde injection of taurocholate into the common biliopancreatic duct following a laparotomy operation. HMGB1 blockade intervention was conducted with a subcutaneous injection of anti-HMGB1 antibody immediately before the laparotomy procedure. Twenty-four hours after ANP induction, pancreatic and intestinal tissues and blood samples were collected for a histopathological assessment and lipid peroxidation or glutathione (GSH) evaluation. AP-induced barrier dysfunction was determined by an intestinal permeability assessment. Tight junction proteins and autophagy regulators were investigated by western blotting, immunohistological analysis and confocal immunofluorescence imaging. RESULTS:ANP developed as indicated by microscopic parenchymal necrosis and fat necrosis, which were associated with intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction. HMGB1 inhibition played a protective role in intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, protected against microbiome changes in ANP, and relieved intestinal oxidative stress. Additionally, HMGB1 inhibition attenuated intestinal permeability; preserved the expression of TJs, such as claudin-2 and occludin; and decreased autophagy. Furthermore, the autophagy regulator LC3 and TJ protein claudin-2 were both upregulated in ANP according to dual immunofluorescence analysis. CONCLUSION:HMGB1 inhibition ameliorated the severity of experimental ANP though beneficial effects on BT, mainly involving in TJ function. 10.1007/s00011-019-01251-x
    Obesity Aggravates Acute Pancreatitis via Damaging Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Changing Microbiota Composition in Rats. Ye Cheng,Liu Ling,Ma Xiao,Tong Huan,Gao Jinhang,Tai Yang,Huang Libin,Tang Chengwei,Wang Rui Scientific reports Obesity may aggravate acute pancreatitis (AP) through damaging the intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB). The underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study was aimed to provide further data to clarify the mechanism. 48 rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal control (NC), chow-fed rats with sham operation, 2) no-obese rats with AP (NAP), chow-fed rats with taurocholate infusion, 3) obese control (OC), high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats with sham operation, and 4) obese rats with AP (OAP), HFD-fed rats with taurocholate infusion. Pancreatic pathologic score (11.39 ± 1.76 vs. 14.11 ± 1.05, p = 0.005), intestinal permeability to FD4 (0.91 ± 0.25 μg/ml vs. 7.06 ± 3.67 μg/ml, p < 0.001), serum leptin (10.25 ± 5.59 ng/ml vs. 79.73 ± 38.44 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and ileal apoptosis (2.05 ± 0.73% vs. 4.53 ± 2.28%, p = 0.006) were significantly higher in OAP than in NAP group. The intestinal bacterial richness (Chao 1 and OTUs) was significantly lower in OAP than in NAP rats. The higher abundance of Proteobacteria and reduced proportions of intestinal Actinobacteria, Allobaculum and Barnesiella were detected in OAP group. Obesity may result in decreased intestinal leptin/ObR-b binding, distinct phylogenetic clusters of ileal bacterial communities, increased intestinal inflammatory injury and the insufficient intestinal epithelial cells proliferation during AP attack. Pancreatic injury was aggravated due to obesity associated dysfunction of IMB. 10.1038/s41598-018-36266-7
    The hydrocortisone protection of glycocalyx on the intestinal capillary endothelium during severe acute pancreatitis. Gao Shun-Liang,Zhang Yun,Zhang Shao-Yang,Liang Zhong-Yan,Yu Wen-Qiao,Liang Ting-Bo Shock (Augusta, Ga.) Malfunctioning of the intestinal microcirculation secondary to severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause injuries to the intestinal mucosal barrier, translocation of gut flora, and sepsis. The glycocalyx on the vascular endothelium helps maintain its normal function through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of vascular permeability and inhibition of intercellular adhesion. It is unknown that whether pancreatitis inflicts injuries to the intestinal mucosal barrier through damaging glycocalyx or stabilizing glycocalyx can be a potential therapeutic target in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier during SAP. Injecting sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of Sprague-Dawley rats induced SAP. Intestinal perfusion, changes in endothelial glycocalyx, and the associated molecular mechanisms were assessed by laser Doppler velocimetry, electron microscopy, and the levels of heparan sulfate, syndacan-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the superior mesenteric vein. Protective effects of hydrocortisone treatment in the intestinal microcirculation during SAP were evaluated. Degradation of the glycocalyx in intestinal vascular endothelium developed 3 h after the onset of SAP in rats. By 12 h, significant reduction of intestinal perfusion was observed. The concomitant elevated levels of TNF-α in the superior mesenteric vein suggest that TNF-α is involved in the degradation of the glycocalyx. With the use of hydrocortisone, intestinal perfusion was improved and the degradation of glycocalyx was reduced. The degradation of glycocalyx is involved in the malfunction of the intestinal microcirculation. The massive release of TNF-α participates in this process and leads to glycocalyx degradation. Hydrocortisone may be a good therapy to prevent this process. 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000326
    The Effects of Total Colectomy on Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Acute Pancreatitis. Şenocak Rahman,Yigit Taner,Kılbaş Zafer,Coşkun Ali Kağan,Harlak Ali,Menteş Mustafa Öner,Kılıç Abdullah,Günal Armağan,Kozak Orhan The Indian journal of surgery Prevention of secondary infection is currently the main goal of treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Colon was considered as the main origin of secondary infection. Our aim was to investigate whether prophylactic total colectomy would reduce the rate of bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Pancreatitis was created by ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Rats were divided into four groups: group-1, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; group-2, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate; group-3, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; and group-4, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Forty-eight hours later, tissue and blood samples were collected for microbiological and histopathological analysis. Total colectomy caused small bowel bacterial overgrowth with gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Bacterial count of gram-negative rods in the small intestine and pancreatic tissue in rats with colectomy and acute pancreatitis were significantly higher than in rats with acute pancreatitis only (group-2 versus group-4; small bowel, p = <0.001; pancreas, p = 0.002). Significant correlation was found between proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic infection (r = 0,836, p = 0.001). In acute pancreatitis, prophylactic total colectomy (which can mimic colonic cleansing and reduction of colonic flora) induces small bowel bacterial overgrowth, which is associated with increased bacterial translocation to the pancreas. 10.1007/s12262-013-0855-y
    Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications. Zerem Enver World journal of gastroenterology Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder. 10.3748/wjg.v20.i38.13879
    Combinatory antibiotic treatment protects against experimental acute pancreatitis by suppressing gut bacterial translocation to pancreas and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Jia Lingling,Chen Hao,Yang Jun,Fang Xin,Niu Wenying,Zhang Ming,Li Jiahong,Pan Xiaohua,Ren Zhengnan,Sun Jia,Pan Li-Long Innate immunity 10.1177/1753425919881502
    Gut microbiota dysbiosis worsens the severity of acute pancreatitis in patients and mice. Zhu Yin,He Cong,Li Xueyang,Cai Yan,Hu Jinxiang,Liao Yuanhang,Zhao Jianhua,Xia Liang,He Wenhua,Liu Linmeng,Luo Chun,Shu Xu,Cai Qiang,Chen Youxiang,Lu Nonghua Journal of gastroenterology BACKGROUND:The gut is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the infectious complications of AP are commonly associated with enteric bacteria, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participants in AP severity remains largely unknown. METHODS:We collected clinical information and fecal samples from 165 adult participants, including 41 with mild AP (MAP), 59 with moderately severe AP (MSAP), 30 with severe AP (SAP) and 35 healthy controls (HC). The serum inflammatory cytokines and gut barrier indexes were detected. Male C57BL/6 mice with AP were established and injuries of pancreas were evaluated in antibiotic-treated mice, germ-free mice as well as those transplanted with fecal microbiota. The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS:The structure of gut microbiota was significantly different between AP and HC, and the disturbed microbiota was closely correlated with systematic inflammation and gut barrier dysfunction. Notably, the microbial composition changed further with the worsening of AP and the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Blautia was decreased in SAP compared with MAP and MSAP. The increased capacity for the inferred pathway, bacterial invasion of epithelial cells in AP, highly correlated with the abundance of Escherichia-Shigella. Furthermore, the antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice exhibited alleviated pancreatic injury after AP induction and subsequent fecal microbiota transplantation in turn exacerbated the disease. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies the gut microbiota as an important mediator during AP and its dysbiosis is associated with AP severity, which suggests its role as potential therapeutic target. 10.1007/s00535-018-1529-0
    Improvement of Gut Microbiota by Inhibition of P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling Pathway in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis. Wan You-Dong,Zhu Rui-Xue,Bian Zhong-Zheng,Pan Xin-Ting Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a key role in pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). In this study, we explored the protective effects of the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, against gut inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis induced by pancreatic duct injection with 3.5% sodium taurocholate in an SAP rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated, SAP model, and SAP plus SB203580 groups (n=30/group). Histological examination was conducted to assess gut and pancreatitis injury. The levels of amylase, D-lactate, diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, IL-1ß, and phospho-p38MAPK in the plasma and intestine were evaluated at 3, 6, or 12 h after SAP induction. The gut microbiome was investigated based on16S rDNA gene sequencing at 12 h after SAP induction. RESULTS Histological examination revealed edema and inflammatory infiltrations in the pancreas and distal ileum. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in plasma and distal ileum was increased in the SAP group, which were restored after treatment with SB203580. Significantly lower bacterial diversity and richness was found in the SAP group. In the SAP group, the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes was decreased, and there was a higher proportion of Proteobacteria at the phylum level. The SAP plus SB203580 group exhibited significantly less damage to the gut microbiota, with higher bacterial diversity and a more normal proportion of intestinal microbiota. CONCLUSIONS SB203580 mediated suppression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway via reduced gut inflammatory response and microbiota dysbiosis. 10.12659/MSM.914538
    Factors That Worsen Disease Severity in Acute Pancreatitis: Implications for More Innovative Nutrition Therapy. McClave Stephen A Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition The pathophysiologic process of severe acute pancreatitis involves a vicious cycle of inflammation and increasing oxidative stress. Secretory defects trap activated pancreatic enzymes within the gland leading to autodigestion while circulatory abnormalities add the insult of ischemia/reperfusion injury. What may have the greatest impact in amplifying the systemic inflammatory response, though, is intestinal failure with breakdown of gut barrier defenses, subversion of submucosal immune responses, and emergence of a virulent pathobiome. Understanding the intricacies of these changes has broad-reaching implications for nutrition therapy, which should no longer be limited to the provision of early enteral feeding alone. Emerging strategies should attempt to maintain commensalism, bind potential pathogens, refaunate the microbiome, actively turn off inflammation, reset cross-talk signaling with epithelial receptors, and deliver nutrients further down the gastrointestinal tract to the level of greatest microbial burden. Innovative nutrition therapy for the patient with severe acute pancreatitis should be designed to address and include all of these strategies in order to shift the course of clinical outcome toward a pattern of recovery and homeostasis. 10.1002/ncp.10371
    Effects of rhubarb on intestinal flora and toll-like receptors of intestinal mucosa in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Yao Ping,Cui Min,Li Yan,Deng Yiyun,Wu Hao Pancreas OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rhubarb on intestinal flora and toll-like receptors (TLRs) of intestinal mucosa in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS:Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into sham-operated surgical model of SAP without or with postoperative rhubarb treatment groups (7 in each group). Rats in with rhubarb group received 10% rhubarb decoction (1 mL/200 g) through tube feeding at every 8 hours during postoperative 24 hours. Serum amylase, amount of intestinal flora, and TLR2/TLR4 messenger RNA expression in intestinal mucosa were tested among 3 groups at postoperative 24 hours. RESULTS:TLR2 and TLR4 messenger RNA expression levels in intestinal mucosa in SAP without rhubarb group were significantly higher than those in sham-operated or SAP with rhubarb groups (P < 0.05). The amount of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in SAP without rhubarb group were significantly fewer than in those sham-operated group (P < 0.05) but not significantly different from those in SAP with rhubarb group (P > 0.05). The amount of intestinal Escherichia coli was relatively higher in SAP group than in sham-operated group (P > 0.05) but lesser in rhubarb treatment group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Rhubarb might maintain the intestinal mucosal barrier through regulating intestinal flora and inhibiting intestinal inflammatory response in rats with SAP. 10.1097/MPA.0000000000000339
    [Changes of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier and Intestinal Flora in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis]. Li Yan,Wu Hao,Deng Yiyun,Liao Ruyi,Xi Lili,Yao Ping Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi This paper is to explore changes of intestinal mucosal barrier, intestinal flora, and bacterial translocation in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Twenty four male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 10) and the experimental group (n = 14). The model of severe acute pancreatitis of rats was induced by the method of injecting adversely 5% sodium taurocholate into the common biliary-pancreatic duct. All of the rats were killed after 24 hours and the level of the serum amylase and the plasma endotoxin was determined after that. The pathological changes of pancreas and small intestine were observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining) and the abdominal viscera bacterial translocation rates were tested. With the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) the quantity of the intestinal flora was analyzed. In the control group, the level of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were 2.08 ± 1.29, 11.04 ± 7.55 and 12.21 ± 4.95, respectively. On the contrast, the level of Escherichia coli in the cecum contents was much higher (9.72 ± 3.58, P < 0.01), while the Lactobacillus number was decreased significantly (0.67 ± 0.34, P < 0.01), and the Bifidobacterium number was also decreased (4.59 ± 3.42, P < 0.05) in the experimental group, so the ratio of Bifidobacterium/Escherichia coli was reversed. Besides, in the experimental group, the plasma endotoxin positive rates and the bacterial translocation rates were much higher (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and the pathology scores of pancreas and small intestines were also significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those in the control group. These results indicated that in severe acute pancreatitis rats, the intestinal mucosal barrier was severely damaged and the dysbacteriosis occurs in the intestinal canal. And these might relate to the occurrence and development of multiple organ infection.