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    Two cases of adenocarcinoma occurring in sporadic fundic gland polyps observed by magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging. Togo Kazumi,Ueo Tetsuya,Yonemasu Hirotoshi,Honda Hideho,Ishida Tetsuya,Tanabe Hiroshi,Yao Kenshi,Iwashita Akinori,Murakami Kazunari World journal of gastroenterology Gastric fundic gland polyps (FGPs) are common non-adenomatous gastric polyps arising from normal fundic mucosa without () infection. Although systemic FGPs associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) often have dysplasia, there are few reports of dysplasia occurring in sporadic FGPs, especially when detected by magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI). We experienced two cases of adenocarcinoma occurring in sporadic FGPs, and their ME-NBI findings were very useful for differentiating FGP with cancer from non-dysplastic FGP. A 68-year-old man and a 63-year-old woman were referred to our institution for medical checkup. was negative in both patients. Endoscopic examination revealed a small reddish polypoid lesion on the anterior wall of the upper gastric body and several FGPs. ME-NBI showed an irregular microvascular architecture composed of closed loop- or open loop-type vascular components, plus an irregular microsurface structure composed of oval-type surface components which was different from that of FGPs. FAP was denied because of the absence of colon polyps and no familial history of FAP. Pathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma occurring in sporadic FGP. 10.3748/wjg.v22.i40.9028
    Proton Pump Inhibitor-Related Gastric Mucosal Changes. Kim Gwang Ha Gut and liver Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used worldwide to treat of acid-related disorders such as peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease and to prevent gastroduodenal injuries due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PPIs are the most potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion currently available, and they are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs because of their high efficacy and low toxicity. However, long-term PPI use causes histopathological changes such as parietal cell protrusion into the gland lumen, cystic dilation of gastric fundic glands, and foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. These changes can manifest on endoscopic examination as fundic gland polyps, hyperplastic polyps, multiple white and flat elevated lesions, cobblestone-like mucosa, or black spots. Clinicians must be aware of PPI-induced endoscopic features in patients with chronic long-term PPI use. Conversely, identifying patients with long-term PPI use based on their endoscopic findings is important. Recently, potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs), a new class of acid suppressants that inhibit gastric acid secretion more strongly than PPIs, have recently been introduced clinically. Further long-term prospective studies on these gastric mucosal lesions in patients with either PPI or P-CAB use are required to investigate their association with histopathological changes and to establish the clinical significance of these findings. 10.5009/gnl20036
    Evaluation and management of gastric epithelial polyps. Castro R,Pimentel-Nunes P,Dinis-Ribeiro M Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology Gastric polyps include a wide spectrum of lesions with different histology and neoplastic potential. They are found in up to 6% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and are usually asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed, being in the vast majority epithelial gastric polyps. Hyperplastic, fundic gland and adenomas are the most common types of gastric polyps and, although each type may have typical endoscopic appearances, they all must be sampled at the initial endoscopy for histological assessment. Also, the normal appearing gastric mucosa should be sampled to stage atrophic changes, rule out endoscopically non-visible dysplasia and to diagnose Helicobacter pylori. Polyposis syndromes that affect the stomach are rare but should be taken into account. Hamartomatous polyps can be found in Juvenile polyposis, Cowden syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. On the other hand, multiple fundic gland polyps are present in the majority of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. In this study we provide a comprehensive review on the evaluation and management of gastric epithelial polyps, in this way helping physicians to properly handle this type of lesions. 10.1016/j.bpg.2017.06.001
    The gastric mucosal-associated microbiome in patients with gastric polyposis. Ren Rongrong,Wang Zikai,Sun Huaibo,Gao Xuefeng,Sun Gang,Peng Lihua,Yan Bin,Yang Yunsheng Scientific reports The characteristics of the gastric microbiota in patients with gastric polyposis (GP) remain unclear. Given this we collected gastric antrum and gastric body biopsies from healthy controls (HC.A and HC.B group) and gastric antrum, gastric body and polyp biopsies from patients with multiple gastric polyps (GP.A, GP.B and GP.P group) for 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the diversity of the gastric flora in the GP group was significantly lower than that of the HC group. The gastric flora composition of the GP group was significantly different from the HC group. However, flora diversity and compositions in different parts of the stomach (gastric antrum, gastric body or polyp tissue) were not significantly different. H. pylori abundance could influence the composition of gastric microbiota. Meanwhile, patients with fundic gland polyps (FGPs) and those with hyperplastic polyps (HPs) had considerably similar gastric bacterial compositions. We constructed a microbial dysbiosis index (MDI) based on the gastric microbiota at the genus level as a predictive model, and it was able to distinguish between individuals in the GP and HC groups. These findings showed that intragastric flora dysbiosis may be closely related to the occurrence and development of gastric polyps. 10.1038/s41598-018-31738-2
    Gastric Xanthomas and Fundic Gland Polyps as Endoscopic Risk Indicators of Gastric Cancer. Yamashita Kentaro,Suzuki Ryo,Kubo Toshiyuki,Onodera Kei,Iida Tomoya,Saito Mayuko,Arimura Yoshiaki,Endo Takao,Nojima Masanori,Nakase Hiroshi Gut and liver Background/Aims:Fundic gland polyps (FGPs), hyperplastic polyps (HPs), and xanthomas (XTs) are common benign gastric lesions that can be diagnosed by endoscopic appearance alone in most cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between gastric cancer and these benign lesions. Methods:Two expert endoscopists reviewed a series of gastroscopy images. FGPs, HPs, and XTs were diagnosed by endoscopic appearance, whereas all gastric cancers were confirmed pathologically. Results:Of the 1,227 patients reviewed, 114 (9.3%) had a concurrent or past history of gastric cancer. The overall prevalences of FGPs, HPs and XTs were 9.4%, 6.3% and 14.2%, respectively. HPs and XTs coexisted in 1.6% of patients, whereas other combinations were rarer. XTs were observed in 39.3% and 11.5% of patients with and without gastric cancer, respectively (p<0.001). In contrast, no gastric cancer patients had FGPs, whereas 10.4% of patients without cancer had FGPs (p<0.001). The prevalence of HPs was similar between the two groups (8.8% and 6.0% of patients with and without cancer, respectively, p=0.29). Multivariate and Mantel-Haenszel analyses demonstrated that XTs were positively associated and FGPs were negatively associated with gastric cancer. Conclusions:XTs and FGPs might be useful as endoscopic risk indicators for monitoring gastric cancer. 10.5009/gnl17136
    Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risks of Fundic Gland Polyps and Gastric Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Tran-Duy An,Spaetgens Bart,Hoes Arno W,de Wit Niek J,Stehouwer Coen D A Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association BACKGROUND & AIMS:There have been increasing numbers of case reports and observational studies of adverse events in patients receiving long-term therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The effects of PPI therapy on risks of fundic gland polyps (FGPs) and gastric cancer have received considerable attention. We performed a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies that assessed these risks. METHODS:We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for relevant studies published through July 2015. We calculated pooled odds ratio for FGPs and the risk ratio for gastric cancer in PPI users compared with PPI nonusers using fixed- and random-effects models. RESULTS:We analyzed data from 12 studies, comprising more than 87,324 patients: 1 randomized controlled trial reporting the effect of PPIs on gastric polyps (location not specified), 6 cohort and 1 case-control studies on FGPs, and 1 cohort and 3 case-control studies on gastric cancer. Pooled odds ratios for FGPs were 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.64) and 2.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.24-4.83) from fixed- and random-effects models, respectively. The pooled risk ratio for gastric cancer was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.66) from each model. We observed significant heterogeneity among studies reporting on FGPs, but not among studies reporting on gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Based on a systematic review with meta-analysis, long-term use of PPIs (≥12 months) is associated with an increased risk of FGPs. PPI therapy might also increase the risk of gastric cancer, but this association could be biased, because of the limited number of studies and possible confounding factors. 10.1016/j.cgh.2016.05.018
    Relative risk factors associated with the development of fundic gland polyps. Huang Can-Ze,Lai Ren-Xu,Mai Lei,Zhou Huai-Li,Chen Hong-Jiang,Guo Hui-Xue European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology OBJECTIVES:The prevalence of fundic gland polyps (FGPs) is increasing. Some researchers consider this increase to be associated strongly with the long-term use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs); however, not all researchers share this belief. There are minimal data on the development of FGPs in China. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of FGPs and risk factors associated with the development of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied 10 904 consecutive patients who underwent gastroduodenal endoscopies at our digestive endoscopy center between February 2011 and January 2013. Information on sex, age, Helicobacter pylori infection, PPIs intake, and the pathological results of the polyps were collected in the FGPs group and in the control group. The use of PPIs, sex, and H. pylori infection were statistically evaluated as dichotomous variables using a χ-test; age was evaluated as a continuous variable using a t-test. Finally, these factors were evaluated using a multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Gastric polyps were found in 759 (7.0%) patients, and 213 (2.0%) of these patients had FGPs. FGPs accounted for 28.1% of the gastric polyps. In the FGPs group, the percentage of H. pylori infection was 66.8% and the percentage of PPIs intake for at least 12 months was 23.1%. In the control group, the percentage of H. pylori infection was 77.4% and the percentage of PPIs intake for at least 12 months was 2.3%. The difference in the long-term use of PPIs was statistically significant between these two groups [χ=33.98, P<0.05, odds ratio (OR)=12.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.47-36.80]. The results of the logistic regression were as follows: long-term use of PPIs (P<0.01, OR=14.11, 95% CI: 4.15-47.93); age (P<0.01, OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.31-2.18). The P-values for sex and H. pylori infection were higher than 0.05. CONCLUSION:Age and the long-term use of PPIs were risk factors for the presence of FGPs; the long-term use of PPIs was a particularly strong risk factor. 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000199
    Fundic gland polyps accurately predict a low risk of future gastric carcinogenesis. Kishikawa Hiroshi,Kaida Shogo,Takarabe Sakiko,Miyoshi Jun,Matsukubo Takashi,Miyauchi Jun,Tanaka Yoichi,Miura Soichiro,Nishida Jiro Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology OBJECTIVES:Few reports have analyzed the clinical importance of sporadic fundic gland polyps (FGPs). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sporadic FGPs and condition of the gastric mucosa stratified by serum pepsinogen levels and Helicobacter pylori antibody level. METHODS:Three hundred and seventy-five subjects undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. Subjects on proton pump inhibitors were excluded. Pathologically proven FGPs, and other endoscopic findings (reflux esophagitis, gastric and duodenal ulcer) were examined and serum pepsinogen levels, H. pylori antibody concentration and gastric juice pH were measured simultaneously. Subjects with normal serum pepsinogen and negative H. pylori antibodies were defined as having "low risk" stomachs, suggesting low risk of gastric carcinogenesis. RESULTS:Of the 375 subjects, 44 showed FGPs. The prevalence of "low risk" stomach in subjects with and without FGPs was 98% and 48%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated three variables as independent factors positively associated with "low risk" stomachs: FGPs (odds ratio [OR] 38.6), reflux esophagitis (OR 4.8), and age<60 years (OR 1.89). Gastric juice pH, which is associated with mucosal atrophy grade and low pH indicates less mucosal atrophy, was significantly lower in subjects with (1.64 ± 0.64) than without FGPs in "low risk" (1.94 ± 1.12) and "high risk" stomachs (3.99 ± 2.31). CONCLUSIONS:Sporadic FGPs tend to be related to the least atrophic mucosa among non-gastric atrophy subjects without H. pylori infection, and can be used as predictors of a low risk of gastric carcinogenesis. 10.1016/j.clinre.2014.01.008
    Histological analysis of fundic gland polyps secondary to PPI therapy. Fukuda Masahide,Ishigaki Hirohito,Sugimoto Mitsushige,Mukaisho Ken-Ichi,Matsubara Akiko,Ishida Hideaki,Moritani Suzuko,Itoh Yasushi,Sugihara Hiroyuki,Andoh Akira,Ogasawara Kazumasa,Murakami Kazunari,Kushima Ryoji Histopathology AIMS:The aim of this study was to clarify the histopathological features of fundic gland polyps (FGPs) in patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and to investigate the mechanism of enlargement of FGPs after PPI treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 196 biopsy specimens of FGPs, which consisted of 87 FGPs in patients treated with PPIs (PPI group) and 109 FGPs in patients treated without PPIs (non-PPI group) were compared histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Ki67 immunohistochemistry and multiplex immunohistochemical stain with Ki67, MUC5AC and MUC6. The significant histological features of FGPs in the PPI group were: larger size of dilated fundic gland cysts, larger number of foveolar and mixture type fundic gland cysts, foveolar cell hyperplasia, parietal cell protrusion, mononuclear cell infiltration and a higher percentage of Ki67-positive cells in the deeper layers of the glands. Multiplex immunohistochemical stain showed that Ki67-positive cells were also positive for MUC5AC, and the Ki67-positive rate was significantly higher in MUC5AC-positive cells of the PPI group than of the non-PPI group. Gene mutations of β-catenin were found in only 9.7% of FGPs in the PPI group. CONCLUSIONS:Enlargement of fundic gland cysts due to foveolar cell proliferation and parietal cell protrusion might promote the enlargement of FGPs in patients treated with PPIs. β-catenin gene mutations might not be associated with these histological changes of FGPs after PPI treatment. 10.1111/his.13902