Screening for Dysphagia in Adult Patients with Stroke: Assessing the Accuracy of Informal Detection.
Sherman Victoria,Flowers Heather,Kapral Moira K,Nicholson Gordon,Silver Frank,Martino Rosemary
Early identification of dysphagia by screening is recommended best practice for patients admitted to hospital with acute stroke. Screening can reduce the risk of pneumonia and promote stroke recovery, yet some institutions do not utilize a formal screening protocol. This study assessed the accuracy of informal dysphagia detection prior to implementation of a formal screening protocol. We conducted a secondary analysis of data captured between 2003 and 2008 from a sample of 250 adult stroke survivors admitted to a tertiary care centre. Using a priori criteria, patient medical records were reviewed for notation about dysphagia; if present, the date/time of notation, writer's profession, and suggestion of dysphagia presence. To assess accuracy of notations indicating dysphagia presence, we used speech language pathology (SLP) assessments as the criterion reference. There were 221 patient medical records available for review. Patients were male (56%), averaged 68 years (SD = 15.0), with a mean Canadian Neurological Scale score of 8.1 (SD = 3.0). First notations of swallowing by SLP were excluded. Of the remaining 170 patients, 147 (87%) had first notations (104 by nurses; 40 by physicians) within a median of 24.3 h from admission. Accuracy of detecting dysphagia from informal notations was low, with a sensitivity of 36.7% [95% CI, 24.9, 50.1], but specificity was high (94.2% [95% CI, 86.5, 97.9]). Informal identification methods, although timely, are suboptimal in their accuracy to detect dysphagia and leave patients with stroke at risk for poor health outcomes. Given these findings, we encourage the use of psychometrically validated formal screening protocols to identify dysphagia.
Post-stroke Complications and Mortality in Burkinabè Hospitals: Relationships with Deglutition Disorders and Nutritional Status.
Diendéré Jeoffray,Millogo Athanase,Philippe Fayemendy,Kaboré Jean,Napon Christian,Dabilgou Anselme,Boncoeur-Martel Marie-Paule,Preux Pierre-Marie,Salle Jean-Yves,Desport Jean-Claude,Jésus Pierre
Stroke frequently causes deglutition disorders, leading to a decline in nutritional status and complications, and increasing mortality. Sub-Saharan data are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess complications and mortality among hospitalized patients in Burkina Faso during the first two weeks after stroke, and to investigate associated factors. Patients with stroke were followed prospectively in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso hospitals. Deglutition disorders and nutritional parameters were assessed at baseline (D0) and on Days 8 (D8) and 14 (D14). Complications and mortality were recorded up to D14. Factors associated with complications and mortality were investigated using multivariate analysis. Of the 222 patients included, 81.5% developed at least one complication, and mortality was 17.1%. At D0, D8, and D14, the rate of deglutition disorders was 37.4%, 28.4%, and 15.8%, respectively, and that of undernourishment 25.2%, 29.4%, and 31.0%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, only the presence of deglutition disorders was a risk factor for developing at least one complication (OR = 5.47, 95% CI 1.81-16.51). Factors predicting death were the presence of deglutition disorders at D0 (OR = 7.19, 95% CI 3.10-16.66), and at least one seizure during follow-up (OR = 3.69, 95% CI 1.63-8.36). After stroke, the rates of complications, death, and undernourishment were high compared to Western countries. Prevention and management of deglutition disorders, and specific follow-up of patients with seizures could reduce post-stroke mortality.