CML10, a variant of calmodulin, modulates ascorbic acid synthesis.
Cho Kwang-Moon,Nguyen Ha Thi Kim,Kim Soo Youn,Shin Jin Seok,Cho Dong Hwa,Hong Seung Beom,Shin Jeong Sheop,Ok Sung Han
The New phytologist
Calmodulins (CaMs) regulate numerous Ca(2+) -mediated cellular processes in plants by interacting with their respective downstream effectors. Due to the limited number of CaMs, other calcium sensors modulate the regulation of Ca(2+) -mediated cellular processes that are not managed by CaMs. Of 50 CaM-like (CML) proteins identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized the function of CML10. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed phosphomannomutase (PMM) as a putative interaction partner of CML10. In vitro and in vivo interaction assays were performed to analyze the interaction mechanisms of CML10 and PMM. PMM activity and the phenotypes of cml10 knock-down mutants were studied to elucidate the role(s) of the CML10-PMM interaction. PMM interacted specifically with CML10 in the presence of Ca(2+) through its multiple interaction motifs. This interaction promoted the activity of PMM. The phenotypes of cml10 knock-down mutants were more sensitive to stress conditions than wild-type plants, corresponding with the fact that PMM is an enzyme which modulates the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid, an antioxidant. The results of this research demonstrate that a calcium sensor, CML10, which is an evolutionary variant of CaM, modulates the stress responses in Arabidopsis by regulating ascorbic acid production.
Foliar fertigation of ascorbic acid and zinc improves growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and harvest index in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under salt stress.
Noreen Sibgha,Sultan Maham,Akhter Muhammad Salim,Shah Kausar Hussain,Ummara Ume,Manzoor Hamid,Ulfat Mobina,Alyemeni Mohammed Nasser,Ahmad Parvaiz
Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB
Crop productivity is limited by several environmental constraints. Among these, salt stress plays a key role in limiting the growth and yield production of economically important agricultural crops. However, the exogenous fertigation of vitamins and minerals could serve as a "shot-gun" approach for offsetting the deleterious effects of salts present in the rhizosphere. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to quantify the efficacy of foliar fertigation of ascorbic acid (vitamin-C) and zinc (Zn) on the physio-biochemical attributes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotype B-14011) grown in a saline environment. The salt stress resulted in a reduced biological yield associated with a decrease in chlorophyll pigment, while a significant enhancement in Na and Zn was observed under salinity stress. Similarly, the contents of total soluble proteins, total free amino acids, lipid peroxidation, and HO and the activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, APX and proline) were significantly enhanced under salinity stress. Moreover, salinity negatively affected the yield attributes and ion uptake of plants. However, foliar fertigation with AsA +0.03% Zn enhanced vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, synchronized ion uptake, the synthesis of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and the harvest index. It is inferred from this study that among all treatments, the effect of foliar fertigation with the AsA+0.03% Zn combination not only improved the salt stress tolerance but also improved the yield attributes, which will aid in the improvement in barley seed yield and is a step to solve the problem of malnutrition through biofortification of vitamin-C and zinc.