Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Diabetes and COVID-19 in Association With Glucose-Lowering Medication.
Chen Yuchen,Yang Dong,Cheng Biao,Chen Jian,Peng Anlin,Yang Chen,Liu Chong,Xiong Mingrui,Deng Aiping,Zhang Yu,Zheng Ling,Huang Kun
OBJECTIVE:Diabetes is one of the most distinct comorbidities of COVID-19. Here, we describe the clinical characteristics of and outcomes in patients with diabetes in whom COVID-19 was confirmed or clinically diagnosed (with typical features on lung imaging and symptoms) and their association with glucose-lowering or blood pressure-lowering medications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In this retrospective study involving 904 patients with COVID-19 (136 with diabetes, mostly type 2 diabetes), clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected and compared between the group with diabetes and the group without diabetes, and between groups taking different medications. Logistic regression was used to explore risk factors associated with mortality or poor prognosis. RESULTS:The proportion of comorbid diabetes is similar between cases of confirmed and of clinically diagnosed COVID-19. Risk factors for higher mortality of patients with diabetes and COVID-19 were older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.09 [95% CI 1.04, 1.15] per year increase; = 0.001) and elevated C-reactive protein (aOR 1.12 [95% CI 1.00, 1.24]; = 0.043). Insulin usage (aOR 3.58 [95% CI 1.37, 9.35]; = 0.009) was associated with poor prognosis. Clinical outcomes of those who use an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II type-I receptor blocker (ARB) were comparable with those of patients who do not use ACEI/ARB among COVID-19 patients with diabetes and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:C-reactive protein may help to identify patients with diabetes who are at greater risk of dying during hospitalization. Older patients with diabetes were prone to death related to COVID-19. Attention needs to be paid to patients with diabetes and COVID-19 who use insulin. ACEI/ARB use showed no significant impact on patients with diabetes and hypertension who have COVID-19.
COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: from pathophysiology to clinical management.
Lim Soo,Bae Jae Hyun,Kwon Hyuk-Sang,Nauck Michael A
Nature reviews. Endocrinology
Initial studies found increased severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in patients with diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, COVID-19 might also predispose infected individuals to hyperglycaemia. Interacting with other risk factors, hyperglycaemia might modulate immune and inflammatory responses, thus predisposing patients to severe COVID-19 and possible lethal outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is the main entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2; although dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) might also act as a binding target. Preliminary data, however, do not suggest a notable effect of glucose-lowering DPP4 inhibitors on SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Owing to their pharmacological characteristics, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors might cause adverse effects in patients with COVID-19 and so cannot be recommended. Currently, insulin should be the main approach to the control of acute glycaemia. Most available evidence does not distinguish between the major types of diabetes mellitus and is related to type 2 diabetes mellitus owing to its high prevalence. However, some limited evidence is now available on type 1 diabetes mellitus and COVID-19. Most of these conclusions are preliminary, and further investigation of the optimal management in patients with diabetes mellitus is warranted.