Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling in Early Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma Reveals Predictive Aberrant Methylation in the Promoter Region of the Long Noncoding RNA PLUT: An Exploratory Study.
Kim-Wanner Soo-Zin,Assenov Yassen,Nair Mridul B,Weichenhan Dieter,Benner Axel,Becker Natalia,Landwehr Katharina,Kuner Ruprecht,Sültmann Holger,Esteller Manel,Koch Ina,Lindner Michael,Meister Michael,Thomas Michael,Bieg Matthias,Klingmüller Ursula,Schlesner Matthias,Warth Arne,Brors Benedikt,Seifried Erhard,Bönig Halvard,Plass Christoph,Risch Angela,Muley Thomas
Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
INTRODUCTION:Surgical procedure is the treatment of choice in early stage I lung adenocarcinoma. However, a considerable number of patients experience recurrence within the first 2 years after complete resection. Suitable prognostic biomarkers that identify patients at high risk of recurrence (who may probably benefit from adjuvant treatment) are still not available. This study aimed at identifying methylation markers for early recurrence that may become important tools for the development of new treatment modalities. METHODS:Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed on 30 stage I lung adenocarcinomas, comparing 14 patients with early metastatic recurrence with 16 patients with a long-term relapse-free survival period using methylated-CpG-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. The differentially methylated regions between the two subgroups were validated for their prognostic value in two independent cohorts using the MassCLEAVE assay, a high-resolution quantitative methylation analysis. RESULTS:Unsupervised clustering of patients in the discovery cohort on the basis of differentially methylated regions identified patients with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 0.66-7.53; p = 0.03). In two validation cohorts, promoter hypermethylation of the long noncoding RNA PLUT was significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.93; p < 0.026) and could be reported as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Promoter hypermethylation of the long noncoding RNA PLUT is predictive in patients with early stage I adenocarcinoma at high risk for early recurrence. Further studies are needed to validate its role in carcinogenesis and its use as a biomarker to facilitate patient selection and risk stratification.
Non-CpG methylation-a key epigenetic modification in cancer.
Ramasamy Deepa,Deva Magendhra Rao Arunagiri Kuha,Rajkumar Thangarajan,Mani Samson
Briefings in functional genomics
The methylation of cytosine residues that precede adenine/thymine or other cytosine nucleotides instead of guanine in DNA is known as non-CpG methylation. It is a pronounced epigenetic modification with a central role in gene regulation similar to CpG methylation. Due to technological limitations, the locus-specific role of non-CpG methylation was scarcely understood. At present, high-throughput analyses and improved enrichment methods can elucidate the role of genome-wide non-CpG methylation distributions. Although the functional basis of non-CpG methylation in regulating gene expression control is known, its role in cancer development is yet to be ascertained. This review sheds light on the possible mechanism of non-CpG methylation in embryos and developed tissues with a special focus on cancer development and progression. In particular, the maintenance and alteration of non-CpG methylation levels and the crucial factors that determine this level of non-CpG methylation and its functional role in cancer are discussed.
The somatic genomic landscape of glioblastoma.
Brennan Cameron W,Verhaak Roel G W,McKenna Aaron,Campos Benito,Noushmehr Houtan,Salama Sofie R,Zheng Siyuan,Chakravarty Debyani,Sanborn J Zachary,Berman Samuel H,Beroukhim Rameen,Bernard Brady,Wu Chang-Jiun,Genovese Giannicola,Shmulevich Ilya,Barnholtz-Sloan Jill,Zou Lihua,Vegesna Rahulsimham,Shukla Sachet A,Ciriello Giovanni,Yung W K,Zhang Wei,Sougnez Carrie,Mikkelsen Tom,Aldape Kenneth,Bigner Darell D,Van Meir Erwin G,Prados Michael,Sloan Andrew,Black Keith L,Eschbacher Jennifer,Finocchiaro Gaetano,Friedman William,Andrews David W,Guha Abhijit,Iacocca Mary,O'Neill Brian P,Foltz Greg,Myers Jerome,Weisenberger Daniel J,Penny Robert,Kucherlapati Raju,Perou Charles M,Hayes D Neil,Gibbs Richard,Marra Marco,Mills Gordon B,Lander Eric,Spellman Paul,Wilson Richard,Sander Chris,Weinstein John,Meyerson Matthew,Gabriel Stacey,Laird Peter W,Haussler David,Getz Gad,Chin Lynda,
We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors, including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer.
Targeting UDP-α-D-glucose 6-dehydrogenase inhibits glioblastoma growth and migration.
Oyinlade Olutobi,Wei Shuang,Lal Bachchu,Laterra John,Zhu Heng,Goodwin C Rory,Wang Shuyan,Ma Ding,Wan Jun,Xia Shuli
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) produces UDP-α-D-glucuronic acid, the precursors for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix. Elevated GAG formation has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including glioblastoma (GBM). In our previous study, we found that Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) promotes GBM cell migration by binding to methylated DNA, mainly methylated CpGs (mCpG) and transactivating gene expression. We identified UDGH as one of the downstream targets of KLF4-mCpG binding activity. In this study, we show that KLF4 upregulates UGDH expression in a mCpG-dependent manner, and UGDH is required for KLF4-induced cell migration in vitro. UGDH knockdown decreases GAG abundance in GBM cells, as well as cell proliferation and migration in vitro. In intracranial xenografts, reduced UGDH inhibits tumor growth and migration, accompanied by a decrease in the expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as tenascin C, brevican. Our studies demonstrate a novel DNA methylation-dependent UGDH upregulation by KLF4. Developing UGDH antagonists to decrease the synthesis of extracellular matrix components will be a useful strategy for GBM therapy.
Intracerebral injection of CpG oligonucleotide for patients with de novo glioblastoma-A phase II multicentric, randomised study.
Ursu Renata,Carpentier Alexandre,Metellus Philippe,Lubrano Vincent,Laigle-Donadey Florence,Capelle Laurent,Guyotat Jacques,Langlois Olivier,Bauchet Luc,Desseaux Kristell,Tibi Annick,Chinot Olivier,Lambert Jérôme,Carpentier Antoine F
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
BACKGROUND:Immunostimulating oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated cytosine-guanosine motifs (CpG-ODN) have shown a promising efficacy in several cancer models when injected locally. A previous phase II study of CpG-ODN in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) has suggested some activity and has shown a limited toxicity. This multicentre single-blinded randomised phase II trial was designed to study the efficacy of a local treatment by CpG-ODN in patients with de novo glioblastomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with a newly diagnosed glioblastoma underwent large surgical resection and CpG-ODN was randomly administrated locally around the surgical cavity. The patients were then treated according to standard of care (SOC) with radiotherapy and temozolomide. The primary objective was 2-year survival. Secondary outcomes were progression free survival (PFS), and tolerance. RESULTS:Eighty-one (81) patients were randomly assigned to receive CpG-ODN plus SOC (39 patients) or SOC (42 patients). The 2-year overall survival was 31% (19%; 49%) in the CpG-ODN arm and 26% (16%; 44%) in the SOC arm. The median PFS was 9 months in the CpG-ODN arm and 8.5 months in the SOC arm. The incidence of adverse events was similar in both arms; although fever and post-operative haematoma were more frequent in the CpG-ODN arm. CONCLUSIONS:Local immunotherapy with CpG-ODN injected into the surgical cavity after tumour removal and followed by SOC, although well tolerated, does not improve survival of patients with newly diagnosed GBM.
Recurrent epimutations activate gene body promoters in primary glioblastoma.
Nagarajan Raman P,Zhang Bo,Bell Robert J A,Johnson Brett E,Olshen Adam B,Sundaram Vasavi,Li Daofeng,Graham Ashley E,Diaz Aaron,Fouse Shaun D,Smirnov Ivan,Song Jun,Paris Pamela L,Wang Ting,Costello Joseph F
Aberrant DNA hypomethylation may play an important role in the growth rate of glioblastoma (GBM), but the functional impact on transcription remains poorly understood. We assayed the GBM methylome with MeDIP-seq and MRE-seq, adjusting for copy number differences, in a small set of non-glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (non-G-CIMP) primary tumors. Recurrent hypomethylated loci were enriched within a region of chromosome 5p15 that is specified as a cancer amplicon and also encompasses TERT, encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase, which plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Overall, 76 gene body promoters were recurrently hypomethylated, including TERT and the oncogenes GLI3 and TP73. Recurring hypomethylation also affected previously unannotated alternative promoters, and luciferase reporter assays for three of four of these promoters confirmed strong promoter activity in GBM cells. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) ChIP-seq on tissue from the GBMs uncovered peaks that coincide precisely with tumor-specific decrease of DNA methylation at 200 loci, 133 of which are in gene bodies. Detailed investigation of TP73 and TERT gene body hypomethylation demonstrated increased expression of corresponding alternate transcripts, which in TP73 encodes a truncated p73 protein with oncogenic function and in TERT encodes a putative reverse transcriptase-null protein. Our findings suggest that recurring gene body promoter hypomethylation events, along with histone H3K4 trimethylation, alter the transcriptional landscape of GBM through the activation of a limited number of normally silenced promoters within gene bodies, in at least one case leading to expression of an oncogenic protein.
Subtype-specific signaling pathways and genomic aberrations associated with prognosis of glioblastoma.
Park Ae Kyung,Kim Pora,Ballester Leomar Y,Esquenazi Yoshua,Zhao Zhongming
Background:A high heterogeneity and activation of multiple oncogenic pathways have been implicated in failure of targeted therapies in glioblastoma (GBM). Methods:Using The Cancer Genome Atlas data, we identified subtype-specific prognostic core genes by a combined approach of genome-wide Cox regression and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. The results were validated with 8 combined public datasets containing 608 GBMs. We further examined prognostic chromosome aberrations and mutations. Results:In classical and mesenchymal subtypes, 2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) (MET and IGF1R), and the genes in RTK downstream pathways such as phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB), were commonly detected as prognostic core genes. Classical subtype-specific prognostic core genes included those in cell cycle, DNA repair, and the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Immune-related genes were enriched in the prognostic genes showing negative promoter cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation/expression correlations. Mesenchymal subtype-specific prognostic genes were those related to mesenchymal cell movement, PI3K/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Wnt/β-catenin, and Wnt/Ca2+ pathways. In copy number alterations and mutations, 6p loss and TP53 mutation were associated with poor and good survival, respectively, in the classical subtype. In the mesenchymal subtype, patients with PIK3R1 or PCLO mutations showed poor prognosis. In the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP) subtype, patients harboring 10q loss, 12p gain, or 14q loss exhibited poor survival. Furthermore, 10q loss was significantly associated with the recently recognized G-CIMP subclass showing relatively low CpG methylation and poor prognosis. Conclusion:These subtype-specific alterations have promising potentials as new prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets combined with surrogate markers of GBM subtypes. However, considering the small number of events, the results of copy number alterations and mutations require further validations.
Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies an essential role of reactive oxygen species in pediatric glioblastoma multiforme and validates a methylome specific for H3 histone family 3A with absence of G-CIMP/isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation.
Jha Prerana,Pia Patric Irene Rosita,Shukla Sudhanshu,Pathak Pankaj,Pal Jagriti,Sharma Vikas,Thinagararanjan Sivaarumugam,Santosh Vani,Suri Vaishali,Sharma Mehar Chand,Arivazhagan Arimappamagan,Suri Ashish,Gupta Deepak,Somasundaram Kumaravel,Sarkar Chitra
BACKGROUND:Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is rare, and there is a single study, a seminal discovery showing association of histone H3.3 and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 mutation with a DNA methylation signature. The present study aims to validate these findings in an independent cohort of pediatric GBM, compare it with adult GBM, and evaluate the involvement of important functionally altered pathways. METHODS:Genome-wide methylation profiling of 21 pediatric GBM cases was done and compared with adult GBM data (GSE22867). We performed gene mutation analysis of IDH1 and H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A), status evaluation of glioma cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), and Gene Ontology analysis. Experimental evaluation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) association was also done. RESULTS:Distinct differences were noted between methylomes of pediatric and adult GBM. Pediatric GBM was characterized by 94 hypermethylated and 1206 hypomethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands, with 3 distinct clusters, having a trend to prognostic correlation. Interestingly, none of the pediatric GBM cases showed G-CIMP/IDH1 mutation. Gene Ontology analysis identified ROS association in pediatric GBM, which was experimentally validated. H3F3A mutants (36.4%; all K27M) harbored distinct methylomes and showed enrichment of processes related to neuronal development, differentiation, and cell-fate commitment. CONCLUSIONS:Our study confirms that pediatric GBM has a distinct methylome compared with that of adults. Presence of distinct clusters and an H3F3A mutation-specific methylome indicate existence of epigenetic subgroups within pediatric GBM. Absence of IDH1/G-CIMP status further indicates that findings in adult GBM cannot be simply extrapolated to pediatric GBM and that there is a strong need for identification of separate prognostic markers. A possible role of ROS in pediatric GBM pathogenesis is demonstrated for the first time and needs further evaluation.
Intratumor DNA methylation heterogeneity in glioblastoma: implications for DNA methylation-based classification.
Wenger Anna,Ferreyra Vega Sandra,Kling Teresia,Bontell Thomas Olsson,Jakola Asgeir Store,Carén Helena
BACKGROUND:A feature of glioblastoma (GBM) is cellular and molecular heterogeneity, both within and between tumors. This variability causes a risk for sampling bias and potential tumor escape from future targeted therapy. Heterogeneous intratumor gene expression in GBM is well documented, but little is known regarding the epigenetic heterogeneity. Variability in DNA methylation within tumors would have implications for diagnostics, as methylation can be used for tumor classification, subtyping, and determination of the clinically used biomarker O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. We therefore aimed to profile the intratumor DNA methylation heterogeneity in GBM and its effect on diagnostic properties. METHODS:Three to 4 spatially separated biopsies per tumor were collected from 12 GBM patients. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and investigated intratumor variation. RESULTS:All samples were classified as GBM isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild type (wt)/mutated by methylation profiling, but the subclass differed within 5 tumors. Some GBM samples exhibited higher DNA methylation differences within tumors than between, and many cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites (mean: 17 000) had different methylation levels within the tumors. MGMT methylation status differed in IDH mutated patients (1/1). CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that intratumor DNA methylation heterogeneity is a feature of GBM. Although all biopsies were classified as GBM IDH wt/mutated by methylation analysis, the assigned subclass differed in samples from the same patient. The observed heterogeneity within tumors is important to consider for methylation-based biomarkers and future improvements in stratification of GBM patients.
Most human non-GCIMP glioblastoma subtypes evolve from a common proneural-like precursor glioma.
Ozawa Tatsuya,Riester Markus,Cheng Yu-Kang,Huse Jason T,Squatrito Massimo,Helmy Karim,Charles Nikki,Michor Franziska,Holland Eric C
To understand the relationships between the non-GCIMP glioblastoma (GBM) subgroups, we performed mathematical modeling to predict the temporal sequence of driver events during tumorigenesis. The most common order of evolutionary events is 1) chromosome (chr) 7 gain and chr10 loss, followed by 2) CDKN2A loss and/or TP53 mutation, and 3) alterations canonical for specific subtypes. We then developed a computational methodology to identify drivers of broad copy number changes, identifying PDGFA (chr7) and PTEN (chr10) as driving initial nondisjunction events. These predictions were validated using mouse modeling, showing that PDGFA is sufficient to induce proneural-like gliomas and that additional NF1 loss converts proneural to the mesenchymal subtype. Our findings suggest that most non-GCIMP mesenchymal GBMs arise as, and evolve from, a proneural-like precursor.
Integrated DNA methylation and copy-number profiling identify three clinically and biologically relevant groups of anaplastic glioma.
Wiestler Benedikt,Capper David,Sill Martin,Jones David T W,Hovestadt Volker,Sturm Dominik,Koelsche Christian,Bertoni Anna,Schweizer Leonille,Korshunov Andrey,Weiß Elisa K,Schliesser Maximilian G,Radbruch Alexander,Herold-Mende Christel,Roth Patrick,Unterberg Andreas,Hartmann Christian,Pietsch Torsten,Reifenberger Guido,Lichter Peter,Radlwimmer Bernhard,Platten Michael,Pfister Stefan M,von Deimling Andreas,Weller Michael,Wick Wolfgang
The outcome of patients with anaplastic gliomas varies considerably. Whether a molecular classification of anaplastic gliomas based on large-scale genomic or epigenomic analyses is superior to histopathology for reflecting distinct biological groups, predicting outcomes and guiding therapy decisions has yet to be determined. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis, using a platform which also allows the detection of copy-number aberrations, was performed in a cohort of 228 patients with anaplastic gliomas (astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas), including 115 patients of the NOA-04 trial. We further compared these tumors with a group of 55 glioblastomas. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation patterns revealed two main groups correlated with IDH status: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positive (77.5 %) or negative (22.5 %). CIMP(pos) (IDH mutant) tumors showed a further separation based on copy-number status of chromosome arms 1p and 19q. CIMP(neg) (IDH wild type) tumors showed hallmark copy-number alterations of glioblastomas, and clustered together with CIMP(neg) glioblastomas without forming separate groups based on WHO grade. Notably, there was no molecular evidence for a distinct biological entity representing anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Tumor classification based on CIMP and 1p/19q status was significantly associated with survival, allowing a better prediction of outcome than the current histopathological classification: patients with CIMP(pos) tumors with 1p/19q codeletion (CIMP-codel) had the best prognosis, followed by patients with CIMP(pos) tumors but intact 1p/19q status (CIMP-non-codel). Patients with CIMP(neg) anaplastic gliomas (GBM-like) had the worst prognosis. Collectively, our data suggest that anaplastic gliomas can be grouped by IDH and 1p/19q status into three molecular groups that show clear links to underlying biology and a significant association with clinical outcome in a prospective trial cohort.
CXCR4 expression varies significantly among different subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its low expression or hypermethylation might predict favorable overall survival.
Ma Xinlong,Shang Feng,Zhu Weidong,Lin Qingtang
Expert review of neurotherapeutics
BACKGROUND:CXCR4 is an oncogene in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) but the mechanism of its dysregulation and its prognostic value in GBM have not been fully understood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Bioinformatic analysis was performed by using R2 and the UCSC Xena browser based on data from GSE16011 in GEO datasets and in GBM cohort in TCGA database (TCGA-GBM). Kaplan Meier curves of overall survival (OS) were generated to assess the association between CXCR4 expression/methylation and OS in patients with GBM. RESULTS:GBM patients with high CXCR4 expression had significantly worse 5 and 10 yrs OS (p < 0.05). Across different GBM subtypes, there was an inverse relationship between overall DNA methylation and CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 expression was significantly lower in CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP) group than in non CIMP group. Log rank test results showed that patients with high CXCR4 methylation (first tertile) had significantly better 5 yrs OS (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION:CXCR4 expression is regulated by DNA methylation in GBM and its low expression or hypermethylation might indicate favorable OS in GBM patients.
Global delay in nascent strand DNA methylation.
Charlton Jocelyn,Downing Timothy L,Smith Zachary D,Gu Hongcang,Clement Kendell,Pop Ramona,Akopian Veronika,Klages Sven,Santos David P,Tsankov Alexander M,Timmermann Bernd,Ziller Michael J,Kiskinis Evangelos,Gnirke Andreas,Meissner Alexander
Nature structural & molecular biology
Cytosine methylation is widespread among organisms and essential for mammalian development. In line with early postulations of an epigenetic role in gene regulation, symmetric CpG methylation can be mitotically propagated over many generations with extraordinarily high fidelity. Here, we combine BrdU labeling and immunoprecipitation with genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to explore the inheritance of cytosine methylation onto newly replicated DNA in human cells. Globally, we observe a pronounced lag between the copying of genetic and epigenetic information in embryonic stem cells that is reconsolidated within hours to accomplish faithful mitotic transmission. Populations of arrested cells show a global reduction of lag-induced intermediate CpG methylation when compared to proliferating cells, whereas sites of transcription factor engagement appear cell-cycle invariant. Alternatively, the cancer cell line HCT116 preserves global epigenetic heterogeneity independently of cell-cycle arrest. Taken together, our data suggest that heterogeneous methylation largely reflects asynchronous proliferation, but is intrinsic to actively engaged cis-regulatory elements and cancer.
General transcription factor binding at CpG islands in normal cells correlates with resistance to de novo DNA methylation in cancer cells.
Gebhard Claudia,Benner Chris,Ehrich Mathias,Schwarzfischer Lucia,Schilling Elmar,Klug Maja,Dietmaier Wolfgang,Thiede Christian,Holler Ernst,Andreesen Reinhard,Rehli Michael
Aberrant DNA methylation at CpG islands is thought to contribute to cancer initiation and progression, but mechanisms that establish and maintain DNA methylation status during tumorigenesis or normal development remain poorly understood. In this study, we used methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation to generate comparative DNA methylation profiles of healthy and malignant cells (acute leukemia and colorectal carcinoma) for human CpG islands across the genome. While searching for sequence patterns that characterize DNA methylation states, we discovered several nonredundant sequences in CpG islands that were resistant to aberrant de novo methylation in cancer and that resembled consensus binding sites for general transcription factors (TF). Comparing methylation profiles with global CpG island binding data for specific protein 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and yin-yang 1 revealed that their DNA binding activity in normal blood cells correlated strictly with an absence of de novo methylation in cancer. In addition, global evidence showed that binding of any of these TFs to their consensus motif depended on their co-occurrence with neighboring consensus motifs. In summary, our results had two major implications. First, they pointed to a major role for cooperative binding of TFs in maintaining the unmethylated status of CpG islands in health and disease. Second, our results suggest that the majority of de novo methylated CpG islands are characterized by the lack of sequence motif combinations and the absence of activating TF binding.
Methylome-wide association study of first-episode schizophrenia reveals a hypermethylated CpG site in the promoter region of the TNIK susceptibility gene.
Nie Fa-Yi,Zhang Miao-Ran,Shang Shan-Shan,Zhang Qiao-Xia,Zhang Rui,Chen Peng,Ma Jie
Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry
Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetics plays an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Here, we performed a methylome-wide association study (MWAS) of first-onset schizophrenia patients and controls from the Han Chinese population using microarray technology. The DNA methylation profiles revealed 4494 differentially methylated CpG sites. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the functions of differentially methylated genes were primarily involved in enzymatic activity, cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion, and the TNIK (encoding TRAF2- and NCK-interacting kinase) gene was enriched in most of these terms. By combining the MWAS results with those of previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we identified 72 candidate genes located in 49 human genome loci. Among the overlapping genes, the most significantly methylated CpG sites were in the transcriptional start site (TSS) 200 region (cg21413905, P = 3.20 × 10) of TNIK. TNIK was listed in the top 50 differentially methylated loci. The results of pyrosequencing and TNIK mRNA expression were consistent with those of the microarray study. Bioinformatics analyses, dual-luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies showed that TNIK interacted with genes associated with schizophrenia and NRF1 was identified as a novel transcription factor (TF) that binds to TNIK in its TSS200 region. Thus, the regulatory function of NRF1 may be influenced by the status of the methylated CpG site in this region. In summary, our study provides new insights into the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate schizophrenia. Studies of the functions of TNIK methylation should be performed in vitro and in vivo to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Insights from multidimensional analyses of the pan-cancer DNA methylome heterogeneity and the uncanonical CpG-gene associations.
Liu Yang,Huang Rongyao,Liu Yu,Song Wanlu,Wang Yuting,Yang Yang,Dong Shengcheng,Yang Xuerui
International journal of cancer
Although the DNA methylome profiles have been available in large cancer cohorts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), integrative analysis of the DNA methylome architectures in a pan-cancer manner remains limited. In the present study, we aimed to systematically dissect the insightful features related to the inter-tumoral DNA methylome heterogeneity in a pan-cancer context of 21 cancers in TCGA. First, pan-cancer clustering of the DNA methylomes revealed convergence of cancers and, meanwhile, new classifications of cancer subtypes, which are often associated to prognostic differences. Next, within each type of cancer, we showed that the transcription factor (TF) genes tend to bear more dynamic promoter DNA methylation profiles than the other genes, which serves as a potential source of the transcriptome heterogeneity in cancers. Finally, we found unanticipated significant numbers of the non-canonical promoter CpG sites that are positively correlated with the gene expression. Distribution patterns of these CpG sites in the CpG islands, ChIP-seq, DNaseI-seq, PMD regions and histone modification landscapes suggested against a pervasive mechanism of transcriptional activation due to mCpG-dependent binding of TFs, which is not in complete agreement with previous hypothesis. In summary, our deep mining of the highly heterogeneous DNA methylome data in a pan-cancer context generated novel insights into the architecture of cancer epigenetics and provided a series of resources for further investigations in the related fields of cancer genomics and epigenetics.
CpG traffic lights are markers of regulatory regions in human genome.
Lioznova Anna V,Khamis Abdullah M,Artemov Artem V,Besedina Elizaveta,Ramensky Vasily,Bajic Vladimir B,Kulakovskiy Ivan V,Medvedeva Yulia A
BACKGROUND:DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression. Although bisulfite-sequencing based methods profile DNA methylation at a single CpG resolution, methylation levels are usually averaged over genomic regions in the downstream bioinformatic analysis. RESULTS:We demonstrate that on the genome level a single CpG methylation can serve as a more accurate predictor of gene expression than an average promoter / gene body methylation. We define CpG traffic lights (CpG TL) as CpG dinucleotides with a significant correlation between methylation and expression of a gene nearby. CpG TL are enriched in all regulatory regions. Among all promoters, CpG TL are especially enriched in poised ones, suggesting involvement of DNA methylation in their regulation. Yet, binding of only a handful of transcription factors, such as NRF1, ETS, STAT and IRF-family members, could be regulated by direct methylation of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) or its close proximity. For the majority of TF, an alternative scenario is more likely: methylation and inactivation of the whole regulatory element indirectly represses functional TF binding with a CpG TL being a reliable marker of such inactivation. CONCLUSIONS:CpG TL provide a promising insight into mechanisms of enhancer activity and gene regulation linking methylation of single CpG to gene expression. CpG TL methylation can be used as reliable markers of enhancer activity and gene expression in applications, e.g. in clinic where measuring DNA methylation is easier compared to directly measuring gene expression due to more stable nature of DNA.
Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of leukocytes identifies CpG methylation signatures of aggressive prostate cancer.
Han Yuyan,Zhang Mutian,Xu Junfeng,Li Jia,Xu Yifan,Thompson Timothy C,Logothetis Christopher J,Sun Deqiang,Gu Jian
American journal of cancer research
Most of screening-detected prostate cancer (PCa) are indolent and not lethal. Biomarkers that can predict aggressive diseases independently of clinical features are needed to improve risk stratification of localized PCa patients and reduce overtreatment. We aimed to identify leukocyte DNA methylation differences between clinically defined aggressive and non-aggressive PCa. We performed whole genome DNA methylation profiling in leukocyte DNA from 287 PCa patients with Gleason Score (GS) 6 and ≥8 using Illumina 450k methylation arrays. We observed a global hypomethylation in GS≥8 patients compared to GS=6 PCa patients; in contrast, the methylation level in core promoter and exon 1 region was significantly higher in GS≥8 patients than GS=6 PCa. We then performed 5-fold cross validated random forest model training on 1,459 differentially methylated CpG Probes (DMPs) with false discovery rate (FDR) <0.01 between GS=6 and GS≥8 groups. The power of the predictive model was further reinforced by ranking the DMPs with Decreased Gini and re-train the model with the top 97 DMPs (Testing AUC=0.920, predict accuracy =0.847). In conclusion, we identified a CpG methylation signature in leukocyte DNA that is associated with aggressive clinical features of PCa at diagnosis.
Hypomethylation at non-CpG/CpG sites in the promoter of HIF-1α gene combined with enhanced H3K9Ac modification contribute to maintain higher HIF-1α expression in breast cancer.
Li Chun,Xiong Wei,Liu Xiong,Xiao Wenjun,Guo Yuxian,Tan Junyu,Li Yaochen
HIF-1α has a broad impact on tumors, including enhanced utilization of glucose, tumor cell stemness, migration, metastasis and so on. In pilot study, we found that the expression of HIF-1α significantly increased in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples with higher malignant behaviors and decreased in luminal subtype breast cancer cells and tissue samples. We analyzed and found there is one large CpG island in HIF-1α promoter around transcription start site, and the hypermethylation occurred at these CpGs and their surrounding non-CpGs sites. Epigenetic events driving tumorigenesis has been characterized. However, knowledge is lacking on the non-CpGs methylation of HIF-1α promoter in breast cancer cells. We validated that non-CpGs methylation can directly regulate HIF-1α expression by luciferase activity assay. We also found DNMT3a and Mecp2 play vital role in methylation at non-CpGs and CpGs sites. In addition, we noticed that H3K9ac modification could promote the transcription of HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells by binding to the region contained hypomethylated non-CpG and CpG sites. Taken together, the hypomethylation status at non-CpG and CpG loci in HIF-1α promoter and H3K9ac modification together contribute to maintain higher HIF-1αactivity in invasive breast cancer cells when compared with the non-invasive breast cancer cells, which may establish a tissue-specific epigenetic modification pattern and point to the new directions for future understanding breast cancer therapy.
Development and validation of a novel 15-CpG-based signature for predicting prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.
Peng Yang,Shui Lin,Xie Jian,Liu Shengchun
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
DNA methylation is an important biological regulatory mechanism that changes gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Increasing studies have revealed that DNA methylation data play a vital role in the field of oncology. However, the methylation site signature in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains unknown. In our research, we analysed 158 TNBC samples and 98 noncancerous samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in three phases. In the discovery phase, 86 CpGs were identified by univariate Cox proportional hazards regression (CPHR) analyses to be significantly correlated with overall survival (P < 0.01). In the training phase, these candidate CpGs were further narrowed down to a 15-CpG-based signature by conducting least absolute shrinkage and selector operator (LASSO) Cox regression in the training set. In the validation phase, the 15-CpG-based signature was verified using two different internal sets and one external validation set. Furthermore, a nomogram comprising the CpG-based signature and TNM stage was generated to predict the 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival in the primary set, and it showed excellent performance in the three validation sets (concordance indexes: 0.924, 0.974 and 0.637). This study showed that our nomogram has a precise predictive effect on the prognosis of TNBC and can potentially be implemented for clinical treatment and diagnosis.
Can CpG methylation serve as surrogate markers for immune infiltration in cancer?
Bacolod Manny D,Barany Francis,Fisher Paul B
Advances in cancer research
Recent reports describe how genome-wide transcriptional analysis of cancer tissues can be exploited to identify molecular signatures of immune infiltration in cancer. We hypothesize that immune infiltration in cancer may also be defined by changes in certain epigenetic signatures. In this context, a primary objective is to identify site-specific CpG markers whose levels of methylation may be highly indicative of known transcriptional markers of immune infiltration such as GZMA, PRF1, T cell receptor genes, PDCD1, and CTLA4. This has been accomplished by integrating genome-wide transcriptional expression and methylation data for different types of cancer (melanoma, kidney cancers, lung cancers, gliomas, head and neck cancer). Our findings establish that cancers of related histology also have a high degree of similarity in immune-infiltration CpG markers. For example, the epigenetic immune infiltration signatures in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), mesothelioma (MESO), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) are distinctly similar. So are glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and brain lower grade glioma (LGG); and kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP) and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). Kidney chromophobe (KICH), on the other hand has markers that are unique to this cohort. The strong relationships between immune infiltration and CpG methylation (for certain sites) in cancer tissues were not observed upon integrated analysis of publicly available cancer cell line datasets. Results from comparative pathways analyses offer further justification to methylation at certain CpG sites as being indicators of cancer immune infiltration, and possibly of predicting patient response to immunotherapeutic drugs. Achieving this target objective would significantly enhance therapeutic outcomes employing immunotherapy through focused patient-centric personalized medicine.
CpG methylation signature predicts prognosis in breast cancer.
Du Tonghua,Liu Bin,Wang Zhenyu,Wan Xiaoyu,Wu Yuanyu
Breast cancer research and treatment
PURPOSE:DNA methylation can be used as prognostic biomarkers in various types of cancers. We aimed to identify a CpG methylation pattern for breast cancer. METHODS:In this study, using the microarray data from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and gene expression omnibus (GEO), we profiled DNA methylation between 97 healthy control samples and 786 breast cancer samples in a training cohort (from TCGA, n = 883) to build a gene classifier using a penalized regression model. We validated the prognostic accuracy of this gene classifier in an internal validation cohort (from GEO, n = 72). RESULTS:A total of 1777 differentially methylated CpGs corresponding to 1777 different methylated genes (DMGs) between breast cancer and control were chosen for this study. Subsequently, 16 CpGs were generated to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 4.674; 95% CI 2.918 to 7.487; P = 1.678e-12) than patients with low-risk scores. The prognostic accuracy was also validated in the validation cohorts. Furthermore, among patients with low-risk scores in the combined training and validation cohorts, the patients with the age > 60 years compared with the patients with the age < 60 years were associated with improved overall survival (HR 2.088, 95% CI 1.348 to 3.235; p = 7.575e-04) in patients with a high-risk score but not in patients with low-risk score (HR 1.246, 95% CI 0.515 to 3.011; p = 0.625). The patients treated with radiotherapy compared with the patients without radiotherapy were associated with improved overall survival (HR 0.418, 95% CI 0.249 to 0.703; p = 6.991e-04) in patients with a high-risk score but not in patients with low-risk score (HR 2.092, 95% CI 0.574 to 7.629; p = 0.253). For the patients with recurrence and the patients without recurrence both groups were all associated with improved overall survival (HR 7.475, 95% CI 4.333 to 12.901; p = 6.991e-04) in patients with a high-risk score and in patients with low-risk score (HR 14.33, 95% CI 4.265 to 48.17; p = 4.883e-13). CONCLUSION:The 16 CpG-based signature is useful as a biomarker in predicting prognosis for patients with breast cancer.
A Novel Promoter CpG-Based Signature for Long-Term Survival Prediction of Breast Cancer Patients.
Guo Yang,Mao Xiaoyun,Qiao Zhen,Chen Bo,Jin Feng
Frontiers in oncology
DNA methylation has been reported as one of the most critical epigenetic aberrations during the tumorigenesis and development of breast cancer (BC). This study explored a novel promoter CpG-based signature for long-term survival prediction of BC patients. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data as training set, and results were validated in an independent dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). First, the differential methylation CpG sites were screened in TCGA dataset, of which the candidate promoter CpG sites were preliminarily identified with the univariate Cox regression analysis and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis. Second, the signature was constructed with stepwise regression analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, which was validated with the survival analysis of two cohorts each from TCGA and GEO databases. The 10-year receiver operating characteristic curves of risk score presented an area under the curve of over 0.7 for both cohorts. A nomogram was also constructed and released. Moreover, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed to identify the more active pathways in high-risk patients. The CpG sites-target gene correlations and differential methylation regions were further explored. In conclusion, the promoter CpG-based signature exhibited good prognostic prediction efficacy in the long-term overall survival of BC patients.
The frequency of CpG and non-CpG methylation of Notch3 gene promoter determines its expression levels in breast cancer cells.
Xiao Wenjun,Liu Xiong,Niu Xia,Li Chun,Guo Yuxian,Tan Junyu,Xiong Wei,Fan Liping,Li Yaochen
Experimental cell research
Notch3 can act as a tumor suppressor in the breast cancer epithelial cells. Unfortunately, Notch3 expression is decreased or lost, especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, and the reasons remain unclear. Here, we found Notch3 was upregulated in MDA-MB-231 cells with 5-Aza treatment. Two CpG islands were observed in notch3 promoter. Interestingly, bisulfite sequencing exhibited that large amounts of unconverted cytosines were not only followed by guanine, but also adenine, cytosine and thymine, which implied that there simultaneously existed CpG and non-CpG methylation in notch3 promoter. To better analyze the methylation frequency of non-CpG locus, we designed CpG/non-CpG methylation analysis software. The results showed that the methylation frequency of notch3 gene in different breast cancer cell lines was in order T47D, MCF-7, SKBR3, BT-549 and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, we identified that DNMT3b, DNMT1, DNMT3L, Mecp2 and EZH2 were important regulators of non-CpG locus of notch3 gene. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a negative correlation between EZH2 and Notch3 from 22 luminal and 26 TNBC cases. In vitro methylation combined luciferase activity assays showed that non-CpG methylation was still crucial cause leading to notch3 transcriptional repression in TNBC. Our findings provide possible explanation for the downregulation or loss of Notch3 expression in TNBC.
Advances in CpG Island Methylator Phenotype Colorectal Cancer Therapies.
Zhang Xiaofei,Zhang Wenjun,Cao Pingan
Frontiers in oncology
With the aging of the population, the incidence of colorectal cancer in China is increasing. One of the epigenetic alterations: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) plays an important role in the incidence of colorectal cancer. Recent studies have shown that CIMP is closely related to some specific clinicopathological phenotypes and multiple molecular phenotypes in colorectal cancer. In this paper, the newest progress of CIMP colorectal cancer in chemotherapeutic drugs, targeted agents and small molecular methylation inhibitors are going to be introduced. We hope to provide potential clinical treatment strategies for personalized and precise treatment of colorectal cancer patients.
Epigenetic regulation of pluripotency and differentiation.
Boland Michael J,Nazor Kristopher L,Loring Jeanne F
The precise, temporal order of gene expression during development is critical to ensure proper lineage commitment, cell fate determination, and ultimately, organogenesis. Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is fundamental to the activation or repression of genes during embryonic development. In recent years, there has been an explosion of research relating to various modes of epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation, post-translational histone tail modifications, noncoding RNA control of chromatin structure, and nucleosome remodeling. Technological advances in genome-wide epigenetic profiling and pluripotent stem cell differentiation have been primary drivers for elucidating the epigenetic control of cellular identity during development and nuclear reprogramming. Not only do epigenetic mechanisms regulate transcriptional states in a cell-type-specific manner but also they establish higher order genomic topology and nuclear architecture. Here, we review the epigenetic control of pluripotency and changes associated with pluripotent stem cell differentiation. We focus on DNA methylation, DNA demethylation, and common histone tail modifications. Finally, we briefly discuss epigenetic heterogeneity among pluripotent stem cell lines and the influence of epigenetic patterns on genome topology.
Function and information content of DNA methylation.
Cytosine methylation is a DNA modification generally associated with transcriptional silencing. Factors that regulate methylation have been linked to human disease, yet how they contribute to malignances remains largely unknown. Genomic maps of DNA methylation have revealed unexpected dynamics at gene regulatory regions, including active demethylation by TET proteins at binding sites for transcription factors. These observations indicate that the underlying DNA sequence largely accounts for local patterns of methylation. As a result, this mark is highly informative when studying gene regulation in normal and diseased cells, and it can potentially function as a biomarker. Although these findings challenge the view that methylation is generally instructive for gene silencing, several open questions remain, including how methylation is targeted and recognized and in what context it affects genome readout.
New concepts in DNA methylation.
Jeltsch Albert,Jurkowska Renata Z
Trends in biochemical sciences
The widely-cited model of maintenance of DNA methylation at CpG sites implies that DNA methylation is introduced by the Dnmt3 de novo DNA methyltransferases during early development, and methylation at hemimethylated CpG sites is specifically maintained by the Dnmt1 maintenance methyltransferase. However, substantial experimental evidence from the past decade indicates that this simple model needs to be revised. DNA methylation can be described by a dynamic stochastic model, in which DNA methylation at each site is determined by the local activity of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts), DNA demethylases, and the DNA replication rate. Through the targeting and regulation of these enzymes, DNA methylation is controlled by the network of chromatin marks.
The role of ABCA7 in Alzheimer's disease: evidence from genomics, transcriptomics and methylomics.
De Roeck Arne,Van Broeckhoven Christine,Sleegers Kristel
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) originally identified ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 7 (ABCA7), as a novel risk gene of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since then, accumulating evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and human-based studies has corroborated and extended this association, promoting ABCA7 as one of the most important risk genes of both early-onset and late-onset AD, harboring both common and rare risk variants with relatively large effect on AD risk. Within this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the literature on ABCA7, with a focus on AD-related human -omics studies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, and methylomics). In European and African American populations, indirect ABCA7 GWAS associations are explained by expansion of an ABCA7 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), and a common premature termination codon (PTC) variant, respectively. Rare ABCA7 PTC variants are strongly enriched in AD patients, and some of these have displayed inheritance patterns resembling autosomal dominant AD. In addition, rare missense variants are more frequent in AD patients than healthy controls, whereas a common ABCA7 missense variant may protect from disease. Methylation at several CpG sites in the ABCA7 locus is significantly associated with AD. Furthermore, ABCA7 contains many different isoforms and ABCA7 splicing has been shown to associate with AD. Besides associations with disease status, these genetic and epigenetic ABCA7 markers also showed significant correlations with AD endophenotypes; in particular amyloid deposition and brain morphology. In conclusion, human-based -omics studies provide converging evidence of (partial) ABCA7 loss as an AD pathomechanism, and future studies should make clear if interventions on ABCA7 expression can serve as a valuable therapeutic target for AD.
Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation.
Zhu Heng,Wang Guohua,Qian Jiang
Nature reviews. Genetics
Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease.
Prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype among colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Juo Y Y,Johnston F M,Zhang D Y,Juo H H,Wang H,Pappou E P,Yu T,Easwaran H,Baylin S,van Engeland M,Ahuja N
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
BACKGROUND:Divergent findings regarding the prognostic value of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients exist in current literature. We aim to review data from published studies in order to examine the association between CIMP and CRC prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A comprehensive search for studies reporting disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), or cancer-specific mortality of CRC patients stratified by CIMP is carried out. Study findings are summarized descriptively and quantitatively, using adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) as summary statistics. RESULTS:Thirty-three studies reporting survival in 10 635 patients are included for review. Nineteen studies provide data suitable for meta-analysis. The definition of CIMP regarding gene panel, marker threshold, and laboratory method varies across studies. Pooled analysis shows that CIMP is significantly associated with shorter DFS (pooled HR estimate 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.97, Q = 3.95, I(2) = 0%) and OS (pooled HR estimate 1.43; 95% CI 1.18-1.73, Q = 4.03, I(2) = 0%) among CRC patients irrespective of microsatellite instability (MSI) status. Subgroup analysis of microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC patients also shows significant association between shorter OS (pooled HR estimate 1.37; 95% CI 1.12-1.68, Q = 4.45, I(2) = 33%) and CIMP. Seven studies have explored CIMP's value as a predictive factor on stage II and III CRC patient's DFS after receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy: of these, four studies showed that adjuvant chemotherapy conferred a DFS benefit among CIMP(+) patients, one concluded to the contrary, and two found no significant correlation. Insufficient data was present for statistical synthesis of CIMP's predictive value among CRC patients receiving adjuvant 5-FU therapy. CONCLUSION:CIMP is independently associated with significantly worse prognosis in CRC patients. However, CIMP's value as a predictive factor in assessing whether adjuvant 5-FU therapy will confer additional survival benefit to CRC patients remained to be determined through future prospective randomized studies.
A distinct region of the MGMT CpG island critical for transcriptional regulation is preferentially methylated in glioblastoma cells and xenografts.
Malley Deborah S,Hamoudi Rifat A,Kocialkowski Sylvia,Pearson Danita M,Collins Vincent Peter,Ichimura Koichi
O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein that removes alkyl DNA adducts such as those induced by alkylating agents. Loss of MGMT expression through transcriptional silencing by hypermethylation of its CpG island (CGI) is found in diverse human cancers including glioblastomas. Glioblastomas that have MGMT methylation respond to temozolomide, an alkylating agent, resulting in improved survival. Consequently, assessment of MGMT methylation has become a therapy response and prognostic indicator. However, it is not clear whether the region of the MGMT CGI commonly analysed is the critical region involved in transcriptional control. We measured methylation levels at each CpG site for the entire MGMT CGI using bisulfite modification and pyrosequencing, and compared them with MGMT mRNA expression in glioblastoma cell lines, xenografts and normal brain tissues (41 samples). Two critical regions were identified (DMR1 and DMR2). DMR2 encompasses the commonly analysed region and was always methylated when DMR1 was methylated. A luciferase reporter assay showed that substitutions of several specific CpG sites within DMR2 significantly attenuated the promoter activity of the MGMT CGI. Our results indicate that several CpG sites within DMR2 play a critical role in the transcriptional control of MGMT, making DMR2 the optimal target for methylation testing. However, given the highly variable patterns of MGMT methylation associated with transcriptional silencing observed in this region among the tumours in this study, methylation levels need to be measured at a number of individual CpGs within DMR2 to confidently predict transcriptional silencing and thus sensitivity to alkylating agents.
MGMT promoter methylation is prognostic but not predictive for outcome to adjuvant PCV chemotherapy in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors: a report from EORTC Brain Tumor Group Study 26951.
van den Bent Martin J,Dubbink Hendrikus J,Sanson Marc,van der Lee-Haarloo Cathleen R,Hegi Monika,Jeuken Judith W M,Ibdaih Ahmed,Brandes Alba A,Taphoorn Martin J B,Frenay Marc,Lacombe Denis,Gorlia Thierry,Dinjens Winand N M,Kros Johan M
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
PURPOSE:O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation has been shown to predict survival of patients with glioblastomas if temozolomide is added to radiotherapy (RT). It is unknown if MGMT promoter methylation is also predictive to outcome to RT followed by adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors (AOT). PATIENTS AND METHODS:In the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer study 26951, 368 patients with AOT were randomly assigned to either RT alone or to RT followed by adjuvant PCV. From 165 patients of this study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was available for MGMT promoter methylation analysis. This was investigated with methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS:In 152 cases, an MGMT result was obtained, in 121 (80%) cases MGMT promoter methylation was observed. Methylation strongly correlated with combined loss of chromosome 1p and 19q loss (P = .00043). In multivariate analysis, MGMT promoter methylation, 1p/19q codeletion, tumor necrosis, and extent of resection were independent prognostic factors. The prognostic significance of MGMT promoter methylation was equally strong in the RT arm and the RT/PCV arm for both progression-free survival and overall survival. In tumors diagnosed at central pathology review as glioblastoma, no prognostic effect of MGMT promoter methylation was observed. CONCLUSION:In this study, on patients with AOT MGMT promoter methylation was of prognostic significance and did not have predictive significance for outcome to adjuvant PCV chemotherapy. The biologic effect of MGMT promoter methylation or pathogenetic features associated with MGMT promoter methylation may be different for AOT compared with glioblastoma.
Chromatin dysregulation and DNA methylation at transcription start sites associated with transcriptional repression in cancers.
Ando Mizuo,Saito Yuki,Xu Guorong,Bui Nam Q,Medetgul-Ernar Kate,Pu Minya,Fisch Kathleen,Ren Shuling,Sakai Akihiro,Fukusumi Takahito,Liu Chao,Haft Sunny,Pang John,Mark Adam,Gaykalova Daria A,Guo Theresa,Favorov Alexander V,Yegnasubramanian Srinivasan,Fertig Elana J,Ha Patrick,Tamayo Pablo,Yamasoba Tatsuya,Ideker Trey,Messer Karen,Califano Joseph A
Although promoter-associated CpG islands have been established as targets of DNA methylation changes in cancer, previous studies suggest that epigenetic dysregulation outside the promoter region may be more closely associated with transcriptional changes. Here we examine DNA methylation, chromatin marks, and transcriptional alterations to define the relationship between transcriptional modulation and spatial changes in chromatin structure. Using human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma as a model, we show aberrant enrichment of repressive H3K9me3 at the transcriptional start site (TSS) with methylation-associated, tumor-specific gene silencing. Further analysis identifies a hypermethylated subtype which shows a functional convergence on MYC targets and association with CREBBP/EP300 mutation. The tumor-specific shift to transcriptional repression associated with DNA methylation at TSSs was confirmed in multiple tumor types. Our data may show a common underlying epigenetic dysregulation in cancer associated with broad enrichment of repressive chromatin marks and aberrant DNA hypermethylation at TSSs in combination with MYC network activation.
Global alterations of DNA methylation in cholangiocarcinoma target the Wnt signaling pathway.
Goeppert Benjamin,Konermann Carolin,Schmidt Christopher Roman,Bogatyrova Olga,Geiselhart Lea,Ernst Christina,Gu Lei,Becker Natalia,Zucknick Manuela,Mehrabi Arianeb,Hafezi Mohammadreza,Klauschen Frederick,Stenzinger Albrecht,Warth Arne,Breuhahn Kai,Renner Marcus,Weichert Wilko,Schirmacher Peter,Plass Christoph,Weichenhan Dieter
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
UNLABELLED:The molecular mechanisms underlying the genesis of cholangiocarcinomas (CCs) are poorly understood. Epigenetic changes such as aberrant hypermethylation and subsequent atypical gene expression are characteristic features of most human cancers. In CC, data regarding global methylation changes are lacking so far. We performed a genome-wide analysis for aberrant promoter methylation in human CCs. We profiled 10 intrahepatic and 8 extrahepatic CCs in comparison to non-neoplastic biliary tissue specimens, using methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation (MCIp) combined with whole-genome CpG island arrays. DNA methylation was confirmed by quantitative mass spectrometric analysis and functional relevance of promoter hypermethylation was shown in demethylation experiments of two CC cell lines using 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays (TMAs) from 223 biliary tract cancers (BTCs) was used to analyze candidate gene expression at the protein level. Differentially methylated, promoter-associated regions were nonrandomly distributed and enriched for genes involved in cancer-related pathways including Wnt, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and PI3K signaling pathways. In CC cell lines, silencing of genes involved in Wnt signaling, such as SOX17, WNT3A, DKK2, SFRP1, SFRP2, and SFRP4 was reversed after DAC administration. Candidate protein SFRP2 was substantially down-regulated in neoplastic tissues of all BTC subtypes as compared to normal tissues. A significant inverse correlation of SFRP2 protein expression and pT status was found in BTC patients. CONCLUSION:We provide a comprehensive analysis to define the genome-wide methylation landscape of human CC. Several candidate genes of cancer-relevant signaling pathways were identified, and closer analysis of selected Wnt pathway genes confirmed the relevance of this pathway in CC. The presented global methylation data are the basis for future studies on epigenetic changes in cholangiocarcinogenesis.
Validation of SCT Methylation as a Hallmark Biomarker for Lung Cancers.
Zhang Yu-An,Ma Xiaotu,Sathe Adwait,Fujimoto Junya,Wistuba Ignacio,Lam Stephen,Yatabe Yasushi,Wang Yi-Wei,Stastny Victor,Gao Boning,Larsen Jill E,Girard Luc,Liu Xiaoyun,Song Kai,Behrens Carmen,Kalhor Neda,Xie Yang,Zhang Michael Q,Minna John D,Gazdar Adi F
Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
INTRODUCTION:The human secretin gene (SCT) encodes secretin, a hormone with limited tissue distribution. Analysis of the 450k methylation array data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) indicated that the SCT promoter region is differentially hypermethylated in lung cancer. Our purpose was to validate SCT methylation as a potential biomarker for lung cancer. METHODS:We analyzed data from TCGA and developed and applied SCT-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. RESULTS:The analyses of TCGA 450K data for 801 samples showed that SCT hypermethylation has an area under the curve (AUC) value greater than 0.98 that can be used to distinguish lung adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas from nonmalignant lung tissue. Bisulfite sequencing of lung cancer cell lines and normal blood cells allowed us to confirm that SCT methylation is highly discriminative. By applying a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that SCT hypermethylation is frequently detected in all major subtypes of malignant non-small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.92, n = 108) and small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.93, n = 40) but is less frequent in lung carcinoids (AUC = 0.54, n = 20). SCT hypermethylation appeared in samples of lung carcinoma in situ during multistage pathogenesis and increased in invasive samples. Further analyses of TCGA 450k data showed that SCT hypermethylation is highly discriminative in most other types of malignant tumors but less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors. The only normal tissue with a high level of methylation was the placenta. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrated that SCT methylation is a highly discriminative biomarker for lung and other malignant tumors, is less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors (including lung carcinoids), and appears at the carcinoma in situ stage.
Methylation of the TERT promoter and risk stratification of childhood brain tumours: an integrative genomic and molecular study.
Castelo-Branco Pedro,Choufani Sanaa,Mack Stephen,Gallagher Denis,Zhang Cindy,Lipman Tatiana,Zhukova Nataliya,Walker Erin J,Martin Dianna,Merino Diana,Wasserman Jonathan D,Elizabeth Cynthia,Alon Noa,Zhang Libo,Hovestadt Volker,Kool Marcel,Jones David T W,Zadeh Gelareh,Croul Sidney,Hawkins Cynthia,Hitzler Johann,Wang Jean C Y,Baruchel Sylvain,Dirks Peter B,Malkin David,Pfister Stefan,Taylor Michael D,Weksberg Rosanna,Tabori Uri
The Lancet. Oncology
BACKGROUND:Identification of robust biomarkers of malignancy and methods to establish disease progression is a major goal in paediatric neuro-oncology. We investigated whether methylation of the TERT promoter can be a biomarker for malignancy and patient outcome in paediatric brain tumours. METHODS:For the discovery cohort, we used samples obtained from patients with paediatric brain tumours and individuals with normal brain tissues stored at the German Cancer Research Center (Heidelberg, Germany). We used methylation arrays for genome-wide assessment of DNA. For the validation cohort, we used samples obtained from several tissues for which full clinical and follow-up data were available from two hospitals in Toronto (ON, Canada). We did methylation analysis using quantitative Sequenom and pyrosequencing of an identified region of the TERT promoter. We assessed TERT expression by real-time PCR. To establish whether the biomarker could be used to assess and predict progression, we analysed methylation in paired samples of tumours that transformed from low to high grade and from localised to metastatic, and in choroid plexus tumours of different grades. Finally, we investigated overall survival in patients with posterior fossa ependymomas in which the identified region was hypermethylated or not. All individuals responsible for assays were masked to the outcome of the patients. FINDINGS:Analysis of 280 samples in the discovery cohort identified one CpG site (cg11625005) in which 78 (99%) of 79 samples from normal brain tissues and low-grade tumours were not hypermethylated, but 145 (72%) of 201 samples from malignant tumours were hypermethylated (>15% methylated; p<0.0001). Analysis of 68 samples in the validation cohort identified a subset of five CpG sites (henceforth, upstream of the transcription start site [UTSS]) that was hypermethylated in all malignant paediatric brain tumours that expressed TERT but not in normal tissues that did not express TERT (p<0.0001). UTSS had a positive predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 0.95-1.00) and a negative predictive value of 0.95 (0.87-0.99). In two paired samples of paediatric gliomas, UTSS methylation increased during transformation from low to high grade; it also increased in two paired samples that progressed from localised to metastatic disease. Two of eight atypical papillomas that had high UTSS methylation progressed to carcinomas, while the other six assessed did not progress or require additional treatment. 5-year overall survival was 51% (95% CI 31-71) for 25 patients with hypermethylated UTSS posterior fossa ependymomas and 95% (86-100) for 20 with non-hypermethylated tumours (p=0.0008). 5-year progression-free survival was 86% (68-100) for the 25 patients with non-hypermethylated UTSS tumours and 30% (10-50) for those with hypermethylated tumours (p=0.0008). INTERPRETATION:Hypermethylation of the UTSS region in the TERT promoter is associated with TERT expression in cancers. In paediatric brain tumours, UTSS hypermethylation is associated with tumour progression and poor prognosis. This region is easy to amplify, and the assay to establish hypermethylation can be done on most tissues in most clinical laboratories. Therefore the UTSS region is a potentially accessible biomarker for various cancers. FUNDING:The Canadian Institute of Health Research and the Terry Fox Foundation.
MGMT methylation analysis of glioblastoma on the Infinium methylation BeadChip identifies two distinct CpG regions associated with gene silencing and outcome, yielding a prediction model for comparisons across datasets, tumor grades, and CIMP-status.
Bady Pierre,Sciuscio Davide,Diserens Annie-Claire,Bloch Jocelyne,van den Bent Martin J,Marosi Christine,Dietrich Pierre-Yves,Weller Michael,Mariani Luigi,Heppner Frank L,Mcdonald David R,Lacombe Denis,Stupp Roger,Delorenzi Mauro,Hegi Monika E
The methylation status of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene is an important predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent therapy in glioblastoma. Recent studies in anaplastic glioma suggest a prognostic value for MGMT methylation. Investigation of pathogenetic and epigenetic features of this intriguingly distinct behavior requires accurate MGMT classification to assess high throughput molecular databases. Promoter methylation-mediated gene silencing is strongly dependent on the location of the methylated CpGs, complicating classification. Using the HumanMethylation450 (HM-450K) BeadChip interrogating 176 CpGs annotated for the MGMT gene, with 14 located in the promoter, two distinct regions in the CpG island of the promoter were identified with high importance for gene silencing and outcome prediction. A logistic regression model (MGMT-STP27) comprising probes cg12434587 [corrected] and cg12981137 provided good classification properties and prognostic value (kappa = 0.85; log-rank p < 0.001) using a training-set of 63 glioblastomas from homogenously treated patients, for whom MGMT methylation was previously shown to be predictive for outcome based on classification by methylation-specific PCR. MGMT-STP27 was successfully validated in an independent cohort of chemo-radiotherapy-treated glioblastoma patients (n = 50; kappa = 0.88; outcome, log-rank p < 0.001). Lower prevalence of MGMT methylation among CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positive tumors was found in glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas than in low grade and anaplastic glioma cohorts, while in CIMP-negative gliomas MGMT was classified as methylated in approximately 50 % regardless of tumor grade. The proposed MGMT-STP27 prediction model allows mining of datasets derived on the HM-450K or HM-27K BeadChip to explore effects of distinct epigenetic context of MGMT methylation suspected to modulate treatment resistance in different tumor types.
DNA Methylation Patterns Separate Senescence from Transformation Potential and Indicate Cancer Risk.
Xie Wenbing,Kagiampakis Ioannis,Pan Lixia,Zhang Yang W,Murphy Lauren,Tao Yong,Kong Xiangqian,Kang Byunghak,Xia Limin,Carvalho Filipe L F,Sen Subhojit,Chiu Yen Ray-Whay,Zahnow Cynthia A,Ahuja Nita,Baylin Stephen B,Easwaran Hariharan
Overall shared DNA methylation patterns between senescence (Sen) and cancers have led to the model that tumor-promoting epigenetic patterns arise through senescence. We show that transformation-associated methylation changes arise stochastically and independently of programmatic changes during senescence. Promoter hypermethylation events in transformation involve primarily pro-survival and developmental genes, similarly modified in primary tumors. Senescence-associated hypermethylation mainly involves metabolic regulators and appears early in proliferating "near-senescent" cells, which can be immortalized but are refractory to transformation. Importantly, a subset of transformation-associated hypermethylated developmental genes exhibits highest methylation gains at all age-associated cancer risk states across tissue types. These epigenetic changes favoring cell self-renewal and survival, arising during tissue aging, are fundamentally important for stratifying cancer risk and concepts for cancer prevention.
CpG-SNP site methylation regulates allele-specific expression of MTHFD1 gene in type 2 diabetes.
Vohra Manik,Adhikari Prabha,Souza Sydney C D',Nagri Shivashankar K,Umakanth Shashikiran,Satyamoorthy Kapaettu,Rai Padmalatha S
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
The interaction of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms is one of the underlying causes of phenotypic variability in complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the influence of genetic and epigenetic changes in T2D, we examined the effect of methylation of CpG-SNP sites on allele-specific expression (ASE) in one-carbon metabolism pathway genes in T2D. Case-control study was conducted on 860 individuals (430 T2D and 430 controls). CpG-SNPs shortlisted through in silico analysis were genotyped using tetra ARMS PCR and validated using Sanger DNA sequencing. Global DNA methylation was carried out using RP-HPLC. Promoter DNA methylation and CpG site-specific methylation were carried out using bisulfite sequencing. mRNA expression and ASE were examined by SYBR green and TaqMan assay, respectively. Four exonic CpG-SNPs of MTHFD1, MTRR, and GGH genes were identified in folate pathway genes. Among these, MTHFD1 rs2236225 showed significant association with T2D independent of obesity, displayed ASE, and correlated with CpG-SNP site-specific methylation when compared with controls. Our results demonstrate that SNP rs2236225 in the CpG site of MTHFD1, which regulates allele-specific gene expression in PBMCs is methylation dependent and may perturb one-carbon metabolism pathway in T2D subjects.
Epigenetic-smoking interaction reveals histologically heterogeneous effects of TRIM27 DNA methylation on overall survival among early-stage NSCLC patients.
Ji Xinyu,Lin Lijuan,Shen Sipeng,Dong Xuesi,Chen Chao,Li Yi,Zhu Ying,Huang Hui,Chen Jiajin,Chen Xin,Wei Liangmin,He Jieyu,Duan Weiwei,Su Li,Jiang Yue,Fan Juanjuan,Guan Jinxing,You Dongfang,Shafer Andrea,Bjaanaes Maria Moksnes,Karlsson Anna,Planck Maria,Staaf Johan,Helland Åslaug,Esteller Manel,Wei Yongyue,Zhang Ruyang,Chen Feng,Christiani David C
Tripartite motif containing 27 (TRIM27) is highly expressed in lung cancer, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we profiled DNA methylation of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) tumours from 613 early-stage NSCLC patients and evaluated associations between CpG methylation of TRIM27 and overall survival. Significant CpG probes were confirmed in 617 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The methylation of the CpG probe cg05293407 was significantly associated with overall survival in patients with LUSC (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.30-2.09, P = 4.52 × 10), but not in patients with LUAD (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.87-1.33, P = 0.493). As incidence of LUSC is associated with higher smoking intensity compared to LUAD, we investigated whether smoking intensity impacted on the prognostic effect of cg05293407 methylation in NSCLC. LUSC patients had a higher average pack-year of smoking (37.49 vs 54.79, P = 1.03 × 10) and included a higher proportion of current smokers than LUAD patients (28.24% vs 34.09%, P = 0.037). cg05293407 was significantly associated with overall survival only in NSCLC patients with medium-high pack-year of smoking (HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.26-1.96, P = 5.25 × 10). We conclude that cg05293407 methylation is a potential predictor of LUSC prognosis, and smoking intensity may impact on its prognostic value across the various types of NSCLC.
Epigenetic silencing of miR-342-3p in B cell lymphoma and its impact on autophagy.
Zhang Min Yue,Calin George A,Yuen Kit San,Jin Dong Yan,Chim Chor Sang
BACKGROUND:miR-342-3p, localized to 14q32, is a tumor suppressor miRNA implicated in carcinogenesis. Given the presence of a promotor-associated CpG island for its host gene, EVL, we hypothesized that intronic miR-342-3p is a tumor suppressor co-regulated with host gene by promoter DNA methylation in B cell lymphoma. RESULTS:By bisulfite pyrosequencing-verified methylation-specific PCR (MSP), EVL/MIR342 methylation was detected in five (50%) lymphoma cell lines but not normal peripheral blood and tonsils. EVL/MIR342 methylation correlated with repression of both miR-342-3p and EVL in cell lines. In completely methylated SU-DHL-16 cells, 5-AzadC treatment resulted in promoter demethylation and re-expression of miR-342-3p and EVL. In 132 primary lymphoma samples, EVL/MIR342 was preferentially methylated in B cell lymphomas (N = 68; 68.7%) than T cell lymphoma (N = 8; 24.2%) by MSP (P < 0.0001). Moreover, EVL/MIR342 methylation was associated with lower miR-342-3p expression in 79 primary NHL (P = 0.0443). In SU-DHL-16 cells, the tumor suppressor function of miR-342-3p was demonstrated by the inhibition of cellular proliferation and increase of cell death upon over-expression of miR-342-3p. Mechanistically, overexpression of miR-342-3p resulted in a decrease of LC3-II, a biomarker of autophagy, which was pro-survival for SU-DHL-16. Pre-treatment with 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, abrogated tumor suppression associated with miR-342-3p overexpression. By luciferase assay, MAP1LC3B, a precursor of LC3-II, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-342-3p. Finally, in SU-DHL-16 cells, overexpression of miR-342-3p downregulated the known target DNMT1, with promoter demethylation and re-expression of tumor suppressor E-cadherin. CONCLUSIONS:Intronic miR-342-3p is co-regulated with its host gene EVL by tumor-specific promoter DNA methylation in B cell lymphoma. The tumor suppressor function of miR-342-3p was mediated via inhibition of pro-survival autophagy by targeting MAP1LC3B and downregulation of DNMT1 with demethylation and re-expression of tumor suppressor genes.
Estimating and accounting for tumor purity in the analysis of DNA methylation data from cancer studies.
Zheng Xiaoqi,Zhang Naiqian,Wu Hua-Jun,Wu Hao
We present a set of statistical methods for the analysis of DNA methylation microarray data, which account for tumor purity. These methods are an extension of our previously developed method for purity estimation; our updated method is flexible, efficient, and does not require data from reference samples or matched normal controls. We also present a method for incorporating purity information for differential methylation analysis. In addition, we propose a control-free differential methylation calling method when normal controls are not available. Extensive analyses of TCGA data demonstrate that our methods provide accurate results. All methods are implemented in InfiniumPurify.
Epigenomic analysis detects aberrant super-enhancer DNA methylation in human cancer.
Heyn Holger,Vidal Enrique,Ferreira Humberto J,Vizoso Miguel,Sayols Sergi,Gomez Antonio,Moran Sebastian,Boque-Sastre Raquel,Guil Sonia,Martinez-Cardus Anna,Lin Charles Y,Royo Romina,Sanchez-Mut Jose V,Martinez Ramon,Gut Marta,Torrents David,Orozco Modesto,Gut Ivo,Young Richard A,Esteller Manel
BACKGROUND:One of the hallmarks of cancer is the disruption of gene expression patterns. Many molecular lesions contribute to this phenotype, and the importance of aberrant DNA methylation profiles is increasingly recognized. Much of the research effort in this area has examined proximal promoter regions and epigenetic alterations at other loci are not well characterized. RESULTS:Using whole genome bisulfite sequencing to examine uncharted regions of the epigenome, we identify a type of far-reaching DNA methylation alteration in cancer cells of the distal regulatory sequences described as super-enhancers. Human tumors undergo a shift in super-enhancer DNA methylation profiles that is associated with the transcriptional silencing or the overactivation of the corresponding target genes. Intriguingly, we observe locally active fractions of super-enhancers detectable through hypomethylated regions that suggest spatial variability within the large enhancer clusters. Functionally, the DNA methylomes obtained suggest that transcription factors contribute to this local activity of super-enhancers and that trans-acting factors modulate DNA methylation profiles with impact on transforming processes during carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:We develop an extensive catalogue of human DNA methylomes at base resolution to better understand the regulatory functions of DNA methylation beyond those of proximal promoter gene regions. CpG methylation status in normal cells points to locally active regulatory sites at super-enhancers, which are targeted by specific aberrant DNA methylation events in cancer, with putative effects on the expression of downstream genes.
DNA methylation at enhancers identifies distinct breast cancer lineages.
Fleischer Thomas,Tekpli Xavier,Mathelier Anthony,Wang Shixiong,Nebdal Daniel,Dhakal Hari P,Sahlberg Kristine Kleivi,Schlichting Ellen, ,Børresen-Dale Anne-Lise,Borgen Elin,Naume Bjørn,Eskeland Ragnhild,Frigessi Arnoldo,Tost Jörg,Hurtado Antoni,Kristensen Vessela N
Breast cancers exhibit genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation patterns. To investigate how these affect the transcriptome and which changes are linked to transformation or progression, we apply genome-wide expression-methylation quantitative trait loci (emQTL) analysis between DNA methylation and gene expression. On a whole genome scale, in cis and in trans, DNA methylation and gene expression have remarkably and reproducibly conserved patterns of association in three breast cancer cohorts (n = 104, n = 253 and n = 277). The expression-methylation quantitative trait loci associations form two main clusters; one relates to tumor infiltrating immune cell signatures and the other to estrogen receptor signaling. In the estrogen related cluster, using ChromHMM segmentation and transcription factor chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data, we identify transcriptional networks regulated in a cell lineage-specific manner by DNA methylation at enhancers. These networks are strongly dominated by ERα, FOXA1 or GATA3 and their targets were functionally validated using knockdown by small interfering RNA or GRO-seq analysis after transcriptional stimulation with estrogen.
Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis reveals a prognostic classifier for non-metastatic colorectal cancer (ProMCol classifier).
Gündert Melanie,Edelmann Dominic,Benner Axel,Jansen Lina,Jia Min,Walter Viola,Knebel Phillip,Herpel Esther,Chang-Claude Jenny,Hoffmeister Michael,Brenner Hermann,Burwinkel Barbara
OBJECTIVE:Pathological staging used for the prediction of patient survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) provides only limited information. DESIGN:Here, a genome-wide study of DNA methylation was conducted for two cohorts of patients with non-metastatic CRC (screening cohort (n=572) and validation cohort (n=274)). A variable screening for prognostic CpG sites was performed in the screening cohort using marginal testing based on a Cox model and subsequent adjustment of the p-values via independent hypothesis weighting using the methylation difference between 34 pairs of tumour and normal mucosa tissue as auxiliary covariate. From the 1000 CpG sites with the smallest adjusted p-value, 20 CpG sites with the smallest Brier score for overall survival (OS) were selected. Applying principal component analysis, we derived a prognostic methylation-based classifier for patients with non-metastatic CRC (ProMCol classifier). RESULTS:This classifier was associated with OS in the screening (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.63, p=6.2E-10) and the validation cohort (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.82, p=0.001). The independent validation of the ProMCol classifier revealed a reduction of the prediction error for 3-year OS from 0.127, calculated only with standard clinical variables, to 0.120 combining the clinical variables with the classifier and for 4-year OS from 0.153 to 0.140. All results were confirmed for disease-specific survival. CONCLUSION:The ProMCol classifier could improve the prognostic accuracy for patients with non-metastatic CRC.
MICMIC: identification of DNA methylation of distal regulatory regions with causal effects on tumorigenesis.
Tong Yin,Sun Jianlong,Wong Chi Fat,Kang Qingzheng,Ru Beibei,Wong Ching Ngar,Chan April Sheila,Leung Suet Yi,Zhang Jiangwen
Aberrant promoter methylation is a common mechanism for tumor suppressor inactivation in cancer. We develop a set of tools to identify genome-wide DNA methylation in distal regions with causal effect on tumorigenesis called MICMIC. Many predictions are directly validated by dCas9-based epigenetic editing to support the accuracy and efficiency of our tool. Oncogenic and lineage-specific transcription factors are shown to aberrantly shape the methylation landscape by modifying tumor-subtype core regulatory circuitry. Notably, the gene regulatory networks orchestrated by enhancer methylation across different cancer types are seen to converge on a common architecture. MICMIC is available on https://github.com/ZhangJlab/MICMIC .
DNA Methylation Clocks in Aging: Categories, Causes, and Consequences.
Field Adam E,Robertson Neil A,Wang Tina,Havas Aaron,Ideker Trey,Adams Peter D
Age-associated changes to the mammalian DNA methylome are well documented and thought to promote diseases of aging, such as cancer. Recent studies have identified collections of individual methylation sites whose aggregate methylation status measures chronological age, referred to as the DNA methylation clock. DNA methylation may also have value as a biomarker of healthy versus unhealthy aging and disease risk; in other words, a biological clock. Here we consider the relationship between the chronological and biological clocks, their underlying mechanisms, potential consequences, and their utility as biomarkers and as targets for intervention to promote healthy aging and longevity.
Hypermethylation of gene body CpG islands predicts high dosage of functional oncogenes in liver cancer.
Arechederra Maria,Daian Fabrice,Yim Annie,Bazai Sehrish K,Richelme Sylvie,Dono Rosanna,Saurin Andrew J,Habermann Bianca H,Maina Flavio
Epigenetic modifications such as aberrant DNA methylation reshape the gene expression repertoire in cancer. Here, we used a clinically relevant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mouse model (Alb-R26) to explore the impact of DNA methylation on transcriptional switches associated with tumorigenesis. We identified a striking enrichment in genes simultaneously hypermethylated in CpG islands (CGIs) and overexpressed. These hypermethylated CGIs are located either in the 5'-UTR or in the gene body region. Remarkably, such CGI hypermethylation accompanied by gene upregulation also occurs in 56% of HCC patients, which belong to the "HCC proliferative-progenitor" subclass. Most of the genes upregulated and with hypermethylated CGIs in the Alb-R26 HCC model undergo the same change. Among reprogrammed genes, several are well-known oncogenes. For others not previously linked to cancer, we demonstrate here their action together as an "oncogene module". Thus, hypermethylation of gene body CGIs is predictive of elevated oncogene levels in cancer, offering a novel stratification strategy and perspectives to normalise cancer gene dosages.
DNA methylation loss promotes immune evasion of tumours with high mutation and copy number load.
Jung Hyunchul,Kim Hong Sook,Kim Jeong Yeon,Sun Jong-Mu,Ahn Jin Seok,Ahn Myung-Ju,Park Keunchil,Esteller Manel,Lee Se-Hoon,Choi Jung Kyoon
Mitotic cell division increases tumour mutation burden and copy number load, predictive markers of the clinical benefit of immunotherapy. Cell division correlates also with genomic demethylation involving methylation loss in late-replicating partial methylation domains. Here we find that immunomodulatory pathway genes are concentrated in these domains and transcriptionally repressed in demethylated tumours with CpG island promoter hypermethylation. Global methylation loss correlated with immune evasion signatures independently of mutation burden and aneuploidy. Methylome data of our cohort (n = 60) and a published cohort (n = 81) in lung cancer and a melanoma cohort (n = 40) consistently demonstrated that genomic methylation alterations counteract the contribution of high mutation burden and increase immunotherapeutic resistance. Higher predictive power was observed for methylation loss than mutation burden. We also found that genomic hypomethylation correlates with the immune escape signatures of aneuploid tumours. Hence, DNA methylation alterations implicate epigenetic modulation in precision immunotherapy.
DNA methylation in childhood asthma: an epigenome-wide meta-analysis.
Xu Cheng-Jian,Söderhäll Cilla,Bustamante Mariona,Baïz Nour,Gruzieva Olena,Gehring Ulrike,Mason Dan,Chatzi Leda,Basterrechea Mikel,Llop Sabrina,Torrent Maties,Forastiere Francesco,Fantini Maria Pia,Carlsen Karin C Lødrup,Haahtela Tari,Morin Andréanne,Kerkhof Marjan,Merid Simon Kebede,van Rijkom Bianca,Jankipersadsing Soesma A,Bonder Marc Jan,Ballereau Stephane,Vermeulen Cornelis J,Aguirre-Gamboa Raul,de Jongste Johan C,Smit Henriette A,Kumar Ashish,Pershagen Göran,Guerra Stefano,Garcia-Aymerich Judith,Greco Dario,Reinius Lovisa,McEachan Rosemary R C,Azad Raf,Hovland Vegard,Mowinckel Petter,Alenius Harri,Fyhrquist Nanna,Lemonnier Nathanaël,Pellet Johann,Auffray Charles, ,van der Vlies Pieter,van Diemen Cleo C,Li Yang,Wijmenga Cisca,Netea Mihai G,Moffatt Miriam F,Cookson William O C M,Anto Josep M,Bousquet Jean,Laatikainen Tiina,Laprise Catherine,Carlsen Kai-Håkon,Gori Davide,Porta Daniela,Iñiguez Carmen,Bilbao Jose Ramon,Kogevinas Manolis,Wright John,Brunekreef Bert,Kere Juha,Nawijn Martijn C,Annesi-Maesano Isabella,Sunyer Jordi,Melén Erik,Koppelman Gerard H
The Lancet. Respiratory medicine
BACKGROUND:DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS:We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS:27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION:Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING:EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).
Integration of CpG-free DNA induces de novo methylation of CpG islands in pluripotent stem cells.
Takahashi Yuta,Wu Jun,Suzuki Keiichiro,Martinez-Redondo Paloma,Li Mo,Liao Hsin-Kai,Wu Min-Zu,Hernández-Benítez Reyna,Hishida Tomoaki,Shokhirev Maxim Nikolaievich,Esteban Concepcion Rodriguez,Sancho-Martinez Ignacio,Belmonte Juan Carlos Izpisua
Science (New York, N.Y.)
CpG islands (CGIs) are primarily promoter-associated genomic regions and are mostly unmethylated within highly methylated mammalian genomes. The mechanisms by which CGIs are protected from de novo methylation remain elusive. Here we show that insertion of CpG-free DNA into targeted CGIs induces de novo methylation of the entire CGI in human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The methylation status is stably maintained even after CpG-free DNA removal, extensive passaging, and differentiation. By targeting the DNA mismatch repair gene CGI, we could generate a PSC model of a cancer-related epimutation. Furthermore, we successfully corrected aberrant imprinting in induced PSCs derived from an Angelman syndrome patient. Our results provide insights into how CpG-free DNA induces de novo CGI methylation and broaden the application of targeted epigenome editing for a better understanding of human development and disease.
DNA Hypermethylation Encroachment at CpG Island Borders in Cancer Is Predisposed by H3K4 Monomethylation Patterns.
Skvortsova Ksenia,Masle-Farquhar Etienne,Luu Phuc-Loi,Song Jenny Z,Qu Wenjia,Zotenko Elena,Gould Cathryn M,Du Qian,Peters Timothy J,Colino-Sanguino Yolanda,Pidsley Ruth,Nair Shalima S,Khoury Amanda,Smith Grady C,Miosge Lisa A,Reed Joanne H,Kench James G,Rubin Mark A,Horvath Lisa,Bogdanovic Ozren,Lim Sue Mei,Polo Jose M,Goodnow Christopher C,Stirzaker Clare,Clark Susan J
Promoter CpG islands are typically unmethylated in normal cells, but in cancer a proportion are subject to hypermethylation. Using methylome sequencing we identified CpG islands that display partial methylation encroachment across the 5' or 3' CpG island borders. CpG island methylation encroachment is widespread in prostate and breast cancer and commonly associates with gene suppression. We show that the pattern of H3K4me1 at CpG island borders in normal cells predicts the different modes of cancer CpG island hypermethylation. Notably, genetic manipulation of Kmt2d results in concordant alterations in H3K4me1 levels and CpG island border DNA methylation encroachment. Our findings suggest a role for H3K4me1 in the demarcation of CpG island methylation borders in normal cells, which become eroded in cancer.
CpG Island Methylation in Sessile Serrated Adenomas Increases With Age, Indicating Lower Risk of Malignancy in Young Patients.
Liu Cheng,Bettington Mark L,Walker Neal I,Dwine Joel,Hartel Gunter F,Leggett Barbara A,Whitehall Vicki L J
Among sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) with identical histologic features, some never progress, whereas others become dysplastic and develop into invasive cancers. Development of the CpG island methylator phenotype is a feature of SSA progression; we examined the CIMP status of 448 SSAs and examined the association with patient clinical data. Overall, 190 SSAs were CpG island methylator phenotype-positive. CpG island methylator phenotype positivity was associated with older patient age (P < .001) and proximal polyp site (P < .001), but not with patient sex (P = .94) or polyp size (P = .34). These results might be used to improve SSA surveillance guidelines.