Male sex identified by global COVID-19 meta-analysis as a risk factor for death and ITU admission.
Peckham Hannah,de Gruijter Nina M,Raine Charles,Radziszewska Anna,Ciurtin Coziana,Wedderburn Lucy R,Rosser Elizabeth C,Webb Kate,Deakin Claire T
Anecdotal evidence suggests that Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, exhibits differences in morbidity and mortality between sexes. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 3,111,714 reported global cases to demonstrate that, whilst there is no difference in the proportion of males and females with confirmed COVID-19, male patients have almost three times the odds of requiring intensive treatment unit (ITU) admission (OR = 2.84; 95% CI = 2.06, 3.92) and higher odds of death (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.47) compared to females. With few exceptions, the sex bias observed in COVID-19 is a worldwide phenomenon. An appreciation of how sex is influencing COVID-19 outcomes will have important implications for clinical management and mitigation strategies for this disease.
Substantial undocumented infection facilitates the rapid dissemination of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
Li Ruiyun,Pei Sen,Chen Bin,Song Yimeng,Zhang Tao,Yang Wan,Shaman Jeffrey
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Estimation of the prevalence and contagiousness of undocumented novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] infections is critical for understanding the overall prevalence and pandemic potential of this disease. Here, we use observations of reported infection within China, in conjunction with mobility data, a networked dynamic metapopulation model, and Bayesian inference, to infer critical epidemiological characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2, including the fraction of undocumented infections and their contagiousness. We estimate that 86% of all infections were undocumented [95% credible interval (CI): 82-90%] before the 23 January 2020 travel restrictions. The transmission rate of undocumented infections per person was 55% the transmission rate of documented infections (95% CI: 46-62%), yet, because of their greater numbers, undocumented infections were the source of 79% of the documented cases. These findings explain the rapid geographic spread of SARS-CoV-2 and indicate that containment of this virus will be particularly challenging.
A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019.
Zhu Na,Zhang Dingyu,Wang Wenling,Li Xingwang,Yang Bo,Song Jingdong,Zhao Xiang,Huang Baoying,Shi Weifeng,Lu Roujian,Niu Peihua,Zhan Faxian,Ma Xuejun,Wang Dayan,Xu Wenbo,Wu Guizhen,Gao George F,Tan Wenjie,
The New England journal of medicine
In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).